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BPLCOUNTRY
Country of birth

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

BPLCOUNTRY indicates the person's country of birth.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Bolivia
Cambodia
Canada
Fiji
France
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Lesotho
Malawi
Malaysia
Mozambique
Netherlands
Panama
Puerto Rico
South Africa
Spain
Tanzania
Thailand
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Comparability — General

The list of countries available in each census differs significantly. The censuses that do not provide specific country of birth for foreign-born persons are not included in this variable, but foreign-born persons can be distinguished from native-born persons using the variable NATIVITY.

The first digit of BPLCOUNTRY corresponds to continents and the second to subcontinental regions. The first digit is fully comparable; the second is largely so. The third and fourth digits are to be read together and identify countries alphabetically by English name within subcontinents. The final digit, which is used sparingly, preserves detail for specific countries. Typically, earlier samples for a given country have less detail than later ones.

Some countries get individual codes and others are grouped under the "not specified" ("n.s.") categories coded at the end of the numbering system for their region (codes ending in "999"). The "not specified" categories within each continent or subcontinent are relative to the country availability in each census, which can differ greatly.

With minor exceptions, BPLCOUNTRY follows the geographical groupings designed by the United Nations. Some places that get their own distinct country code in the UN system are (infrequently) coded together in IPUMS-International in order to increase compatibility across samples (e.g., Korea rather than North Korea and South Korea). The final digit of BPLCOUNTRY retains the full geographic information to distinguish among these combined categories within countries.

In addition to the differing availability of country codes, users should be aware of historical changes in the boundaries of countries and the creation of new countries over time. Essentially, users must ask themselves where a person who responded with a given country of birth would have been coded in a census, given the available categories specified in that sample.

An alternative weight variable must be used to yield accurate statistics for 1991 Argentina.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

In 1991, roughly half the cases in the sample lack data for this and several other variables. Users should apply the alternative weight variable AR1991A_0434 when using one of these variables.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The 1976 sample has more detailed information than 2001.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The 2008 sample has more detailed information than 1998.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The universe is all persons except that the 1981 sample excludes inmates.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

The 2007 sample has more detailed information than the other samples.

Comparability — France [top]

The variable is available only in the 2006 sample. The countries of birth are grouped into 12 broad categories.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The 2002, 2006 and 2011 censuses asked non-absent persons at the time of census, whereas all other censuses (1971-1996) asked all persons.

The number of countries specified increases over time.

Comparability — Israel [top]

In all years persons were to report their territory of birth in terms of current national borders, not the country it may have been a part of in the past. The 1972 and 1983 samples specified that Israel was to include the original British mandate and occupied territories.

The 1972 and 1983 samples combined a number of countries into pairings such as "Syria/Lebanon." These are given a sub-code within the first or larger of the countries in the pairing. See the codes page or the unharmonized input variables for the precise labels.

Comparability — Italy [top]

The 2001 sample has more detailed information than 2011.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The 1982 and 1991 censuses asked persons in private households, whereas the 2001 census asked all persons.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The 2009 sample has more detailed information than the other samples.

In the 1989 and 1999 samples only select African countries get individual codes. Outside of Africa, persons are grouped by continent of birth.

Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]

The 2009 sample has more detailed information than 1999.

Comparability — Lesotho [top]

The data only identifies Lesotho, South Africa, or "other countries" as birth location.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The 1998 census question was labeled "nationality" but the instructions suggest the response was intended to capture "country of origin" rather than citizenship. We have interpreted it as birthplace.

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

The 2000 sample has more detailed information than the other samples.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

In the 1997 and 2007 samples, the question was asked of household residents only.

Comparability — Netherlands [top]

The data only identifies the Netherlands, "other countries in Europe", and "other countries" as birth location.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The 1980, 2000 and 2010 samples have more detailed information than 1960.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The Puerto Rican samples identify U.S. state of birth in the unharmonized source variables in all census years. There are sufficient cases for many analyses.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 1996 census addressed the country of birth question only to persons in private households. The 2001 sample identifies many more countries than 1996.

In 2011, this question was asked only of persons in private households, transient persons, and persons in tourist hotels.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The 2001 sample identifies many more countries than the 1981 sample.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The 2002 census only asked the nativity question of persons in private households. The 1988 sample only includes private households, so the universe is effectively the same.

The universe for the 2012 sample is all persons.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

The country detail and the groupings differ considerably across samples.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

The 1991 sample has more detailed information than 2001.

Comparability — United States [top]

The 4-digit country code for the United States combines the U.S. proper and its outlying areas and territories. The fifth digit of BPLCOUNTRY distinguishes U.S. states from the territories. To enhance consistency with other countries, Puerto Rico is given its own Caribbean country code, rather than getting a code among the U.S. outlying areas and territories.

The U.S. system is very detailed. The residual categories for regions (the "n.s." categories) often differ from one another and may not precisely match the geographic bounds implied by the UN system that was adopted for IPUMS-International. In practice, however, this is a very minor inconsistency, because those residual categories are uniformly very small.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

In 1985, the question was asked only of persons who had a usual residence in Uruguay. The 1996 sample only identifies regions/continents, not countries as the other samples do.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

In 1990 and 2000, the question was asked of all persons. In 2010, the question was asked of present household members and visitors. The 1990 and 2000 enumeration instructions indicate that this question should have been asked only of present household members and visitors, but country of birth is reported for almost all absent household members; they are included in the universe.

Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]

The data only identifies Zimbabwe, "other countries in Africa", or "other countries outside Africa" as birth location.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: All persons
  • Argentina 1980: All persons
  • Argentina 1991: All persons
  • Argentina 2001: All persons
  • Argentina 2010: All persons
  • Armenia 2011: All persons
  • Austria 2001: All persons
  • Austria 2011: All persons
  • Belarus 2009: All persons
  • Benin 2002: All persons
  • Benin 2013: All persons
  • Bolivia 1976: All persons
  • Bolivia 2001: All persons
  • Brazil 1960: All persons
  • Brazil 1970: All persons
  • Brazil 1980: All persons
  • Brazil 1991: All persons
  • Brazil 2000: All persons
  • Brazil 2010: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 1996: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 2006: All persons
  • Cambodia 1998: All persons
  • Cambodia 2008: All persons
  • Cameroon 1976: All persons
  • Cameroon 1987: All persons
  • Canada 1971: All persons
  • Canada 1981: All persons except inmates
  • Canada 1991: All persons
  • Canada 2001: All persons
  • Canada 2011: All persons
  • Chile 1970: All persons
  • Chile 1982: All persons
  • Chile 1992: All persons
  • Chile 2002: All persons
  • Colombia 1964: All persons
  • Colombia 1973: All persons
  • Colombia 1993: All persons
  • Colombia 2005: All persons
  • Costa Rica 1963: All persons
  • Costa Rica 1973: All persons
  • Costa Rica 1984: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2000: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2011: All persons
  • Cuba 2002: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1981: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2002: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2010: All persons
  • Ecuador 1962: All persons
  • Ecuador 1974: All persons
  • Ecuador 1982: All persons
  • Ecuador 2010: All persons
  • El Salvador 2007: All persons
  • Fiji 1966: All persons
  • Fiji 1976: All persons
  • Fiji 1986: All persons
  • Fiji 1996: All persons
  • Fiji 2007: All persons
  • France 2006: All persons
  • France 2011: All persons
  • Ghana 1984: All persons
  • Greece 2001: All persons
  • Greece 2011: All persons
  • Guinea 1983: All persons
  • Guinea 1996: All persons
  • Honduras 1961: All persons
  • Honduras 1974: All persons
  • Honduras 1988: All persons
  • Honduras 2001: All persons
  • Indonesia 2010: All persons
  • Iraq 1997: All persons
  • Ireland 1971: All persons
  • Ireland 1981: All persons
  • Ireland 1986: All persons
  • Ireland 1991: All persons
  • Ireland 1996: All persons
  • Ireland 2002: Non-absent persons
  • Ireland 2006: Non-absent persons
  • Ireland 2011: Non-absent persons
  • Israel 1972: All persons
  • Israel 1983: Jewish persons
  • Israel 1995: All persons
  • Italy 2001: All persons
  • Italy 2011: All persons
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons in private households
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons in private households
  • Jamaica 2001: All persons
  • Kenya 1969: All persons
  • Kenya 1979: All persons
  • Kenya 1989: All persons, except travellers and those receiving the short questionnaire
  • Kenya 1999: All persons
  • Kenya 2009: All persons
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: All persons
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: All persons
  • Lesotho 1996: All persons
  • Lesotho 2006: All persons
  • Liberia 1974: All persons
  • Liberia 2008: All persons
  • Malawi 1987: All persons
  • Malawi 1998: All persons
  • Malawi 2008: All persons
  • Malaysia 1970: All persons
  • Malaysia 1980: All persons
  • Malaysia 1991: All persons
  • Malaysia 2000: All persons
  • Mali 1987: All persons
  • Mali 1998: All persons
  • Mali 2009: All persons
  • Mexico 1960: All persons
  • Mexico 1970: All persons
  • Mexico 1990: All persons
  • Mexico 1995: All persons
  • Mexico 2000: All persons
  • Mexico 2010: All persons
  • Mexico 2015: All persons
  • Mongolia 2000: All persons
  • Mozambique 1997: Household residents
  • Mozambique 2007: Household residents
  • Netherlands 1960: All persons
  • Netherlands 1971: All persons
  • Netherlands 2001: All persons
  • Netherlands 2011: All persons
  • Nicaragua 1971: All persons
  • Nicaragua 1995: All persons
  • Nicaragua 2005: All persons
  • Pakistan 1973: All persons
  • Panama 1960: All persons
  • Panama 1980: All persons
  • Panama 2000: All persons
  • Panama 2010: All persons
  • Papua New Guinea 1980: All persons
  • Papua New Guinea 1990: All persons
  • Papua New Guinea 2000: All persons
  • Paraguay 1972: All persons
  • Paraguay 1982: All persons
  • Paraguay 1992: All persons
  • Paraguay 2002: All persons
  • Peru 1993: All persons
  • Peru 2007: All persons
  • Philippines 2000: All persons
  • Poland 2002: All persons
  • Portugal 1981: All persons
  • Portugal 1991: All persons
  • Portugal 2001: All persons
  • Portugal 2011: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1970: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1980: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1990: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2000: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2005: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2010: All persons
  • Romania 1977: All persons
  • Romania 1992: All persons
  • Romania 2002: All persons
  • Romania 2011: All persons
  • Rwanda 1991: Non-visitors
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors
  • Rwanda 2012: All persons
  • Saint Lucia 1980: All persons
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All persons
  • Senegal 1988: All persons
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All persons
  • Slovenia 2002: All persons
  • South Africa 1996: Persons in private households
  • South Africa 2001: All persons
  • South Africa 2011: Persons in private households, transient persons, and persons in tourist hotels
  • Spain 1981: All persons
  • Spain 2001: All persons
  • Spain 2011: All persons
  • Tanzania 1988: All persons
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons in private households
  • Tanzania 2012: All persons
  • Thailand 1970: All persons
  • Thailand 1980: All persons
  • Thailand 1990: All persons
  • Thailand 2000: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1970: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons in private households
  • Uganda 1991: All persons
  • Uganda 2002: All persons
  • Ukraine 2001: All persons
  • United Kingdom 1991: All persons
  • United Kingdom 2001: All persons
  • United States 1960: All persons
  • United States 1970: All persons
  • United States 1980: All persons
  • United States 1990: All persons
  • United States 2000: All persons
  • United States 2005: All persons
  • United States 2010: All persons
  • United States 2015: All persons
  • Uruguay 1963: All persons
  • Uruguay 1975: All persons
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons with a usual residence in the country
  • Uruguay 1996: All persons
  • Uruguay 2011: All persons
  • Venezuela 1981: All persons
  • Venezuela 1990: All persons
  • Venezuela 2001: All persons
  • Zambia 1990: All persons
  • Zambia 2000: All persons
  • Zambia 2010: Present household members and visitors
  • Zimbabwe 2012: All persons

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2011
  • Austria: 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 2009
  • Benin: 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 2001
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2008
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987
  • Canada: 1852, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 2010
  • El Salvador: 2007
  • Fiji: 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007
  • France: 2006, 2011
  • Ghana: 1984
  • Greece: 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Honduras: 1961, 1974, 1988, 2001
  • Iceland: 1901, 1910
  • Indonesia: 2010
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Kenya: 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 2000
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Netherlands: 1960, 1971, 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Norway: 1865, 1875, 1900, 1910
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Panama: 1960, 1980, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Paraguay: 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 2000
  • Poland: 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2011
  • Spain: 1981, 2001, 2011
  • Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • United Kingdom: 1851a, 1851b, 1851c, 1861a, 1861b, 1871, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911, 1991, 2001
  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1963, 1975, 1975, 1985, 1985, 1996, 1996, 2011, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012