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IND
Industry, unrecoded

IND is a 5-digit numeric variable.

Some samples use fewer than 5 digits. In those cases, the data are right-justified, and the extra leading digits are padded with zeroes.

Codes
Argentina 1970 - Spanish
Argentina 1980 - Spanish
Argentina 1991 - Spanish
Argentina 2001 - Spanish
Armenia 2001
Armenia 2011
Austria 1971-2001 - German
Austria 2011
Bangladesh 1991
Bangladesh 2001
Bangladesh 2011
Belarus 2009
Benin 1979
Benin 1992
Benin 2002
Benin 2013
Bolivia 1976
Bolivia 1992
Bolivia 2001
Botswana 1981
Botswana 1991
Botswana 2001
Botswana 2011
Brazil 1960 - Portuguese
Brazil 1970 - Portuguese
Brazil 1980 - Portuguese
Brazil 1991 - Portuguese
Brazil 2000 - Portuguese
Brazil 2010
Burkina Faso 1996
Cambodia 1998
Cambodia 2004
Cambodia 2008
Cambodia 2013
Cameroon 2005
Canada 1971
Canada 1981
Canada 1991-2001
Canada 2011
Chile 1960
Chile 1970
Chile 1982
Chile 1992
Chile 2002
China 1982
China 1990
China 2000
Colombia 1964 - Spanish
Colombia 1973 - Spanish
Colombia 1993 - Spanish
Colombia 2005 - Spanish
Costa Rica 1963
Costa Rica 1973
Costa Rica 1984
Costa Rica 2000
Costa Rica 2011
Cuba 2002
Dominican Republic 1960
Dominican Republic 1970
Dominican Republic 1981
Dominican Republic 2002
Dominican Republic 2010
Ecuador 1962
Ecuador 1982
Ecuador 1990
Ecuador 2001
Ecuador 2010
Egypt 1986
Egypt 1996
Egypt 2006
El Salvador 1992
El Salvador 2007
Ethiopia 1984
Ethiopia 1994
Fiji 1966
Fiji 1976
Fiji 1986
Fiji 1996
Fiji 2007
Fiji 2014
France 1962-1968 - French
France 1975-1982 - French
France 1990 - French
France 1999
France 2006
France 2011
Germany 1970
Germany 1971
Germany 1981
Germany 1987
Ghana 1984
Ghana 2000
Ghana 2010
Greece 1971
Greece 1981
Greece 1991-2001
Greece 2011
Guatemala 1964
Guatemala 1973
Guatemala 1981
Guatemala 1994
Guatemala 2002
Guinea 1983
Haiti 1971
Haiti 1982
Haiti 2003
Honduras 1961
Honduras 1974
Honduras 2001
Hungary 2001
Hungary 2011
India 1983
India 1987
India 1993
India 1999
India 2004
India 2009
Indonesia 1971
Indonesia 1976
Indonesia 1980
Indonesia 1985
Indonesia 1990
Indonesia 1995
Indonesia 2000
Indonesia 2005
Indonesia 2010
Iran 2006
Iran 2011
Iraq 1997
Ireland 1971
Ireland 1981
Ireland 1986
Ireland 1991
Ireland 1996
Ireland 2002
Ireland 2006
Ireland 2011
Israel 1972
Israel 1983
Israel 1995
Italy 2001
Italy 2011
Italy Surveys 2011-2013
Italy Surveys 2014-2018
Jamaica 1982
Jamaica 1991
Jamaica 2001
Jordan 2004
Kyrgyz Republic 1999
Kyrgyz Republic 2009
Laos 2005
Lesotho 2006
Liberia 1974
Liberia 2008
Malawi 1987
Malawi 1998
Malawi 2008
Malaysia 1970
Malaysia 1980-1991
Malaysia 2000
Mali 1987
Mali 1998
Mali 2009
Mexico 1960 - Spanish
Mexico 1970 - Spanish
Mexico 1990 - Spanish
Mexico 1995 - Spanish
Mexico 2000 - Spanish
Mexico 2015
Mexico 2010
Morocco 1982
Morocco 1994
Morocco 2004
Mozambique 1997
Mozambique 2007
Nepal 2001
Nepal 2011
Netherlands 1960
Netherlands 1971
Netherlands 2001
Netherlands 2011
Nicaragua 1971
Nicaragua 1995
Nicaragua 2005
Nigeria 2006
Nigeria 2007
Nigeria 2008
Nigeria 2009
Nigeria 2010
Pakistan 1973
Palestine 1997
Palestine 2007
Panama 1960 - Spanish
Panama 1970-1980 - Spanish
Panama 1990-2000 - Spanish
Panama 2010
Papua New Guinea 1980
Papua New Guinea 2000
Paraguay 1962
Paraguay 1972
Paraguay 1982
Paraguay 1992
Paraguay 2002
Peru 1993-2007
Philippines 1990
Philippines 1995
Philippines 2000
Philippines 2010
Poland 1978
Poland 2002
Portugal 1981 - Portuguese
Portugal 1991-2001 - Portuguese
Portugal 2011
Puerto Rico 1970-2005
Puerto Rico 2010
Romania 1977
Romania 1992
Romania 2002
Romania 2011
Rwanda 2002 - French
Rwanda 2012
Saint Lucia 1991
Senegal 1988
Sierra Leone 2004
South Africa 1996
South Africa 2001-2007
South Sudan 2008
Spain 1981 - Spanish
Spain 1991 - Spanish
Spain 2001 - Spanish
Spain 2011
Spain Surveys 2005-2018
Sudan 2008
Switzerland 1970-2000
Tanzania 2002
Tanzania 2012
Thailand 1970
Thailand 1980
Thailand 1990
Thailand 2000
Togo 1970
Togo 2010
Trinidad and Tobago 1980
Trinidad and Tobago 1990
Trinidad and Tobago 2000
Turkey 1985
Turkey 1990
Turkey 2000
Uganda 2002
United Kingdom 1991
United Kingdom 2001
United States 1960
United States 1970
United States 1980
United States 1990
United States 2000-2005
United States 2010-2015
Uruguay 1963
Uruguay 1985
Uruguay 1996
Uruguay 2006
Venezuela 1981
Venezuela 1990
Venezuela 2001 - Spanish
Vietnam 1989
Vietnam 1999
Vietnam 2009
Zambia 1990
Zambia 2000
Zambia 2010

Description

"Industry" refers to the activity or product of the establishment or sector in which the person worked. IND is classified according to the system used by the respective national census office at the time, and is not recoded by IPUMS-International.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Bangladesh
Belarus
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
China
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Egypt
Fiji
France
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Iran
Ireland
Italy
Jamaica
Laos
Liberia
Malawi
Mali
Mexico
Nepal
Nigeria
Pakistan
Palestine
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Puerto Rico
Romania
Saint Lucia
Senegal
South Africa
Spain
Switzerland
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
United States
Uruguay
Vietnam
Zambia

Comparability — General

Industry codes vary across samples. For a consistent classification of industries at a general level, see the INDGEN variable.

The age of the persons to whom the question applies varies across countries. In some samples, the question was asked only of those who were employed at the time of the census. In others, persons were asked to report their last industry, even if they were no longer employed or in the labor force.

Industry is conceptually different from occupation (OCC), which records the person's actual activity at work as opposed to the type of service or good they produced.

An alternative weight variable must be used to yield accurate statistics for the 1991 Argentina sample.

NOTE: The different samples sometimes have fewer digits in their codes than the number allotted in IND. In such cases, the codes are justified to the right, and the leading zeroes on the left should be ignored. See "codes" above.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

In the 1991 sample, roughly half the cases in the sample lack data for this and several other variables. Users should apply the alternative weight variable AR1991A_0434 when using one of these variables.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

All samples consistently refer to the person's main field of employment. The 2011 sample has only a few general categories.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

This variable is only available in 2009.

Comparability — Benin [top]

The 1979 and 1992 samples use the same industry classification but with differing detail. The later samples use different classifications. The age universe of respondents also differs between 1979-1992 and 2002-2013.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

The coding structure is roughly comparable across the Botswana samples, but with different level of detail. The industry data have a 1-digit coding structure in 1981, 2-digits in 1991, and the same 4-digits classification in 2001 and 2011.

The reference period was the month prior to the census date for the 1981-1991 samples, and the week prior to the census date for the 2001- 2011 samples.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The data records the person's type of economic activities. Industry is not reported in the 1985 and 2006 samples.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The 1998-2004 samples use one classification, and the 2008-2013 samples use another.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

Data on industry is not available for the 1976 and 1987 samples.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The universe and reference period (the week prior to the census) are identical across all samples.

The industry classification structure used in the Canada samples changed over time. The 1971 sample uses the 1970 Standard Industrial Classification, whereas the 1981- 2001 samples use the 1980 Standard Industrial Classification. Both are national classifications systems. The 2011 sample used the NAICS structure.

Comparability — China [top]

The samples use different national classification systems over time. The 1982-1990 samples ask about the current industry (at the time of census), while the 2000 sample refers to industry in the week prior to the census.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The universe for 1973-1984 is persons age 12+ who ever worked, but in 2011 the universe becomes all persons.

Comparability — Cuba [top]

The data report industry in the previous week.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The data report the activity of the establishment or sector in which the person works or worked. While the universe is consistent across samples in terms of age, the reference period and employment categories included in the universe vary. Samples use 3 different classification systems: 1960, 1970-1981, and 2002-2010

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The universe statement is consistent across samples, but the classification systems differ. The industry data is classified using ISIC rev. 2 in 1986, ISIC rev. 3 in 1996, and ISIC rev. 4 in 2006.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

All samples refer to the person's industry during the week prior to the census. The classification differs for each sample. The universe statements also differ with regard to the respondent's age and employment status.

Comparability — France [top]

There are differences between samples in the minimum age of respondents.

The classification systems differ across samples.

Comparability — Germany [top]

The samples use different classification systems.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

In both samples, the reference period is the 7 days preceding the census night. The age universe differs across samples, including persons age 7+ in 2000 and persons age 5+ in 2010. The broad industry categories are similar across samples, but the 2010 sample uses a much less detailed system.

Comparability — Greece [top]

The 1971-1981 samples use the same classification system, while the classification system is also common across 1991-2001. The 2011 sample follows the ISIC Rev. 4 coding structure.

The reference period is the week before the census for all years, except for 1981 that specify the last time the person worked.

The 2011 sample does not have an age universe, but previous samples only reported information for persons aged 10 or more.

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

Each sample uses a different classification. 2002 offers less detail than earlier years. The age universe differs across samples.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

The 1971 census asked the industry question, but the coded data are lacking many industries and are therefore not included in INDGEN. See the unharmonized variables.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

The industry classification differs across each sample. The 2001 sample uses the 1988 ISCO classification. The 1988 census asked an industry question, but the microdata lack labels.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The universe and classification systems differ across samples. The industry data use ISIC rev. 3 in 2001 and ISIC rev. 4 in 2011. Responses refer to the reference week in 2001 and to the current industry (at the time of census) in 2011.

Comparability — India [top]

The India samples refer to the person's current industry during the week prior to the census, except for 2009 that refers to the past year.

The industry classification system is the same between 1987 and 1993. The coding structure is also common for the 1999, 2004, and 2009 samples, and it follows a national classification system (NIC).

Comparability — Iran [top]

The classification systems differ across samples. The 2006 and 2011 data report a person's industry during the previous week.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The Irish samples use separate classifications: for 1971, 1981-1996, and 2002-2006, and 2011. Universe differences between samples are minor.

Comparability — Italy [top]

The censuses each provide a two-digit classification, but the coding scheme differs.

The classification is consistent across all survey years, but the surveys from 2011-2013 provide only two digits of detail, while the later surveys offer four digits.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The data report a person's industry during the previous week.

The 1982 sample records the industry of everyone who ever worked. The latter samples limit the universe statement to persons currently in the labor force.

The 1991 and 2001 samples use the same classification. The 1982 sample uses a different classification.

Comparability — Laos [top]

Note that persons working in agriculture were not asked the industry question. See the source variable LA2005A_0418 (FARM2) to identify these workers.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The universe differs across samples, including persons age 10+ in 1974, and persons age 6+ in 2008. Both samples included persons who worked in the last 12 months in the universe, although the response categories for economic activity were more detailed in 2008 and therefore explicitly included those who were paid employees, self-employed or contributing family workers. The samples use different levels of detail in their classification systems.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The only difference in universe statement between samples is the change in age: from age 10 or older in the 1987-1998 samples to age 6 or older in the 2008 one.

The 1987 and 1998 samples use the same classification system, although the 1998 sample contains more detail. The 2008 sample uses a different classification system.

Comparability — Mali [top]

All samples report main industry during the month prior to the census. They use different codes, but record similar major industrial categories.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The coding structures differ across samples, except for the years 2010 and 2015 that use the same industry classification. The industry data is coded according to national classification systems.

Comparability — Nepal [top]

The samples use different classifications.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

The universe is consistent in the 2006-2009 samples; the 2010 sample had a lower minimum age for inclusion in the universe. Categorization of industry followed different schemes in 2006-2007, 2008-2009, and 2010.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

The data record the person's industry during the week prior to the census. The 1981 and 1998 samples do not report industry information.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The universe statement for age varies across samples.

The classification system is identical across samples, recording the person's main industry during the previous week.

Comparability — Papua New Guinea [top]

The 1980 census only addressed the question to urban respondents.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The universe and classifications change over samples. The 2002 sample uses a four-digit coding scheme, while all other samples use a 3-digit coding scheme.

Comparability — Peru [top]

The classification system is identical across samples. The 1993 sample records the person's industry during the last week or at the last time they were employed. The 2007 sample reports a person's industry during the week prior to the census.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The industry classification differs across each sample. The minimum age universe differs across samples.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The classification systems differ across samples.

The 1978 source data assigned industry also to non-workers based on who "supported" them, but IND includes only data for economically active persons.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

All samples use the 1990 classification system. The samples report the person's industry during the last week or at the last time they were employed (up to five or 10 years prior to the census). See the specific universe statements.

Each sample also has alternative industry variables that are coded according to the classification used in the respective census years.

The universe for 1980-2005 is persons age 16+ who worked within the last five years, but the universe changes to all persons for the 2010 sample.

Comparability — Romania [top]

The classification system used and the level of disaggregation available differ across samples. The universes change over time but all samples refer, in broad terms, to the economically active population.

The 1977-1992 samples report the current industry (at the time of the census), while the 2002-2011 samples use the week prior to the census as reference period.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

The data report the person's industry during the week prior to the census. The 1980 sample does not have industry information.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The 1988 sample records the person's main industry during the last year. The 2002 sample lacks an industry variable.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 2001 and 2007 samples use the same 3-digit coding scheme. The 1996 sample, instead, uses a 2-digit coding scheme. The first two digits of this latter scheme are comparable to those of the other South Africa samples.

Comparability — Spain [top]

Retirees are included in the 1991 universe and excluded from the 1981, 2001, and 2011 samples. Therefore, there are significantly more persons with industry responses in 1991 than in the other three years. The classification scheme changes across samples.

All survey years use the same relatively undetailed classification.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

The samples are consistent over time and report current industry.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

This variable in the 2002 and 2012 samples record a person's main industry category. It applies to persons who have worked in their current industry for at least 7 days in the time before the census. The 1988 Tanzania sample does not include an industry variable.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

All samples report the person's main industry during the last year. The universe statement for age varies slightly between the 1970-1980 samples and the 1990-2000 ones.

Comparability — Togo [top]

The samples use different classifications and have different universes. The 2010 sample provides much more detail.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The Trinidad and Tobago samples follow the ISIC rev. 2 coding structure. The reference period is the week prior to the census.

Comparability — United States [top]

The classifications are consistent for 1960-1970, 1980-1990, 2000-2005, and 2010-2015, with some minor variations in availability of specific categories. The universe is consistent across years.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The universe differs across samples. In the 1963 sample, this question was answered by persons aged 8 years or older who were in the labor force; when the person was inexperienced unemployed, the industry indicated was coded with the person's profession. For the 1985 and 1996 samples, the industry was reported by persons aged 12 years or older who were employed or experienced unemployed. In 2006, the industry was reported by persons aged 14 or older who were employed. Industry is not available for the 1975 sample.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

The universe varies considerably across samples. The 1989 sample includes persons employed at any point during the previous year. The 1999 sample includes persons employed for six months or more during the previous year. The 2009 sample includes persons who are currently employed.

The samples use different classification systems.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

The universe is consistent across samples, except exclusion of absent household members in the 2010 sample. The 1990 and 2000 samples use the same industry classifications, but the 2010 sample uses a different classification system.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed seeking work
  • Argentina 1980: Persons age 14+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Argentina 1991: Persons age 14+ who had a job last week
  • Argentina 2001: Persons age 14+ who had a job last week
  • Armenia 2001: Persons age 15+ who had a job
  • Armenia 2011: Persons age 15 to 75 with a job
  • Austria 1971: Economically active persons
  • Austria 1981: Economically active persons
  • Austria 1991: Economically active persons
  • Austria 2001: Economically active persons
  • Austria 2011: Economically active persons
  • Bangladesh 1991: Persons age 7+
  • Bangladesh 2001: Persons age 5+
  • Bangladesh 2011: Persons age 7+ who were employed
  • Belarus 2009: Employed persons age 15+
  • Benin 1979: Persons age 10+ from private households in the labor force
  • Benin 1992: Persons age 10+ from private households in the labor force
  • Benin 2002: Residents age 6+ in the labor force, not new workers
  • Benin 2013: Residents age 6+ in the labor force
  • Bolivia 1976: Persons age 7+ in the labor force
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons age 7+ who worked last week, and experienced unemployed
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons age 7+ who worked last week
  • Botswana 1981: Present residents age 12+ who worked regularly for cash
  • Botswana 1991: Persons age 12 + who worked for cash, for family business, or in agriculture in the last 30 days
  • Botswana 2001: Persons age 12+ working during the past 7 days except institutionalized non-residents
  • Botswana 2011: Persons age 12+ working during the past 7 days except institutionalized non-residents
  • Brazil 1960: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Brazil 1970: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Brazil 1980: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Brazil 1991: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Brazil 2000: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Brazil 2010: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Household residents age 6+ in the labor force
  • Cambodia 1998: Persons who work or have worked
  • Cambodia 2004: Persons who were employed or experienced unemployed in the last 12 months
  • Cambodia 2008: Persons age 5+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Cambodia 2013: Present persons who are employed or experienced unemployed
  • Cameroon 2005: Household residents age 6+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Canada 1971: Persons age 15+ last worked in this or previous calendar year
  • Canada 1981: Persons age 15+ last worked in this or previous calendar year
  • Canada 1991: Persons age 15+ last worked in this or previous calendar year
  • Canada 2001: Persons age 15+ last worked in this or previous calendar year
  • Canada 2011: Persons age 15+ last worked in this or previous calendar year
  • Chile 1960: Persons age 12+ who ever worked
  • Chile 1970: Persons age 12+ in the labor force
  • Chile 1982: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Chile 1992: Persons age 14+ who ever worked
  • Chile 2002: Persons age 15+ working or seeking work
  • China 1982: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • China 1990: Persons age 15+ in the labor force
  • China 2000: Persons age 15+ who worked or had a job last week
  • Colombia 1964: Persons age 12+ in the labor force
  • Colombia 1973: Persons age 10+, with a job or experienced unemployed
  • Colombia 1993: Persons age 10+ in the labor force; not new workers
  • Colombia 2005: Persons age 5+ in the labor force; not new workers
  • Costa Rica 1963: Persons age 12 + who were employed or unemployed
  • Costa Rica 1973: Persons age 12+ who ever worked
  • Costa Rica 1984: Persons age 12+ who ever worked
  • Costa Rica 2000: Persons age 12+ who were employed the week prior to the census
  • Costa Rica 2011: All persons
  • Cuba 2002: Persons age 15+ who worked or had a job
  • Dominican Republic 1960: Persons age 10+ who were employed during the reference period
  • Dominican Republic 1970: Persons age 10+ who were employed or unemployed at the time of enumeration
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Persons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Persons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Persons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Ecuador 1962: Persons age 12+ who were employed, unemployed or seeking employment
  • Ecuador 1982: Persons age 12+ who ever worked
  • Ecuador 1990: Persons age 8+ who were employed, unemployed, or an unpaid workers
  • Ecuador 2001: Persons age 5+ who ever worked
  • Ecuador 2010: Persons age 5+ who are employed
  • Egypt 1986: Persons age 6+ who are economically active
  • Egypt 1996: Persons age 6+ who are economically active
  • Egypt 2006: Persons age 6+ who are economically active
  • El Salvador 1992: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Ethiopia 1984: Household residents age 10+ who ever worked
  • Ethiopia 1994: Persons age 10+ who worked or were experienced workers looking for work
  • Fiji 1966: Persons age 15+
  • Fiji 1976: Persons age 14+ in the labor force
  • Fiji 1986: Persons age 15+ who worked last week
  • Fiji 1996: Persons age 15+ who worked last week
  • Fiji 2007: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Fiji 2014: Persons age 15+ who worked last week
  • France 1962: Persons age 14+ who were employed
  • France 1968: Persons age 14+ who were employed
  • France 1975: Persons age 17+ who were employed
  • France 1982: Persons age 14+ who were employed
  • France 1990: Persons age 14+ who were employed
  • France 1999: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • France 2006: Persons age 14+ who were employed
  • France 2011: Active employed persons
  • Germany 1970: Economically active persons age 15+
  • Germany 1971: Employed persons age 14+
  • Germany 1981: Economically active persons age 14+
  • Germany 1987: Employed persons age 15+
  • Ghana 1984: Persons age 10+ who worked
  • Ghana 2000: Persons employed, unemployed, or had a job but did not work
  • Ghana 2010: Persons age 5+ who are economically active
  • Greece 1971: Persons born before 1961 who were working
  • Greece 1981: Persons age 10+ who were working or seeking work
  • Greece 1991: Persons age 10+ who were working or seeking work
  • Greece 2001: Persons age 10+ who were working or seeking work
  • Greece 2011: Persons who worked or were seeking work last week
  • Guatemala 1964: Persons age 7+ who worked or looked for work in the last 4 weeks
  • Guatemala 1973: Persons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Guatemala 1981: Persons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Guatemala 1994: Persons age 7+ who ever worked
  • Guatemala 2002: Persons age 7+ who ever worked
  • Guinea 1983: Persons age 10+ who were employed or unemployed
  • Haiti 1982: Persons age 10+ who worked or had a job during the reference period
  • Haiti 2003: Persons age 10+ who worked or had a job during the reference period
  • Honduras 1961: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Honduras 1974: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Honduras 2001: Persons age 7+ in the labor force, not new workers
  • Hungary 2001: Employed persons
  • Hungary 2011: Persons 15+ who are working or unemployed
  • India 1983: Persons with a job last week
  • India 1987: Persons age 5+ who were currently employed
  • India 1993: Persons age 5+ who were currently employed
  • India 1999: Persons age 5+ who were currently employed
  • India 2004: Persons who worked last week
  • India 2009: Persons age 5+ who engaged in economic activity
  • Indonesia 1971: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Indonesia 1976: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Indonesia 1980: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Indonesia 1985: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Indonesia 1990: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Indonesia 1995: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Indonesia 2000: Persons age 5+ who worked last week
  • Indonesia 2005: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Indonesia 2010: Persons age 10+ in permanent households who were employed
  • Iran 2006: Employed persons age 10+
  • Iran 2011: Persons age 10+ who worked, were unpaid workers, or temporarily absent from work in the past 7 days
  • Iraq 1997: Persons age 6+ who were employed
  • Ireland 1971: Persons age 14+ in the labor force
  • Ireland 1981: Employed persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1986: Employed persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1991: Employed persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1996: Persons age 15+ who were working or experienced unemployed
  • Ireland 2002: Non-absent persons age 15+ who were working, experienced unemployed or retired
  • Ireland 2006: Non-absent persons age 15+ who were working, experienced unemployed or retired
  • Ireland 2011: Present persons age 15+ who were working or unemployed
  • Israel 1972: Persons age 14+ who were in the annual labor force
  • Israel 1983: Persons age 15+ in annual labor force
  • Israel 1995: Persons age 15+ in annual labor force
  • Italy 2001: Persons age 15+ who worked for pay
  • Italy 2011: Persons age 15+ in the labor force, not new workers
  • Italy 2011Q1: Employed persons
  • Italy 2012Q1: Employed persons
  • Italy 2013Q1: Employed persons
  • Italy 2014Q1: Employed persons
  • Italy 2015Q1: Employed persons
  • Italy 2016Q1: Employed persons
  • Italy 2017Q1: Employed persons
  • Italy 2018Q1: Employed persons
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons age 14+ in private households and selected group quarters, employed or experienced unemployed
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons age 14+ in private households or selected group quarters, in the labor force
  • Jamaica 2001: Persons age 14+ in the labor force
  • Jordan 2004: Persons age 15+ with a job
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Persons age 16+ who were working
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Laos 2005: Persons age 10+ who were employed in an industry other than agriculture
  • Lesotho 2006: Pesons age 10+ in the labor force, not new workers
  • Liberia 1974: Persons age 10+ who worked in the last 12 months
  • Liberia 2008: Persons age 6+ who worked in the last 12 months
  • Malawi 1987: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Malawi 1998: Persons age 10+ working or unemployed
  • Malawi 2008: Non-visitors age 6+ employed, subsistence worker, or experienced unemployed
  • Malaysia 1970: Persons age 10+ in labor force
  • Malaysia 1980: Persons age 10+ who are employed, or active unemployed
  • Malaysia 1991: Persons age 10+ who worked last week and those not working but have a job
  • Malaysia 2000: Persons age 10+ who worked for at least one hour during the last 7 days, and those not working but had a job to return to
  • Mali 1987: Economically active persons age 6+
  • Mali 1998: Economically active persons age 6+
  • Mali 2009: Economically active persons age 6+
  • Mexico 1960: Persons with an occupation
  • Mexico 1970: Persons age 12+
  • Mexico 1990: Persons age 12+ with a job
  • Mexico 1995: Persons age 12+ that worked the week before the census, or did not work but had a job
  • Mexico 2000: Persons age 12+ with a job
  • Mexico 2015: Persons age 12+ with a job
  • Mongolia 2000: Persons age 15+ who worked last week
  • Morocco 1982: Employed or experienced unemployed persons
  • Morocco 1994: Employed or experienced unemployed persons
  • Morocco 2004: Employed or experienced unemployed persons
  • Mozambique 1997: Persons who worked or looked for a new job in the last week
  • Mozambique 2007: Residents age 7+ who worked or looked for a new job in the last week
  • Nepal 2001: Persons age 10+ who worked or sought work at least one month last year
  • Nepal 2011: Persons age 10+ who worked in the past 12 months
  • Netherlands 1960: Economically active persons
  • Netherlands 1971: Economically active persons
  • Netherlands 2001: Economically active persons
  • Netherlands 2011: Persons age 15+ who are working
  • Nicaragua 1971: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Nicaragua 1995: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Nigeria 2006: Persons age 10+ who worked or had a job in the last week
  • Nigeria 2007: Persons age 10+ who worked or had a job in the last week
  • Nigeria 2008: Persons age 10+ who worked or had a job in the last week
  • Nigeria 2009: Persons age 10+ who worked or had a job in the last week
  • Nigeria 2010: Persons age 5+ who worked last week
  • Pakistan 1973: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Palestine 1997: Persons age 10+ working or experienced unemployed
  • Palestine 2007: Persons age 7+ who were employed or experienced unemployed, except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: Non-indigenous persons age 10+ who employed or worked before
  • Panama 1970: Persons age 10+ ever worked
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 10+ who worked or looked for work either last week or some time in the past (excluding retired persons)
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 10+ ever worked
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 10+ who are economically active and have worked before
  • Papua New Guinea 1980: Urban persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Papua New Guinea 2000: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Paraguay 1962: Persons age 12+ who were economically active
  • Paraguay 1972: Persons age 12+ who ever worked
  • Paraguay 1982: Economically active persons age 12+ excluding new workers
  • Paraguay 1992: Persons 10+ with a job or looking for work
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Peru 1993: Persons age 6+ with work or experienced and seeking work
  • Peru 2007: Persons age 6+ who worked last week
  • Philippines 1990: Persons age 10+ who are employed
  • Philippines 1995: Persons age 5+ who are engaged in economic activity
  • Philippines 2000: Persons age 10+ who are employed
  • Philippines 2010: Persons age 15+ who were employed in the past 12 months
  • Poland 1978: Present persons who are economically active
  • Poland 2002: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Portugal 1981: Persons age 12+ who are employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 1991: Persons age 12+ who are employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 2001: Persons age 15+ who are employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 2011: Persons age 15+ who were economically active
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 14+ who worked within the last 10 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 10 years ago
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 16+ who worked within the last 5 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 5 years ago
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 16+ who worked within the last 5 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 5 years ago
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 16+ who worked within the last 5 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 5 years ago
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 16+ who worked within the last 5 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 5 years ago
  • Puerto Rico 2010: All persons
  • Romania 1977: Economically active persons
  • Romania 1992: Persons who are employed or seeking work not for the first time
  • Romania 2002: Persons who have at least one job
  • Romania 2011: Persons working during reference week or unemployed looking for another job
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors age 6+ who are employed or experienced unemployed
  • Rwanda 2012: Persons age 5+ who are employed or experienced unemployed
  • Saint Lucia 1991: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Senegal 1988: Persons age 6+ employed or seeking work
  • Sierra Leone 2004: Persons age 10+ who worked in the last 30 days
  • Slovenia 2002: Employed persons
  • South Africa 1996: Persons 15+ in private households who were employed
  • South Africa 2001: Persons age 10+ employed or economically active
  • South Africa 2007: Persons age 15 to 74 with a job, not in institutions
  • South Sudan 2008: Persons age 10+ who worked or were experienced unemployed
  • Spain 1981: Persons who work or have worked
  • Spain 1991: Persons who work or have worked
  • Spain 2001: Persons age 16+ who were working or studying last week
  • Spain 2005Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2005Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2005Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2005Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2006Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2006Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2006Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2006Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2007Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2007Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2007Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2007Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2008Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2008Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2008Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2008Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2009Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2009Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2009Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2009Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2010Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2010Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2010Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2010Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2011: Persons age 16+ who were working or were unemployed with previous work experience
  • Spain 2011Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2011Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2011Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2011Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2012Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2012Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2012Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2012Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2013Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2013Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2013Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2013Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2014Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2014Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2014Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2014Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2015Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2015Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2015Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2015Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2016Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2016Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2016Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2016Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2017Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2017Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2017Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2017Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2018Q1: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2018Q2: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2018Q3: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Spain 2018Q4: Persons age 16+ with paid work last week
  • Sudan 2008: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Switzerland 1970: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Switzerland 1980: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Switzerland 1990: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Switzerland 2000: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons age 5+ who worked last week
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons age 5+ who were economically active in the last week
  • Thailand 1970: Persons age 11+ who worked last year
  • Thailand 1980: Persons age 11+ who worked last year
  • Thailand 1990: Persons age 13+ who worked last year
  • Thailand 2000: Persons age 13+ who worked last year
  • Togo 1970: Persons who worked
  • Togo 2010: Resident persons age 6+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: Persons age 15+ who had a job or are seeking work
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: Persons age 15+ who had a job or are seeking work
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons age 15+ who had a job or are seeking work
  • Turkey 1985: Persons age 12+ who had a job
  • Turkey 1990: Persons age 12+ who had a job
  • Turkey 2000: Persons age 12+ who had a job
  • Uganda 2002: Persons age 5+ in the labor force
  • United Kingdom 1991: Persons age 16+ who worked within last 10 year
  • United Kingdom 2001: Persons age 16 to 74 who have ever worked
  • United States 1960: Persons age 14+ who had worked within the previous ten years; not armed forces, not persons with a job but not at work last week, not new workers (see note)
  • United States 1970: Persons age 14+ who had worked within the previous ten years; not armed forces, not new workers (see note)
  • United States 1980: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years; not armed forces, not new workers (see note)
  • United States 1990: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years, not new workers (see note)
  • United States 2000: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years, not new workers (see note)
  • United States 2005: Persons age 16+ who worked in the last five years; and persons seeking work who last worked more than 5 years ago
  • United States 2010: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years, not new workers (see note)
  • United States 2015: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years, not new workers (see note)
  • Uruguay 1963: Persons age 8+ employed or unemployed
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons age 12+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Uruguay 1996: Persons age 12+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons age 14+ with a job
  • Venezuela 1981: Persons age 12+ who had a job at the time of the census, or during the prior year
  • Venezuela 1990: Persons age 12+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Venezuela 2001: Persons age 10+ in the labor force in the past week
  • Vietnam 1989: Persons age 13+ who were employed during the year, regardless of current employment status
  • Vietnam 1999: Persons age 13+ who worked six or more months during the previous twelve months
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 15+ who had a job
  • Zambia 1990: Persons age 12+ who were economically active in the last year
  • Zambia 2000: Persons age 12+ who were economically active in the last year
  • Zambia 2010: Present members and visitors age 12+ who were economically active in the last year

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 2009
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1996
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2004, 2008, 2013
  • Cameroon: 2005
  • Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • China: 1982, 1990, 2000
  • Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002
  • Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994
  • Fiji: 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007, 2014
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1970, 1971, 1981, 1987
  • Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guatemala: 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994, 2002
  • Guinea: 1983
  • Haiti: 1982, 2003
  • Honduras: 1961, 1974, 2001
  • Hungary: 2001, 2011
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011, 2011Q1, 2012Q1, 2013Q1, 2014Q1, 2015Q1, 2016Q1, 2017Q1, 2018Q1
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Laos: 2005
  • Lesotho: 2006
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Nepal: 2001, 2011
  • Netherlands: 1960, 1971, 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 2000
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
  • Poland: 1978, 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1991
  • Senegal: 1988
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2005Q1, 2005Q2, 2005Q3, 2005Q4, 2006Q1, 2006Q2, 2006Q3, 2006Q4, 2007Q1, 2007Q2, 2007Q3, 2007Q4, 2008Q1, 2008Q2, 2008Q3, 2008Q4, 2009Q1, 2009Q2, 2009Q3, 2009Q4, 2010Q1, 2010Q2, 2010Q3, 2010Q4, 2011, 2011Q1, 2011Q2, 2011Q3, 2011Q4, 2012Q1, 2012Q2, 2012Q3, 2012Q4, 2013Q1, 2013Q2, 2013Q3, 2013Q4, 2014Q1, 2014Q2, 2014Q3, 2014Q4, 2015Q1, 2015Q2, 2015Q3, 2015Q4, 2016Q1, 2016Q2, 2016Q3, 2016Q4, 2017Q1, 2017Q2, 2017Q3, 2017Q4, 2018Q1, 2018Q2, 2018Q3, 2018Q4
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Togo: 1970, 2010
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1991, 2001
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Venezuela: 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010