Codes and Frequencies
GEO2_PA identifies the household's district within Panama in all sample years. Districts are the second level administrative units of the country, after provinces. GEO2_PA is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO2_PA can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.
The full set of geography variables for Panama can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.
Comparability — General
Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time. Where officially-defined districts have populations less than 20,000 (based on the most recent sample year), they have been regionalized (combined) with neighboring districts within provinces.
Boundary changes for GEO2_PA are too numerous to list here, but users should be aware that there were changes over time.
- All households
- Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010