Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
GEOG2_IN identifies the household's district within India in 1987, 1999, 2004, and 2009. Districts are the second level administrative units of the country, after states. GEOG2_IN is spatially harmonized accounting for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEOG2_IN can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.
The full set of geography variables for India can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.
Comparability — General
Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time. Where officially-defined districts have populations less than 20,000, they have been regionalized (combined) with neighboring districts.
Note that the union territory of Pondicherry (coterminous to states in India) consists of four disjointed districts - Yanam (enclosed by the state of Andhra Pradesh), Mahe (enclosed by the state of Kerala), Pondicherry, and Karaikal (both within the state of Tamil Nadu).
The 1993 sample for India is missing from GEO2_IN; it does not have any microdata on second-level administrative units.
Boundary changes for GEO2_IN are too numerous to list here, but users should be aware that there were changes over time.
- All households
- India: 1987, 1999, 2004, 2009