Spatially harmonized second-level geography

Harmonized second-level geography is available through a single global shapefile and individual country shapefiles applying to most countries in IPUMS. The shapefile corresponds to the variable GEOLEV2, which provides geographically stable second-level subnational units over time.

Changes over time in administrative boundaries are handled by combining the affected geographic units to create larger, temporally stable units comprised of two or more districts, counties, etc. The units created in this process do not cross first-level boundaries (exceptions include South Africa 2001) i.e., they fully nest within the first-level harmonized units.

The attribute data include codes for the GEOLEV2 variable, the BPLCOUNTRY (country of birth) variable, and the COUNTRY (country of residence) variable. The first three digits of GEOLEV2 give the country code, and the next three digits specify the first level geographic unit GEOLEV1, the last three digits specify the second level geographic unit within the first level unit.

Download global GEOLEV2 shapefile (.shp)

The table below lists the second-level geography identified for each IPUMS-International country and provides GIS shapefiles for the sample years represented in the spatially harmonized geography variables. Chile and Morocco each have two sets of spatially harmonized geography due to reorganization of administrative boundaries between census years. Currently, a few countries still have geographic elements that are not yet updated, reflecting an older method of organizing this information; GEOLEV2 is not available for those few countries. We will complete second-level harmonization for all countries in the upcoming data release.

Country Second-level geography Second-level geography/migration variable Sample years
Argentina Department GEO2_AR 1970-2010
Armenia Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 2001-2011
Austria ENUTS3 GEO2_AT 1971-2011
Bangladesh Zilla GEO2_BD 1991-2011
Belarus Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1999
Benin Commune GEO2_BJ MIG2_P_BJ 1979-2013
Bolivia Province GEO2_BO 1976-2012
Botswana Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1981-2011
Brazil Municipality GEO2_BR 1980-2010
Burkina Faso Province GEO2_BF 1996-2006
Cambodia District GEO2_KH 1998-2013
Cameroon Department GEO2_CM 1976-2005
Canada Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1971-2001
Chile Department GEO2ALT_CL 1960-1970
Chile Municipality GEO2_CL 1982-2002*
China Prefecture and city GEO2_CN 1982-2000
Colombia Municipality GEO2_CO 1973-2005
Costa Rica Canton GEO2_CR 1963-2011
Cuba Municipality GEO2_CU 2002-2012
Dominican Republic Municipality GEO2_DR 1960-2010
Ecuador Canton GEO2_EC 1962-2010
Egypt District GEO2_EG 1986-2006
El Salvador Municipality GEO2_SV 1992-2007
Ethiopia Zone GEO2_ET 1994-2007
Fiji Province GEO2_FJ 1966-2014
Finland No geography in IPUMS data No geography in IPUMS data 2010
France Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1962-2011
Germany Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1970-1987
Ghana District GEO2_GH 2000-2010
Greece Municipality GEO2_GR 1971-2011
Guatemala Municipality GEO2_GT 1964-2002
Guinea Sub-prefecture GEO2_GN 1996-2014
Haiti Arrondisement GEO2_HT 1971-2003
Honduras Municipality GEO2_HN 1961-2001
Hungary No geography in IPUMS data No geography in IPUMS data 1970-2001
India District GEO2_IN 1987-2009
Indonesia Regency GEO2_ID 1971-2010
Iran Sub-province GEO2_IR 2006-2011
Iraq District (Qadah) GEO2_IQ 1997
Ireland Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1971-2016
Israel Subdistrict GEO2_IL 1971-1995
Italy Province GEO2_IT 2014-2019**
Jamaica Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1982-2001
Jordan District GEO2_JO 2004
Kenya District GEO2_KE 1969-2009
Kyrgyz Republic District GEO2_KG 1999-2009
Laos Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 2005
Lesotho Constituency GEO2_LS 2006
Liberia District GEO2_LR 1974
Malawi Traditional Authorities (TA) GEO2_MW 1998-2008
Malaysia Administrative district GEO2_MY 1970-2000
Mali Circle GEO2_ML MIG2_P_ML 1987-2009
Mauritius Municipal Ward/Village Council Area GEO2_MU 1990-2011
Mexico Municipality GEO2_MX 1960-2015
Mongolia Municipality GEO2_MN 2000
Morocco Province GEO2ALT_MA 1982-2004
Morocco Province GEO2_MA 2014*
Mozambique District GEO2_MZ 1997-2007
Myanmar District GEO2_MM MIG2_P_MM 2014
Nepal District GEO2_NP 2001-2011
Netherlands No geography in IPUMS data No geography in IPUMS data 1960-2011
Nicaragua Municipality GEO2_NI 1971-2005
Nigeria Local government areas GEO2_NG 2007-2010
Pakistan Administrative division GEO2_PK 1973-1998
Palestine Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1997-2017
Panama District GEO2_PA 1960-2010
Papua New Guinea District GEO2_PG 1980-2000
Paraguay District GEO2_PY 1962-2002
Peru Province GEO2_PE 1993-2007
Philippines Municipality GEO2_PH 1990-2010
Poland Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1978-2011
Portugal Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1981-2011
Puerto Rico Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1980-2010
Romania Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1977-2002
Russia Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 2002-2010
Rwanda District GEO2_RW 2012*
Saint Lucia Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1980-1991
Senegal Department GEO2_SN 1988-2013
Sierra Leone Chiefdom/ward GEO2_SL 2004
Slovenia Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 2002
South Africa District Council GEO2_ZA 2001-2016
South Sudan County GEO2_SS 2008
Spain Province GEO2_ES MIG2_P_ES MIG2_1_ES MIG2_5_ES MIG2_10_ES 1981-2019
Sudan County GEO2_SD 2008
Suriname Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 2004-2012
Switzerland Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1970-2000
Tanzania District GEO2_TZ 1988-2012
Thailand District GEO2_TH 1990-2000
Togo Prefecture GEO2_TG MIG2_P_TG 2010*
Trinidad and Tobago Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1970-2011
Turkey District GEO2_TR 1985-2000
Uganda County GEO2_UG 1991-2014
Ukraine Raion GEO2_UA 2001
United Kingdom Not available for our sample Not available for our sample 1991-2001
United States PUMA GEO2ALT_US 1980-2010
United States PUMA GEO2_US 2000-2015
Uruguay Census sections GEO2_UY 1985-2011
Venezuela Municipality GEO2_VE 1971-2001
Vietnam District GEO2_VN 2009
Zambia District GEO2_ZM 1990-2010
Zimbabwe District GEO2_ZW 2012

*Previous sample years were not included in this file due to large geographic restructuring between sample years.

**This file corresponds only to Labor Force Survey samples

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