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Ecuador, Canton 1962 - 2010 [Level 2; consistent boundaries, GIS]

Codes and Frequencies

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GEO2_EC identifies the household's canton within Ecuador in all sample years. Cantons are the second level administrative units of the country, after provinces. GEO2_EC is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO2_EC can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for Ecuador can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time. Where officially-defined cantons have populations less than 20,000, they have been regionalized (combined) with neighboring cantons.

Boundary changes for GEO2_EC are too numerous to list here, but users should be aware that there were changes over time.

The areas included in the non-delimited zones might vary from one census year to another. The 1990 and 2010 samples mention Las Golondrinas, Manga Del Cura, and El Piedrero as non-delimited zones.


  • All households


  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010