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OCC
Occupation, unrecoded

OCC is a 4-digit numeric variable.

Some samples use fewer than 4 digits. In those cases, the data are right-justified, and the extra leading digits are padded with zeroes.

Codes
Argentina 1970 - Spanish
Argentina 1980 - Spanish
Argentina 1991 - Spanish
Argentina 2001 - Spanish
Armenia 2011
Austria 1971-2001 - German
Belarus 1999 - Russian
Belarus 2009
Benin 1979
Benin 1992
Benin 2002
Benin 2013
Bolivia 1976
Bolivia 1992
Bolivia 2001
Botswana 1981
Botswana 1991
Botswana 2001
Botswana 2011
Brazil 1960 - Portuguese
Brazil 1970 - Portuguese
Brazil 1980 - Portuguese
Brazil 1991 - Portuguese
Brazil 2000 - Portuguese
Brazil 2010
Burkina Faso 1985
Burkina Faso 1996
Cambodia 1998
Cambodia 2008
Cameroon 1976
Cameroon 2005
Canada 1971
Canada 1981-1991
Canada 2001
Canada 2011
Chile 1960
Chile 1970
Chile 1982
Chile 1992
Chile 2002
China 1982
China 1990
China 2000
Colombia 1964
Colombia 1973 - Spanish
Costa Rica 1973
Costa Rica 1984
Costa Rica 2000
Costa Rica 2011
Cuba 2002
Dominican Republic 1960
Dominican Republic 1970
Dominican Republic 1981
Dominican Republic 2002
Dominican Republic 2010
Ecuador 1962
Ecuador 1974
Ecuador 1982
Ecuador 1990
Ecuador 2001
Ecuador 2010
Egypt 1986
Egypt 2006
El Salvador 1992
El Salvador 2007
Ethiopia 1984
Ethiopia 1994
Fiji 1976
Fiji 1986
Fiji 1996
Fiji 2007
France 1962-1990 - French
France 1999
France 2006
France 2011
Germany 1970
Germany 1981
Germany 1987
Ghana 1984
Ghana 2000
Ghana 2010
Greece 1971-1991 - Greek
Greece 2001 - Greek
Greece 2011
Guinea 1983
Guinea 1996
Haiti 1982
Haiti 2003
Honduras 1961
Honduras 1974
Honduras 1988
Honduras 2001
Hungary 1970-1990
Hungary 2001
Hungary 2011
India 1983-2004
India 2009
Indonesia 1971
Indonesia 1976
Indonesia 1980
Indonesia 1985
Indonesia 1990
Indonesia 1995
Indonesia 2005
Iran 2006
Iran 2011
Iraq 1997
Ireland 1971
Ireland 1981
Ireland 1986
Ireland 1991
Ireland 1996
Ireland 2002
Ireland 2006
Ireland 2011
Israel 1972
Israel 1983
Israel 1995
Italy 2001
Italy 2011
Jamaica 1982
Jamaica 1991
Jamaica 2001
Jordan 2004
Kenya 1989
Kyrgyz Republic 1999
Lesotho 1996
Lesotho 2006
Liberia 1974
Liberia 2008
Malawi 1987
Malawi 1998
Malawi 2008
Malaysia 1970
Malaysia 1980-1991
Malaysia 2000
Mali 1987
Mali 1998
Mali 2009
Mexico 1960 - Spanish
Mexico 1970 - Spanish
Mexico 1990 - Spanish
Mexico 1995 - Spanish
Mexico 2000 - Spanish
Mexico 2015
Mexico 2010
Mongolia 2000
Morocco 1982
Morocco 1994
Morocco 2004
Mozambique 1997
Mozambique 2007
Nepal 2001
Netherlands 1960
Netherlands 1971
Netherlands 2001
Netherlands 2011
Nicaragua 1971
Nicaragua 1995
Nicaragua 2005
Nigeria 2008
Nigeria 2009
Nigeria 2010
Pakistan 1973
Palestine 1997
Palestine 2007
Panama 1960 - Spanish
Panama 1970 - Spanish
Panama 1980 - Spanish
Panama 1990 - Spanish
Panama 2000 - Spanish
Panama 2010
Papua New Guinea 1980
Papua New Guinea 1990
Papua New Guinea 2000
Papua New Guinea 2011
Paraguay 1962
Paraguay 1972
Paraguay 1982
Paraguay 1992
Paraguay 2002
Peru 1993
Peru 2007
Philippines 1990
Philippines 2000
Philippines 2010
Poland 1978
Poland 1988
Poland 2002
Portugal 1981 - Portuguese
Portugal 1991 - Portuguese
Portugal 2001 - Portuguese
Portugal 2011
Puerto Rico 1970
Puerto Rico 1980
Puerto Rico 1990
Puerto Rico 2000-2005
Puerto Rico 2010
Romania 1977
Romania 1992
Romania 2002
Romania 2011
Rwanda 2002 - French
Rwanda 2012
Saint Lucia 1991
Senegal 1988
Senegal 2002
Sierra Leone 2004
Slovenia 2002
South Africa 1996
South Africa 2001
South Africa 2007
South Sudan 2008
Spain 1981 - Spanish
Spain 1991 - Spanish
Spain 2001 - Spanish
Spain 2011
Sudan 2008
Switzerland 1970
Switzerland 1980
Switzerland 1990
Switzerland 2000
Tanzania 1988
Tanzania 2002
Tanzania 2012
Thailand 1970
Thailand 1980
Thailand 1990
Thailand 2000
Trinidad and Tobago 1990
Trinidad and Tobago 2000
Trinidad and Tobago 2011
Turkey 1985
Turkey 1990
Turkey 2000
Uganda 1991
Uganda 2002
United Kingdom 1991
United Kingdom 2001
United States 1960
United States 1970
United States 1980
United States 1990
United States 2000-2005
United States 2010
United States 2015
Uruguay 1963
Uruguay 1975
Uruguay 1996
Uruguay 2006
Venezuela 1981
Venezuela 1990
Venezuela 2001 - Spanish
Vietnam 1989
Vietnam 1999
Vietnam 2009
Zambia 1990
Zambia 2000
Zambia 2010
Zimbabwe 2012

Description

OCC records the person's primary occupation, classified according to the system used by the respective national census office at the time. For someone with more than one job, the primary occupation is usually the one in which the person spent the most time or earned the most money, although this may not have been explicit in the instructions for a specific census.

To ensure confidentiality, very small occupations are recoded to a residual category indicating the persons had an occupation, but the job title is not identified. The number of cases recoded should be too small to affect analyses.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Austria
Belarus
Benin
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Fiji
France
Ghana
Greece
Guinea
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Ireland
Israel
Jamaica
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Malawi
Mali
Mexico
Morocco
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Palestine
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Romania
Rwanda
Senegal
Sierra Leone
South Africa
South Sudan
Spain
Sudan
Switzerland
Tanzania
Thailand
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
Uganda
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Comparability — General

The classification of occupations differs across countries and within countries over time. For a consistent classification of occupations at a general level, see the OCCISCO variable.

The age of the persons to whom the question applies varies across countries. In some samples, the question was asked only of those who were employed at the time of the census. In others, persons were asked to report the last occupation they had, even if they were no longer employed.

Some datasets have a large number of undocumented values. In a few cases, we did not include an occupation variable for which we have data because the documentation was missing or did not appear to match the data.

Occupation is conceptually different from industry (IND), which records the service or good produced, as opposed to the actual activity carried out by the worker.

NOTE: The different samples sometimes have fewer digits in their codes than the four allotted in OCC. In such cases, the codes are justified to the right, and the leading zeroes on the left should be ignored. See the link to "codes" above.

An alternative weight variable must be used to yield accurate statistics for the 1991 Argentina sample.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

In the 1991 sample, roughly half the cases lack data for this and several other variables. Users should apply the alternative weight variable AR91A434 when using one of these variables.

The 1991-2001 classifications are fundamentally different from the earlier samples and from other countries. They reflect a more industrial and skills-based organization.

The universe changes over time, ranging from age 10 or older to age 14 or older in 1980.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

The sample uses the ISCO 1988 classification, requiring no recoding.

Comparability — Austria [top]

The source data for Austria assigned occupations to non-workers based on who "supported" them. OCC reports data only for economically active persons.

The 2001 sample has an alternative, more detailed occupation classification among the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

The Belarus 1999 and 2009 samples follow the ISCO 1988 classification system. The reference period is the week prior to the census for the both samples.

Comparability — Benin [top]

The 2013 sample uses the ISCO 1988 classification, while the earlier samples use ISCO 1968. The universe varies across samples.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The universe for occupation is different among Bolivian samples. In 1976 and 1992, occupation was recorded for both employed and unemployed persons age 7 or older. If a person was unemployed, the most recent or usual occupational activity was recorded. In 2001, occupation was only asked for persons age 7 and older who worked during the week prior to the census, or had a job but did not work due to temporary absence (vacation, illness, personal business, etc.).

Comparability — Botswana [top]

The 1981 sample follows the ISCO 1968 classification system. The 1991- 2011 samples use a classification system that is the national version of ISCO 1988.

The reference period for the 1981-1991 samples was the past month, but it changed for the 2001-2011 samples to the week prior to the census.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

The question aims to record the person's usual occupation: the one the respondent practiced for the most time in the prior year (for the 1960-1991 samples), or the prior week (for the 2000 and 2010 samples). However, for all samples, no person is recorded with an occupation if they were out of the labor force at the time of the census.

The 2010 sample follows the ISCO 2008 classification system.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The universe statement differs across samples. The 1985 and 1996 samples use the same occupation coding scheme. Occupation data were collected in 2006, but the codes are undocumented.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

Both samples include employed and unemployed persons and use very similar classifications based on the ISCO system. They report main activity performed last year.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

The universe statement differs across samples with respect to employment status, age, and household type.

The 1976 sample uses a unique classification system. The 2005 sample classified occupation in accordance with the 1988 ISCO system.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The Canada sample data do not have much occupational detail, except for 2011, and are based on national occupational classifications not fully equivalent to ISCO. The classifications for 1971 to 1991 were quite consistent.

Comparability — Chile [top]

The age universe changes over time. The codes differ between years except for the 1970-1982 samples. The 2002 sample identifies far fewer occupations than the other years.

Comparability — China [top]

Persons temporarily absent from their job reported their regular occupation. Those with multiple occupations reported the one in which they spent the most time.

The China 2000 sample has a more aggregated occupational grouping available with respect to 1982 and 1990.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

The question recorded the current main occupation for employed persons, and the last occupation held for unemployed persons.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The variable records the person's main occupation at the time of census or, prior to 2000, when they were last employed. The occupation codes for 1973 and 1984 are similar to one another. OCC is not available for the 1963 sample.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The 1960, 1970 and 1981 samples each use a unique classification system. The 2002 and 2010 samples use the ISCO 1988 classification system.

The universe changes over time. In 1960, the question was asked of persons age 10 and older who were employed between January 1st and August 7th, 1960. In 1970, the question was asked of persons age 10 and older who were employed or unemployed the week prior to the census. In 1981-2010, the question was asked of persons age 10 and older who had ever worked. Respondents who had worked before but were not working during the week prior to the census reported their last occupation.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

The age universe changes over time. The occupation codes differ between samples. The 2010 sample follows the ISCO 2008 classification scheme.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The 1986 sample uses the ISCO 1968 classification, while the1996 and 2006 samples use ISCO 1988. The age universe of respondents changes from 15 and older in 1986-1996 to 6 and older in 2006.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

Both samples use the ISCO classification and differ only in coverage of unemployed persons.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The 1984 sample uses the ISCO 1968 classification, requiring some recoding. The 1994 sample uses ISCO 1988. The 2007 sample does not contain occupation information.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

The sample universes differ slightly with respect to age and whether all workers are included in the universe or whether it is restricted to those who worked for money. The 1976 and 1986 samples use the 1968 ISCO system, while the later samples use the 1988 ISCO system.

Comparability — France [top]

The codes for OCC are comparable across the 1962-1990 samples. The 1999 differs from the earlier years, with more detail. The 2006 and 2011 classifications are also detailed and use a common classification.

In all samples, unemployed persons report their occupations. The universe differs slightly across samples with respect to age.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The 1984 and 2000 samples use the ISCO 1968 classification system. The 2010 sample uses the ISCO 2008 classification system. The universe differs slightly across samples in terms of minimum ages.

Comparability — Greece [top]

The 1971-1991 samples use the same classification. The 2001 census used a version of the ISCO 1988 classification, while the 2011 census occupational data are based on ISCO 2008.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

Occupations are recorded for both employed persons and persons who were unemployed but were willing to work. The universe statement for age differs across samples.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

While the samples have the same universe, the reference period for employment is different across years. The 1982 sample uses the 1968 ISCO classification scheme; the 2003 sample uses the 1988 ISCO codes.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

The 1960 sample uses the COTA 1960 classification. The 1974 and 1988 samples use a unique classification. The 2001 sample uses the ISCO 1988 system. The universe for 2001 differs from the previous samples.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The occupation data in the Hungary samples are comparable, as they follow some ISCO coding structure. In 1970-1990, occupations are coded using a national classification equivalent to ISCO 1988. The 2001 sample applies ISCO 1988 and the 2011 sample uses ISCO 2008.

Comparability — India [top]

The data are comparable across time, with adjustments for slight differences in the universe statement in some samples.

In 1983-2004, occupations are coded uniformly according to the India occupational classification system of 1968 (NCO 1968) and use the current week (preceding the census) as time reference. For these samples, other occupational unharmonized source variables (not included in OCC) document the occupation worked most frequently over the past year.

The 2009 sample includes information about the usual principal occupation and applies the India occupational classification system of 2004 (NCO 2004), which is compatible with ISCO 1988.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The samples use the same basic underlying classification (ISCO-68) with similar universes.

Comparability — Iran [top]

The 2006 and 2011 samples report the current occupation of employed persons aged 10 or more.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The universe statement changes significantly over time. It includes employed, and sometimes unemployed, persons in the samples between 1971 and 1991. Instead, it includes the occupation of retired persons in the 1996 to 2011 samples.

All samples use a number of different occupation classifications, none of which are based on ISCO. The 1986 and 1991 samples use the same classification, as do the 1996-2006 samples. The 2011 sample uses a unique classification system.

Comparability — Israel [top]

The samples are coded separately, using very broad occupational categories. The universe statement of all samples includes persons who worked in the previous year.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The 1982 sample records the occupation of anyone who ever worked. The latter samples limit the universe statement to persons currently in the labor force, although all persons who ever worked were asked the question.

All samples use the ISCO classification system.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The question applied to employed persons, regardless of whether they were at work, and persons on family holdings.

Despite the universe statement, occupations also are reported for some persons seeking work, students, retired persons, disabled persons, homemakers, and others.

NOTE: Only a small fraction of persons actually reported an occupation. The meaning of these data is questionable.

Comparability — Lesotho [top]

The 1996 sample uses the ISCO 1968 while the 2006 sample uses the ISCO 1988 classification system. In the 1996 sample, professionals and technicians cannot be separated. The universe is slightly different between the two samples.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The 1974 sample uses the ISCO 1968 classification system. The 2008 sample uses the ISCO 1988 classification system and did not require recoding. The universe differs slightly across samples in terms of minimum ages.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The only notable difference between samples is the change in universe statement: from age 10 or older in the 1987-1998 samples to age 6 or older in the 2008 sample.

The samples use nearly identical classifications.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The samples use entirely different occupational classifications, but the universe is consistent over time.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The Mexico samples use national classifications to code occupations. The 1990-2000 samples used the same classification, while the coding structure is also common across 2010-2015 and is based on ISCO 2008. The 1960 and 1970 samples used their own classification systems.

In 1970, the question applied to the occupation the person held during the previous year, regardless of employment status at the time of the census. In 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015, the question was addressed only to employed persons.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The 1982 sample is based on a different underlying classification than the one employed in 1994 and 2004.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

Both samples use the ISCO 1988 classification, requiring no recoding, with minor difference in the universes.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

The 1971 sample uses a different underlying classification. The 1995 and 2005 samples use ISCO.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

Occupation data are not available for 2006 and 2007. The 2008 and 2009 samples use the ISCO 2008 classification system. The 2010 sample uses the ISCO 1988 classification system. The universe differs slightly across samples

Comparability — Palestine [top]

Both samples use the 1-digit ISCO classification and are fully comparable, apart from minor universe differences.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The universes are comparable with respect to age, but differ slightly by employment status. The 2000 and 2010 samples follow the 1988 ISCO classifications for occupation. The earlier samples each use a unique classification system that varies somewhat over time.

Comparability — Papua New Guinea [top]

In 1980 and 1990, only urban workers are in the universe of respondents. All samples are compatible with the ISCO 1988 classification system.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The 2002 sample uses the ISCO 1988 classification, with only one digit of detail. Earlier samples use differing classifications.

Comparability — Peru [top]

Both samples report the main occupation held in the previous week.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The samples use very similar classifications. The main difference is an extra digit in the codes of the 1990 sample. The classifications are comparable for major occupational groupings. Differences in the universe are due to the inclusion of non-occupational categories in the first major grouping of the 1990 sample.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The 1978 and 1988 used different occupational classification systems that are not compatible with ISCO. The 2002 sample has only large occupational groups available, but the coding structure follows ISCO.

The 1978 and 1988 source data assigned occupations also to non-workers based on who "supported" them, but OCC includes only data for economically active persons.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

The 1991 and 2001 classifications are nearly identical. The 2001 sample, instead, combines some categories that are separate in the 1991 one.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The universe varies somewhat between 1970 and the later samples. Several classifications are used by the different samples, but alternative and highly consistent classifications are also available among the source variables.

Comparability — Romania [top]

The coding structure is comparable for the 1992, 2002, and 2011 samples. The 1992 and 2002 samples used the ISCO 1988, whereas the 2011 census used ISCO 2008. The 1977 sample uses a different occupational structure that is not compatible with ISCO.

In the 1992 and 2011 samples, the universe statement includes persons who were either employed or seeking work. In the 1977 and 2002 samples, instead, the universe statement includes only persons who were currently employed.

The 1977 source data assigned occupation to non-workers based on who "supported" them. OCC reports data only for economically active persons.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The 2002 sample uses the ISCO 1988 classification while the 2012 uses the ISCO 2008 classification.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The classifications differ significantly between samples.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

The data report the occupation of respondents who worked in the last 30 days, using a 1-digit ISCO classification.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

All samples asked the question to currently employed persons. However, the age universe differs across samples. The samples all use the same occupational coding scheme.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

This sample uses the 2-digit version of the 1988 ISCO classification system.

Comparability — Spain [top]

Retirees are included in the 1991 universe and excluded from the 1981, 2001, and 2011 samples. Therefore, there are significantly more persons with occupation responses in 1991 than in the other years. The classification scheme changes across samples.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

The sample uses the ISCO classification.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

The codes are consistent across samples, and use the ISCO classification to record present occupation. For confidentiality reasons, occupations with very small frequencies are suppressed in some years and not in others. All samples also have alternative occupation classifications in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The occupation coding structure is identical between 2002 and 2012, while these two samples are comparable to 1988. The data for all the Tanzania samples are based in the ISCO system, although the 1988 sample has no categories for technicians and operatives.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

The universe statement for age differs between the 1970-1980 samples and the 1990-2000 ones.

The classifications differ between samples, but all have the last year as the reference period.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The coding structure for the Trinidad and Tobago samples is largely comparable: the 1980 sample uses a classification based on ISCO 1968, while the 1990 and 2000 samples are based on ISCO 1988.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

All samples use the same classification.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

The samples use nearly identical classifications. They are fully comparable for major occupational groupings. However, the universe statement differs between samples.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

All samples have alternative occupation and socioeconomic variables. OCC uses the census occupation classification from the 1991 and 2000 Standard Occupational Classification for the 2001 sample. See the unharmonized variables for other versions.

Comparability — United States [top]

All samples are conceptually comparable. The main difference is in the universe statement with respect to age, armed forces, and experienced workers not in the labor force. The 1980 and 1990 samples use the same classification system, which differed considerably from the one used in the 1960 and 1970 samples. The 2000 sample uses yet another, substantially different, classification. The first three digits of the 2010 codes are comparable to those used in 2000; however, the 2010 sample includes a fourth digit, which adds an additional level of detail.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The 1963 and 1975 samples each use a unique classification scheme. The 1996 and 2006 samples use ISCO. The 1985 sample uses COTA 1970.

The timing of the occupation changes across samples. In 1963, persons reported their occupation on the day of the census; in 1975, 1985, and 2006, persons reported their occupation during the past week, whereas in 1996 people provided information about their occupation during the last month.

The universe differs across samples: the universe in 1963 was composed of persons aged 8 years and older in the labor force, for the 1975-1996 samples the universe includes persons aged 12 years or older who were employed or experienced unemployed, while in 2006 the occupation was reported by occupied persons aged 14 or older.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The universe statement differs across samples. The 1990 sample includes persons who worked in the previous year. The 1981 and 1990 samples, instead, use the same occupational coding scheme. OCC is not available for the 1971 sample because the documentation did not match the values in the data.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

The 1999 sample classified occupation in accordance with the 1988 ISCO system. The 2009 sample, instead, uses the 2008 ISCO system. The 1989 sample uses a radically different scheme that is non-hierarchical and highly industrial in character. In 1999, the question applied to persons who worked at least six of the previous twelve months. The 1989 and 2009 samples record the occupational status at the time of the census.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

The 1990 and 2000 samples use the ISCO 1968 classification system; the 2010 sample uses the ISCO 1988 classification system. The universe differs slightly across samples.

Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]

The 2012 sample uses the ISCO 1988 system.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Argentina 1980: Persons age 14+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Argentina 1991: Persons age 14+ who had a job last week
  • Argentina 2001: Persons age 14+ who had a job last week
  • Armenia 2011: Persons age 15 to 75 with a job
  • Austria 1971: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Austria 1981: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Austria 1991: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Austria 2001: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Belarus 1999: Persons age 15+ who had worked
  • Belarus 2009: Persons age 15+ who had worked
  • Benin 1979: Persons age 10+ in ordinary households who were employed or unemployed
  • Benin 1992: Persons age 10+ in ordinary households who were employed or unemployed
  • Benin 2002: Residents age 6+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Benin 2013: Resident persons age 6+ years who are employed or unemployed
  • Bolivia 1976: Persons age 7+ in the labor force
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons age 7+ who worked last week, and experienced unemployed
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons age 7+ who worked last week
  • Botswana 1981: Persons age 12+ who had worked
  • Botswana 1991: Persons age 12+ who had worked
  • Botswana 2001: Persons age 12+ who had worked
  • Botswana 2011: Persons age 12+ who had worked
  • Brazil 1960: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Brazil 1970: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Brazil 1980: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Brazil 1991: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Brazil 2000: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Burkina Faso 1985: Residents age 10+ in the labor force
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Residents age 6+ in the labor force
  • Cambodia 1998: Persons who work or have worked
  • Cambodia 2008: Persons who work or have worked
  • Cameroon 1976: Persons age 4+ who ever worked
  • Cameroon 2005: Residents of the household age 6+ who are working or have worked in the past
  • Canada 1971: Persons age 15+ last worked in the last year
  • Canada 1981: Persons age 15+ last worked in the last year
  • Canada 1991: Persons age 15+ last worked in the last year
  • Canada 2001: Persons age 15+ last worked in the last year
  • Canada 2011: Persons age 15+ last worked in the last year
  • Chile 1960: Persons age 12+
  • Chile 1970: Persons age 12+ who either worked, did not work but had a job, or were seeking work
  • Chile 1982: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Chile 1992: Persons age 14+, who worked, or have a job and did not work last week, or are looking for a job and worked in the past
  • Chile 2002: Persons age 15+ working or seeking work
  • China 1982: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • China 1990: Persons age 15+ in the labor force
  • China 2000: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Colombia 1964: Persons age 12+, with a job or experienced unemployed
  • Colombia 1973: Persons age 10+, with a job or experienced unemployed
  • Costa Rica 1973: Persons age 12+ who ever worked
  • Costa Rica 1984: Persons age 12+ who ever worked
  • Costa Rica 2000: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Costa Rica 2011: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Cuba 2002: Persons age 15+ who worked or had a job
  • Dominican Republic 1960: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Dominican Republic 1970: Persons age 10+ who were economically active
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Perons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Perons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Perons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Ecuador 1962: Persons age 12+ who were employed, unemployed or looking for a job
  • Ecuador 1974: Persons age 12+ who worked, did not work but had a job, or unemployed
  • Ecuador 1982: Persons age 12+ who worked, or did not work but were employed, or looked for work and had worked before
  • Ecuador 1990: Persons age 8+ who were employed, unemployed, or an unpaid worker
  • Ecuador 2001: Persons age 5+ that ever worked
  • Ecuador 2010: Persons age 5+ that ever worked
  • Egypt 1986: Persons age 15+ who were working or seeking work
  • Egypt 2006: Persons age 6+ who were economically active
  • El Salvador 1992: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Ethiopia 1984: Household residents age 10+ who ever worked
  • Ethiopia 1994: Persons age 10+ who worked or were experienced workers looking for work
  • Fiji 1976: Persons age 14+ in the labor force
  • Fiji 1986: Persons age 15+ who worked last week
  • Fiji 1996: Persons age 15+ who worked last week
  • Fiji 2007: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • France 1962: Employed persons age 14+
  • France 1968: Employed persons age 14+
  • France 1975: Employed persons age 16+
  • France 1982: Employed persons age 14+
  • France 1990: Employed persons age 14+
  • France 1999: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • France 2006: Employed persons age 14+
  • France 2011: Active employed persons
  • Germany 1970: Economically active persons age 15+
  • Germany 1981: Economically active persons age 14+
  • Germany 1987: Employed persons age 15+
  • Ghana 1984: Persons age 10+ who worked
  • Ghana 2000: Persons employed, unemployed, or had a job but did not work
  • Ghana 2010: Persons age 5+ who were economically active
  • Greece 1971: Persons age 10+ who were working or seeking work
  • Greece 1981: Persons age 10+ who were working or seeking work
  • Greece 1991: Persons age 10+ who were working or seeking work
  • Greece 2001: Persons age 10+ who were working or seeking work
  • Greece 2011: Persons who worked or were seeking work last week
  • Guinea 1983: Persons age 10+ who are employed or unemployed
  • Guinea 1996: Residents age 6+ employed or unemployed who are not seeking their first job
  • Haiti 1982: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Haiti 2003: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Honduras 1961: Persons age 10+ in the labor force or experienced unployed
  • Honduras 1974: Persons age 10+ in the labor force or experienced unployed
  • Honduras 1988: Persons age 10+ in the labor force or experienced unploye
  • Honduras 2001: Persons age 7+ in the labor force or experienced unploye
  • Hungary 1970: Employed persons age 14+
  • Hungary 1980: Economically active persons
  • Hungary 1990: Economically active persons
  • Hungary 2001: Economically active persons
  • Hungary 2011: Persons 15+ who ever worked
  • India 1983: Persons with a job last week
  • India 1987: Persons age 5+ employed last week
  • India 1993: Persons with a job last week
  • India 1999: Persons age 5+ employed last week
  • India 2004: Persons with a job last week
  • India 2009: Persons age 5+ employed last week
  • Indonesia 1971: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Indonesia 1976: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Indonesia 1980: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Indonesia 1985: Persons age 10+ who had a job
  • Indonesia 1990: Persons age 10+ who had a job
  • Indonesia 1995: Persons age 10+ who had a job
  • Indonesia 2005: Persons age 10+ who had a job
  • Iran 2006: Employed persons age 10+
  • Iran 2011: Employed persons age 10+
  • Iraq 1997: Persons age 6+ who were employed
  • Ireland 1971: Persons age 14+ in the labor force
  • Ireland 1981: Employed persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1986: Employed persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1991: Employed persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1996: Persons age 15+ who were working, experienced unemployed or retired
  • Ireland 2002: Non-absent persons age 15+ who were working, experienced unemployed or retired
  • Ireland 2006: Non-absent persons age 15+ who were working, experienced unemployed or retired
  • Ireland 2011: Non-absent persons age 15+ who were working, experienced unemployed or retired
  • Israel 1972: Persons age 14+ in the annual labor force
  • Israel 1983: Persons age 15+ in the annual labor force
  • Israel 1995: Persons age 15+ in the annual labor force
  • Italy 2001: Persons age 15+ who worked for pay
  • Italy 2011: Persons age 15+ who worked for pay
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons age 14+ in private households and selected group quarters, employed or experienced unemployed
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons age 14+ in private households or selected group quarters, in the labor force
  • Jamaica 2001: Persons age 14+ in the labor force
  • Jordan 2004: Persons age 15+ with a job
  • Kenya 1989: Persons age 10 or more who worked for pay or profit, on leave/sick leave, or working on family holdings during the last seven days
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Persons age 16+ who were working
  • Lesotho 1996: Persons age 10+ who are employed or job-seeking
  • Lesotho 2006: Persons age 10+ who are employed or experienced unemployed
  • Liberia 1974: Persons age 10+ who worked in the last year
  • Liberia 2008: Persons age 6+ who worked in the last year
  • Malawi 1987: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Malawi 1998: Persons age 10+ working or unemployed
  • Malawi 2008: Non-visitors age 6+ employed, subsistence worker, or experienced unemployed
  • Malaysia 1970: Persons age 10+ in labor force
  • Malaysia 1980: Persons age 10+ who are employed, or active unemployed
  • Malaysia 1991: Persons age 10+ who worked last week and those not working but have a job
  • Malaysia 2000: Persons age 10+ who worked for at least one hour during the last 7 days, and those not working but had a job to return to
  • Mali 1987: Economically active persons age 6+
  • Mali 1998: Economically active persons age 6+
  • Mali 2009: Economically active persons age 6+
  • Mexico 1960: All persons
  • Mexico 1970: Persons age 12+ who worked the previous year
  • Mexico 1990: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Mexico 1995: Persons age 12+ that worked the week before the census, or did not work but had a job
  • Mexico 2000: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Mexico 2010: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Mexico 2015: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Mongolia 2000: Persons age 15+ who worked last week
  • Morocco 1982: Persons who worked last week
  • Morocco 1994: Persons who worked last week
  • Morocco 2004: Employed and experienced unemployed persons
  • Mozambique 1997: Persons who worked or looked for a new job in the last week
  • Mozambique 2007: Residents age 7+ who worked or looked for a new job in the last week
  • Netherlands 1960: Persons who are economically active
  • Netherlands 1971: Persons who are economically active
  • Netherlands 2001: Persons who are economically active
  • Netherlands 2011: Persons who are economically active
  • Nicaragua 1971: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Nicaragua 1995: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Nigeria 2008: Persons age 10+ with a job
  • Nigeria 2009: Persons age 10+ with a job
  • Nigeria 2010: Persons age 5+ who worked last week
  • Pakistan 1973: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Palestine 1997: Persons age 10+ working or experienced unemployed
  • Palestine 2007: Persons age 7+ who were employed or experienced unemployed, except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: Non-indigenous person age 10+ in the labor force
  • Panama 1970: Persons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 10+ who worked or looked for work either last week or some time in the past (excluding retired persons)
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 10+ who are employed
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 10+ who were economically active
  • Papua New Guinea 1980:
  • Papua New Guinea 1990:
  • Papua New Guinea 2000:
  • Paraguay 1962: Persons age 12+ who were economically active
  • Paraguay 1972: Persons age 12+ who ever worked
  • Paraguay 1982: Economically active persons age 12+ excluding new workers
  • Paraguay 1992: Persons 10+ with a job or looking for work
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Peru 1993: Persons age 6+ with work or experienced and seeking work
  • Peru 2007: Persons age 6+ who worked last week
  • Philippines 1990: Persons age 10+ who are employed
  • Philippines 2000: Persons age 10+
  • Philippines 2010: Persons age 15+ who are employed
  • Poland 1978: Present persons who are economically active
  • Poland 1988: Persons who are economically active
  • Poland 2002: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Portugal 1981: Persons age 12+ who are employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 1991: Persons age 12+ who are employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 2001: Persons age 15+ who are employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 2011: Persons age 15+ who were economically active
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 14+ who worked within the last 10 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 10 years ago
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 16+ who worked within the last 5 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 5 years ago
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 16+ who worked within the last 5 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 5 years ago
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 16+ who worked within the last 5 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 5 years ago
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 16+ who worked within the last 5 years and persons seeking work who last worked more than 5 years ago
  • Romania 1992: Persons who are employed or seeking work not for the first time
  • Romania 2002: Persons who have at least one job
  • Romania 2011: Persons working during reference week or unemployed looking for another job
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors age 6+ who are employed or experienced unemployed
  • Rwanda 2012: Persons age 5+ who are working or the experienced unemployed
  • Saint Lucia 1991: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Senegal 1988: Employed persons age 6+
  • Senegal 2002: Employed persons age 6+
  • Sierra Leone 2004: Persons age 10+ who worked in the last 30 days
  • Slovenia 2002: Employed persons
  • South Africa 1996: Employed persons age 15+ in private households
  • South Africa 2001: Employed or economically active persons age 10+
  • South Africa 2007: Persons age 15 to 74 with a job, not in institutions
  • South Sudan 2008: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Spain 1981: Persons who work or have worked
  • Spain 1991: Persons who work or have worked
  • Spain 2001: Persons age 16+ who were working or studying last week
  • Spain 2011: Persons age 16+ who were working or were unemployed with previous work experience
  • Sudan 2008: Persons age 10+ employed or experienced unemployed
  • Switzerland 1970: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Switzerland 1980: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Switzerland 1990: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Switzerland 2000: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Tanzania 1988: Persons 10+ who are employed
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons age 5+ who worked last week
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons age 5+ who worked last week
  • Thailand 1970: Persons age 11+ who were employed
  • Thailand 1980: Persons age 11+ who were employed
  • Thailand 1990: Persons age 13+ who were employed
  • Thailand 2000: Persons age 13+ who were employed
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Turkey 1985: Persons age 12+ with a job last week
  • Turkey 1990: Persons age 12+ with a job last week
  • Turkey 2000: Persons age 12+ with a job last week
  • Uganda 1991: Persons age 10+
  • Uganda 2002: Persons age 5+ who are in labor force
  • United Kingdom 1991: Persons age 16+ who worked within last 10 years
  • United Kingdom 2001: Persons age 16 to 74 who are not non-resident students and have ever worked
  • United States 1960: Persons age 14+ who had worked within the previous ten years; not armed forces, not new workers (see note)
  • United States 1970: Persons age 14+ who had worked within the previous ten years; not armed forces, not new workers (see note)
  • United States 1980: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years; not armed forces, not new workers (see note)
  • United States 1990: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years; not new workers (see note)
  • United States 2000: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years; not new workers (see note)
  • United States 2005: Persons age 16+ with an occupation
  • United States 2010: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years; not new workers (see note)
  • United States 2015: Persons age 16+ who had worked within the previous five years; not new workers (see note)
  • Uruguay 1963: Persons 8+ in the labor force
  • Uruguay 1975: Persons 12+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons 12+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Uruguay 1996: Persons 12+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons age 14+ with a job
  • Venezuela 1981: Persons age 12+ who had a job at the time of the census, or during the year prior, or worked the previous week
  • Venezuela 1990: Employed persons and experienced unemployed, age 12+
  • Venezuela 2001: Persons age 10+ in the labor force in the past week
  • Vietnam 1989: Persons age 13+
  • Vietnam 1999: Persons age 13+ who worked at least six months in the previous twelve months
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 15+ who had a job
  • Zambia 1990: Persons age 12+ who were employed in the past year
  • Zambia 2000: Persons age 12+ who were employed in the past year
  • Zambia 2010: Present household members and visitors age 12+ who were employed in the past year
  • Zimbabwe 2012: Persons age 10+ who are economically active but not unemployed or looking for work

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001
  • Armenia: 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2008
  • Cameroon: 1976, 2005
  • Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • China: 1982, 1990, 2000
  • Colombia: 1964, 1973
  • Costa Rica: 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002
  • Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994
  • Fiji: 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1970, 1981, 1987
  • Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1982, 2003
  • Honduras: 1961, 1974, 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1989
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Netherlands: 1960, 1971, 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Poland: 1978, 1988, 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1991, 2001
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1963, 1975, 1975, 1985, 1985, 1996, 1996, 2006
  • Venezuela: 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012