Spatially harmonized second-level geography

Most countries include second-level geographic detail in their sample data. IPUMS creates harmonized variables providing geographically stable second-level subnational units over time. Second-level geography for place of residence is available through a single global variable, GEOLEV2, and its associated shapefile. Harmonized second-level variables and shapefiles are also created for each country. Where available, IPUMS also provides harmonized migration variables whose codes match the place-of-residence variables.

Changes over time in administrative boundaries are handled by combining the affected geographic units to create larger, temporally-stable units comprised of two or more districts, counties, etc. The units created in this process do not cross first-level boundaries (i.e., they fully nest within the first-level harmonized units). South Africa 2001 is an exception in this regard.

The attribute data for the global file include codes for the GEOLEV2 variable, the BPLCOUNTRY (country of birth) variable, and the COUNTRY (country of residence) variable. The first three digits of GEOLEV2 give the country code, the next three digits specify the first-level geographic unit GEOLEV1, and the last three digits specify the second-level geographic unit within the first-level unit.

Download global GEOLEV2 shapefile (.shp)

The table below lists the second-level geography identified for each IPUMS-International country and provides GIS shapefiles for the sample years represented in the spatially harmonized geography and migration variables. Some countries (e.g. Chile and Morocco) have two sets of spatially harmonized geographic variables due to substantial reorganization of administrative boundaries between census years. Other countries do not provide second-level geographic detail in the sample data for place of residence or migration or both. Note that not all countries that provide second-level migration data have been harmonized at this time. These variables, identified as "not yet available" in the table, will be added in future updates.

Country Second-level geography Second-level geography variable Corresponding second-level migration variables GIS files
Argentina Department GEO2_AR Not yet available 1970-2010
Armenia n.a. n.a. n.a.
Austria ENUTS3 GEO2_AT n.a. 1971-2011
Bangladesh Zilla GEO2_BD n.a. 1991-2011
Belarus n.a. n.a. n.a.
Benin Commune GEO2_BJ MIG2_P_BJ 1979-2013
Bolivia Province GEO2_BO MIG2_5_BO 1976-2012
Botswana n.a. n.a. n.a.
Brazil Municipality GEO2_BR Not yet available 1980-2010
Burkina Faso Province GEO2_BF Not yet available 1996-2006
Cambodia District GEO2_KH MIG2_P_KH 1998-2013
Cameroon Department GEO2_CM MIG2_P_CM
Canada n.a. n.a. n.a.
Chile Department GEO2ALT_CL n.a. 1960-1970
Chile Commune GEO2_CL MIG2_5_CL 1982-2017*
China Prefecture/city GEO2_CN Not yet available 1982-2000
Colombia Municipality GEO2_CO Not yet available 1973-2005
Costa Rica Canton GEO2_CR Not yet available 1963-2011
Cuba Municipality GEO2_CU MIG2_P_CU 2002-2012
Dominican Republic Municipality GEO2_DO Not yet available 1960-2010
Ecuador Canton GEO2_EC MIG2_P_EC
Egypt District GEO2_EG Not yet available 1986-2006
El Salvador Municipality GEO2_SV MIG2_P_SV 1992-2007
Ethiopia Zone GEO2_ET Not yet available 1994-2007
Fiji Province GEO2_FJ Not yet available 1966-2014
Finland n.a. n.a. n.a.
France n.a. n.a. n.a.
Germany n.a. n.a. n.a.
Ghana District GEO2_GH MIG2_5_GH 2000-2010
Greece Municipality GEO2_GR n.a. 1971-2011
Guatemala Municipality GEO2_GT MIG2_P_GT
Guinea Sub-prefecture GEO2_GN n.a. 1996-2014
Haiti Arrondisement GEO2_HT Not yet available 1971-2003
Honduras Municipality GEO2_HN MIG2_5_HN 1961-2001
Hungary n.a. n.a. n.a.
India District GEO2_IN n.a. 1987-2009
Indonesia Regency GEO2_ID Not yet available 1971-2010
Iran Sub-province GEO2_IR Not yet available 2006-2011
Iraq District (Qadah) GEO2_IQ Not yet available 1997
Ireland n.a. n.a. n.a.
Israel Subdistrict GEO2_IL Not yet available 1972-1995
Italy Province GEO2_IT MIG2_1_IT 2014-2020**
Jamaica n.a. n.a. n.a.
Jordan District GEO2_JO n.a. 2004
Kenya District GEO2_KE MIG2_1_KE 1969-2009
Kyrgyz Republic District GEO2_KG Not yet available 1999-2009
Laos n.a. n.a. n.a.
Lesotho Constituency GEO2_LS n.a. 2006
Liberia District GEO2_LR n.a. 1974
Malawi Traditional Authority (TA) GEO2_MW Not yet available 1998-2008
Malaysia Administrative District GEO2_MY Not yet available 1970-2000
Mali Circle GEO2_ML MIG2_P_ML 1987-2009
Mauritius Municipal Ward/Village Council Area GEO2_MU Not yet available 1990-2011
Mexico Municipality GEO2_MX Not yet available 1960-2015
Mongolia Municipality GEO2_MN n.a. 2000
Morocco Province GEO2ALT_MA Not yet available 1982-2004
Morocco Province GEO2_MA n.a. 2014*
Mozambique District GEO2_MZ MIG2_1_MZ
Myanmar District GEO2_MM MIG2_P_MM 2014
Nepal District GEO2_NP MIG2_5_NP 2001-2011
Netherlands n.a. n.a. n.a.
Nicaragua Municipality GEO2_NI MIG2_5_NI 1971-2005
Nigeria Local Government Area GEO2_NG n.a. 2007-2010
Pakistan Administrative Division GEO2_PK Not yet available 1973-1998
Palestine n.a. n.a. n.a.
Panama District GEO2_PA Not yet available 1960-2010
Papua New Guinea District GEO2_PG Not yet available 1980-2000
Paraguay District GEO2_PY Not yet available 1962-2002
Peru Province GEO2_PE Not yet available 1993-2007
Philippines Municipality GEO2_PH Not yet available 1990-2010
Poland n.a. n.a. n.a.
Portugal n.a. n.a. n.a.
Puerto Rico n.a. n.a. n.a.
Romania n.a. n.a. n.a.
Russia n.a. n.a. n.a.
Rwanda District GEO2_RW Not yet available 2012*
Saint Lucia n.a. n.a. n.a.
Senegal Department GEO2_SN MIG2_1_SN
Sierra Leone Chiefdom/Ward GEO2_SL MIG2_5_SL
Slovakia n.a. n.a. n.a.
Slovenia n.a. n.a. n.a.
South Africa District Council GEO2_ZA MIG2_P_ZA 2001-2016
South Sudan County GEO2_SS n.a. 2008
Spain Province GEO2_ES MIG2_P_ES
Sudan County GEO2_SD n.a. 2008
Suriname n.a. n.a. n.a.
Switzerland n.a. n.a. n.a.
Tanzania District GEO2_TZ Not yet available 1988-2012
Thailand District GEO2_TH Not yet available 1990-2000
Togo Prefecture GEO2_TG MIG2_P_TG 2010*
Trinidad and Tobago n.a. n.a. n.a.
Turkey District GEO2_TR n.a. 1985-2000
Uganda County GEO2_UG n.a. 1991-2014
Ukraine Raion GEO2_UA n.a. 2001
United Kingdom n.a. n.a. n.a.
United States PUMA GEO2ALT_US n.a. 1980-2010
United States PUMA GEO2_US n.a. 2000-2015
Uruguay Census Section GEO2_UY Not yet available 1985-2011
Venezuela Municipality GEO2_VE MIG2_5_VE 1971-2001
Vietnam District GEO2_VN MIG2_5_VN 2009
Zambia District GEO2_ZM MIG2_1_ZM 1990-2010
Zimbabwe District GEO2_ZW MIG2_5_ZW 2012

n.a. = Not available in the sample data.

*Previous sample years were not included in this file due to large geographic restructuring between sample years.

**This file corresponds only to Labor Force Survey samples.

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