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NATIVITY
Nativity status

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

NATIVITY indicates whether the person was native- or foreign-born.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Canada
Egypt
France
Ireland
Israel
Jamaica
Malawi
Palestine
Panama
Romania
South Africa
South Sudan
Sudan
Tanzania
Thailand
Trinidad and Tobago
United Kingdom
United States
Zambia

Comparability — General

The variable is fully comparable across samples apart from a few small variations in the universe. Some samples give specific country of birth in BPLCOUNTRY. Note that nativity status has no necessary implication for the person's citizenship status.

An alternative weight variable must be used to yield accurate statistics for 1991 Argentina.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

In 1991, roughly half the cases in the sample lack data for this and several other variables. Users should apply the alternative weight variable AR1991A_0434 when using one of these variables.

Comparability — Canada [top]

Institutional inmates were not asked their nativity in 1981.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

All persons were asked for the 1986 and 1996 samples. Visitors were not asked in 2006.

Comparability — France [top]

The foreign-born category includes native French persons born outside of continental France.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

In 1971-2002, the question was asked of all persons. In 2006 and 2011, the question was asked of persons who were not absent at the time of the census. In all samples, Northern Ireland is coded as foreign-born.

Comparability — Israel [top]

The 1972 and 1983 censuses specified that Israel (native-born in this context) was to include the original British mandate and the occupied territories. The 1995 census was not specific on this point.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The 1982 and 1991 censuses asked the question of persons in private households, whereas the 2001 census asked the question of all persons.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The 1998 census question was labeled "nationality" but the instructions suggest the response was intended to capture "country of origin" rather than citizenship. We have interpreted it as birthplace.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The category "1948 areas/Israel" is coded as "foreign-born." See the unharmonized input variable to identify these persons.

The 2007 census did not ask the question of persons in the area of Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The 1960 category "Canal" is considered "native-born".

Comparability — Romania [top]

In 1977, 1992, and 2002, nativity is defined according to the locality where the mother of the enumerated person had legal residence at the date when the birth took place. The data in 2011 directly identifies whether the person was a native born or foreigner.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The universe differs across samples with respect to members of collective dwellings.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

Persons born in what is now Sudan were "native-born" at the time of the census so are included in that category.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

Persons born in what is now South Sudan were "native-born" at the time of the census so are included in that category.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

Nativity is defined in 2002 for persons in private households, while it is available for all persons in 1988 and 2012.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

The 1980 variable refers to mother's permanent residence at the time of birth; the other samples directly report place of birth. There is likely little or no practical difference.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

All persons were asked the question in 1980, 1990, and 2000 samples. Only persons in private households or institutions were asked about place of birth in the 2011 sample.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

Non-resident students were not asked their nativity in 2001.

Comparability — United States [top]

Persons born in U.S. "outlying areas" are considered foreign-born for purposes of this variable.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

In 1990 and 2000, the question was asked of all persons. In 2010, the question was asked of present household members and visitors. The 1990 and 2000 enumeration instructions indicate that this question should have been asked only of present household members and visitors, but nativity status is reported for almost all absent household members; they are included in the universe.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: All persons
  • Argentina 1980: All persons
  • Argentina 1991: All persons
  • Argentina 2001: All persons
  • Argentina 2010: All persons
  • Armenia 2001: All persons
  • Armenia 2011: All persons
  • Austria 2001: All persons
  • Austria 2011: All persons
  • Belarus 1999: All persons
  • Belarus 2009: All persons
  • Benin 2002: All persons
  • Benin 2013: All persons
  • Bolivia 1976: All persons
  • Bolivia 1992: All persons
  • Bolivia 2001: All persons
  • Brazil 1960: All persons
  • Brazil 1970: All persons
  • Brazil 1980: All persons
  • Brazil 1991: All persons
  • Brazil 2000: All persons
  • Brazil 2010: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 1996: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 2006: All persons
  • Cambodia 1998: All persons
  • Cambodia 2008: All persons
  • Cameroon 1976: All persons
  • Cameroon 1987: All persons
  • Canada 1971: All persons
  • Canada 1981: All persons excluding inmates
  • Canada 1991: All persons
  • Canada 2001: All persons
  • Canada 2011: All persons
  • Chile 1960: All persons
  • Chile 1970: All persons
  • Chile 1982: All persons
  • Chile 1992: All persons
  • Chile 2002: All persons
  • Colombia 1964: All persons
  • Colombia 1973: All persons
  • Colombia 1985: All persons
  • Colombia 1993: All persons
  • Colombia 2005: All persons
  • Costa Rica 1963: All persons
  • Costa Rica 1973: All persons
  • Costa Rica 1984: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2000: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2011: All persons
  • Cuba 2002: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1960: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1970: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1981: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2002: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2010: All persons
  • Ecuador 1962: All persons
  • Ecuador 1974: All persons
  • Ecuador 1982: All persons
  • Ecuador 1990: All persons
  • Ecuador 2001: All persons
  • Ecuador 2010: All persons
  • Egypt 1986: All persons
  • Egypt 1996: All persons
  • Egypt 2006: All persons except visitors
  • El Salvador 1992: All persons
  • El Salvador 2007: All persons
  • Fiji 1966: All persons
  • Fiji 1976: All persons
  • Fiji 1986: All persons
  • Fiji 1996: All persons
  • Fiji 2007: All persons
  • France 1962: All persons
  • France 1968: All persons
  • France 1975: All persons
  • France 1982: All persons
  • France 1990: All persons
  • France 1999: All persons
  • France 2006: All persons
  • France 2011: All persons
  • Ghana 1984: All persons
  • Ghana 2000: All persons
  • Ghana 2010: All persons
  • Greece 2001: All persons
  • Greece 2011: All persons
  • Guinea 1983: All persons
  • Guinea 1996: All persons
  • Haiti 1971: All persons
  • Haiti 2003: All persons
  • Honduras 1961: All persons
  • Honduras 1974: All persons
  • Honduras 1988: All persons
  • Honduras 2001: All persons
  • Indonesia 1971: All persons
  • Indonesia 1976: All persons
  • Indonesia 1980: All persons
  • Indonesia 1985: All persons
  • Indonesia 1990: All persons
  • Indonesia 1995: All persons
  • Indonesia 2000: All persons
  • Indonesia 2005: All persons
  • Indonesia 2010: All persons
  • Iran 2006: All persons
  • Iran 2011: All persons
  • Iraq 1997: Present persons
  • Ireland 1971: All persons
  • Ireland 1981: All persons
  • Ireland 1986: All persons
  • Ireland 1991: All persons
  • Ireland 1996: All persons
  • Ireland 2002: All persons
  • Ireland 2006: Non-absent persons
  • Ireland 2011: Non-absent persons
  • Israel 1972: All persons
  • Israel 1983: Jewish persons
  • Israel 1995: All persons
  • Italy 2001: All persons
  • Italy 2011: All persons
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons in private households
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons in private households
  • Jamaica 2001: All persons
  • Kenya 1969: Not travellers and those receiving the short questionnaire
  • Kenya 1979: Not travellers and those receiving the short questionnaire
  • Kenya 1989: All persons
  • Kenya 1999: Not travellers and those receiving the short questionnaire
  • Kenya 2009: Not travellers and those receiving the short questionnaire
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: All persons
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: All persons
  • Lesotho 1996: All persons
  • Lesotho 2006: All persons
  • Liberia 1974: All persons
  • Liberia 2008: All persons
  • Malawi 1987: All persons
  • Malawi 1998: All persons
  • Malawi 2008: All persons
  • Malaysia 1970: All persons
  • Malaysia 1980: All persons
  • Malaysia 1991: All persons
  • Malaysia 2000: All persons
  • Mali 1987: All persons
  • Mali 1998: All persons
  • Mali 2009: All persons
  • Mexico 1960: All persons
  • Mexico 1970: All persons
  • Mexico 1990: All persons
  • Mexico 1995: All persons
  • Mexico 2000: All persons
  • Mexico 2010: All persons
  • Mexico 2015: All persons
  • Mongolia 1989: All persons
  • Mongolia 2000: All persons
  • Morocco 1982: All persons
  • Morocco 1994: Persons not living in tents
  • Mozambique 1997: All residents
  • Mozambique 2007: All residents
  • Netherlands 1960: All persons
  • Netherlands 1971: All persons
  • Netherlands 2001: All persons
  • Netherlands 2011: All persons
  • Nicaragua 1971: All persons
  • Nicaragua 1995: All persons
  • Nicaragua 2005: All persons
  • Pakistan 1973: All persons
  • Palestine 1997: All persons
  • Palestine 2007: Not persons in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: All persons
  • Panama 1970: All persons
  • Panama 1980: All persons
  • Panama 1990: All persons
  • Panama 2000: All persons
  • Panama 2010: All persons
  • Papua New Guinea 1980: All persons
  • Papua New Guinea 1990: All persons
  • Papua New Guinea 2000: All persons
  • Paraguay 1962: All persons
  • Paraguay 1972: All persons
  • Paraguay 1982: All persons
  • Paraguay 1992: All persons
  • Paraguay 2002: All persons
  • Peru 1993: All persons
  • Peru 2007: All persons
  • Philippines 1990: All persons
  • Philippines 2000: All persons
  • Poland 2002: All persons
  • Poland 2011: All persons
  • Portugal 1981: All persons
  • Portugal 1991: All persons
  • Portugal 2001: All persons
  • Portugal 2011: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1970: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1980: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1990: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2000: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2005: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2010: All persons
  • Romania 1977: All persons
  • Romania 1992: All persons
  • Romania 2002: All persons
  • Romania 2011: All persons
  • Rwanda 1991: Non-visitors
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors
  • Rwanda 2012: Non-visitors
  • Saint Lucia 1980: All persons
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All persons
  • Senegal 1988: All persons
  • Senegal 2002: All persons
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All persons
  • Slovenia 2002: All persons
  • South Africa 1996: Persons in private households
  • South Africa 2001: All persons
  • South Africa 2007: Persons in private households
  • South Africa 2011: Persons in private households, transients and tourist hotels
  • South Sudan 2008: All persons
  • Spain 1981: All persons
  • Spain 1991: All persons
  • Spain 2001: All persons
  • Spain 2011: All persons
  • Sudan 2008: All persons
  • Switzerland 1970: All persons
  • Switzerland 1980: All persons
  • Switzerland 1990: All persons
  • Switzerland 2000: All persons
  • Tanzania 1988: All persons
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons in private households
  • Tanzania 2012: All persons
  • Thailand 1970: All persons
  • Thailand 1980: All persons
  • Thailand 1990: All persons
  • Thailand 2000: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons in private households or institutions
  • Turkey 1985: All persons
  • Turkey 1990: All persons
  • Turkey 2000: All persons
  • Uganda 1991: All persons
  • Ukraine 2001: All persons
  • United Kingdom 1991: All persons
  • United Kingdom 2001: All persons except non-resident students
  • United States 1960: All persons
  • United States 1970: All persons
  • United States 1980: All persons
  • United States 1990: All persons
  • United States 2000: All persons
  • United States 2005: All persons
  • United States 2010: All persons
  • United States 2015: All persons
  • Uruguay 1963: All persons
  • Uruguay 1975: All persons
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons with a usual residence in Uruguay
  • Uruguay 1996: All persons
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons in fourth trimester
  • Uruguay 2011: All persons
  • Venezuela 1971: All persons
  • Venezuela 1981: All persons
  • Venezuela 1990: All persons
  • Venezuela 2001: All persons
  • Zambia 1990: All persons
  • Zambia 2000: All persons
  • Zambia 2010: Present household members and visitors
  • Zimbabwe 2012: All persons

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2008
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987
  • Canada: 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002
  • Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Fiji: 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971, 2003
  • Honduras: 1961, 1974, 1988, 2001
  • Iceland: 1901, 1910
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Kenya: 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 1989, 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Netherlands: 1960, 1971, 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Norway: 1865, 1875, 1900, 1910
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 2000
  • Poland: 2002, 2011
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • United Kingdom: 1851a, 1851b, 1851c, 1861a, 1861b, 1871, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911, 1991, 2001
  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1963, 1975, 1975, 1985, 1985, 1996, 1996, 2006, 2011, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012