Sampling Error Estimation

Table 2 summarizes IPUMS sample design characteristics, distinguishing between systematic and complex stratified samples (columns 1 and 2), samples of household and geographic clusters (columns 3 and 4), samples of individual person records (column 5), and samples that require differential weighting (column 6). For a description of sample design and standard error estimation, see the IPUMS Variance Estimation page. For more detailed information on sampling design, researchers should consult the documentation on the IPUMS Sample Descriptions page. Select column headings for more information and estimation recommendations.

Table 2: Sample Design Characteristics
Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Argentina 1970 2 X . . X . .
Argentina 1980 10 X . . X . X
Argentina 1991 10 X . . X . X
Argentina 2001 10 X . . X . .
Argentina 2010 10 X . . X . .
Armenia 2001 10 X . . X . .
Armenia 2011 10 X . . X . .
Austria 1971 10 X . . X . .
Austria 1981 10 X . . X . .
Austria 1991 10 X . . X . .
Austria 2001 10 X . . X . .
Austria 2011 10 X . . X . .
Bangladesh 1991 10 X . . X . .
Bangladesh 2001 10 X . . X . .
Bangladesh 2011 5 X . . X . .
Belarus 1999 10 X . . X . .
Belarus 2009 10 X . . X . .
Bolivia 1976 10 X . . X . .
Bolivia 1992 10 X . . X . .
Bolivia 2001 10 X . . X . .
Botswana 1981 10 X . . X . .
Botswana 1991 10 X . . X . .
Botswana 2001 10 X . . X . .
Botswana 2011 10 X . . X . .
Brazil 1960 5 X . . X . .
Brazil 1970 5 X . . X . X
Brazil 1980 5 X . . X . X
Brazil 1991 5.8 . X . X . X
Brazil 2000 6 . X . X . X
Brazil 2010 5 . X . X . X

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Burkina Faso 1985 10 X . . X . .
Burkina Faso 1996 10 X . . X . .
Burkina Faso 2006 10 X . . X . .
Cambodia 1998 10 . X . X . .
Cambodia 2008 10 X . . X . .
Cameroon 1976 10 X . . X . .
Cameroon 1987 10 X . . X . .
Cameroon 2005 10 X . . X . .
Canada 1971 1 . . . . X .
Canada 1981 2 . . . . X .
Canada 1991 3 . . . . X .
Canada 2001 2.5 . . . . X X
Canada 2011 2.7 . X . X . X
Chile 1960 1 . . . . X .
Chile 1970 10 X . . X . .
Chile 1982 10 X . . X . .
Chile 1992 10 X . . X . .
Chile 2002 10 X . . X . .
China 1982 1 X . . X . .
China 1990 1 . . X X . .
China 2000 1 X . . X . .
Colombia 1964 2 X . . X . .
Colombia 1973 10 X . . X . .
Colombia 1985 10 X . . X . X
Colombia 1993 10 X . . X . .
Colombia 2005 10 . X . X . X

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Costa Rica 1963 6 . . . . X .
Costa Rica 1973 10 X . . X . .
Costa Rica 1984 10 X . . X . .
Costa Rica 2000 10 X . . X . .
Costa Rica 2011 10 X . . X . .
Cuba 2002 10 X . . X . .
Dominican Republic 1960 6.6 . . . . X .
Dominican Republic 1970 6.8 . X . . X X
Dominican Republic 1982 8.5 . X . X . X
Dominican Republic 2002 10 X . . X . .
Dominican Republic 2010 10 X . . X . .
Ecuador 1962 3 . . . . X .
Ecuador 1974 10 . X . X . X
Ecuador 1982 10 X . . X . .
Ecuador 1990 10 X . . X . .
Ecuador 2001 10 X . . X . .
Ecuador 2010 10 X . . X . .
Egypt 1986 13.5 . . . X . X
Egypt 1996 10 . . . X . X
Egypt 2006 10 X . . X . .
El Salvador 1992 10 X . . X . .
El Salvador 2007 10 X . . X . .
Ethiopia 1984 10 X . . X . .
Ethiopia 1994 10 X . . X . X
Ethiopia 2007 10 X . . X . X

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Fiji 1966 10 X . . X . .
Fiji 1976 10 X . . X . .
Fiji 1986 10 X . . X . .
Fiji 1996 10 X . . X . .
Fiji 2007 10 X . . X . .
France 1962 5 X . . X . .
France 1968 5 X . . X . .
France 1975 5 X . . X . .
France 1982 5 X . . X . .
France 1990 4.2 . . X X . .
France 1999 5 . X . X . .
France 2006 33 . X X X . X
France 2011 33 X X . X . X
Germany 1970 5 X . . . X .
Germany 1971 25 X . . X . .
Germany 1981 25 X . . X . .
Germany 1987 5 X . . X . .
Ghana 1984 10 X . . X . .
Ghana 2000 10 X . . X . .
Ghana 2010 10 X . . X . .
Greece 1971 10 X . . X . .
Greece 1981 10 X . . X . .
Greece 1991 10 X . . X . .
Greece 2001 10 X . . X . .
Greece 2011 10 X . . X . .
Guinea 1983 10 X . . X . .
Guinea 1996 10 X . . X . .

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Haiti 1971 10 X . . X . .
Haiti 1982 2.5 X . . X . .
Haiti 2003 10 X . . X . .
Hungary 1970 5 X . . X . .
Hungary 1980 5 X . . X . .
Hungary 1990 5 X . . X . .
Hungary 2001 5 X . . X . .
Hungary 2011 5 X . . X . .
India 1983 0.09 . . X X . X
India 1987 0.09 . . X X . X
India 1993 0.07 . . X X . X
India 1999 0.07 . . X X . X
India 2004 0.06 . . X X . X
India 2009 0.04 . X . X . X
Indonesia 1971 0.5 . X X X . X
Indonesia 1976 0.2 . X X X . X
Indonesia 1980 5 . . X X . X
Indonesia 1985 0.4 . . X X . X
Indonesia 1990 0.5 . . X X . X
Indonesia 1995 0.4 . . X X . X
Indonesia 2000 10 X . . X . .
Indonesia 2005 0.5 . . X X . X
Indonesia 2010 10 X . . X . .
Iran 2006 2 . X . X . X
Iran 2011 2 . X . X . X
Iraq 1997 10 X . . X . X

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Ireland 1971 10 X . . X . .
Ireland 1979 10 X . . X . .
Ireland 1981 10 X . . X . .
Ireland 1986 10 X . . X . .
Ireland 1991 10 X . . X . .
Ireland 1996 10 X . . X . .
Ireland 2002 10 X . . X . .
Ireland 2006 10 X . . X . .
Ireland 2011 10 . . . X . .
Israel 1972 10 X . . X . .
Israel 1983 10 X . . X . .
Israel 1995 10 X . . X . .
Italy 2001 5 X . . X . .
Jamaica 1982 10 X . . X . .
Jamaica 1991 10 X . . X . .
Jamaica 2001 10 . . X X . X
Jordan 2004 10 X . . X . .
Kenya 1969 6 X . . X . X
Kenya 1979 6.7 . . . . X X
Kenya 1989 5 X . . X . .
Kenya 1999 5 X . . X . .
Kenya 2009 10 X . . X . .
Kyrgyz Republic 1999 10 X . . X . .
Kyrgyz Republic 2009 10 X . . X . .
Liberia 1974 10 . X . . X .
Liberia 2008 10 X . . X . .

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Malawi 1987 10 X . . X . .
Malawi 1998 10 X . . X . .
Malawi 2008 10 X . . X . .
Malaysia 1970 2 X . . X . .
Malaysia 1980 2 X . . X . .
Malaysia 1991 2 X . . X . .
Malaysia 2000 2 X . . X . .
Mali 1987 10 X . . X . .
Mali 1998 10 X . . X . .
Mali 2009 10 X . . X . .
Mexico 1960 1.5 . . . . X .
Mexico 1970 1 X . . X . .
Mexico 1990 10 X . . X . .
Mexico 1995 0.4 . . X X . X
Mexico 2000 10.6 . . X X . X
Mexico 2005 10 . X . X . .
Mexico 2010 10 . . X X . X
Mexico 2015 9.5 . . X X . X
Mongolia 1989 10 . . X X . X
Mongolia 2000 10 X . . X . .
Morocco 1982 5 X . . X . .
Morocco 1994 5 X . . X . .
Morocco 2004 5 X . . X . .
Mozambique 1997 10 X X . X . .
Mozambique 2007 10 X . . X . .
Nepal 2001 11 X . . X . .

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Netherlands 1960 1.2 . . . . X X
Netherlands 1971 1.2 . . . . X X
Netherlands 2001 1.2 . . . . X X
Nicaragua 1971 10 X . . X . .
Nicaragua 1995 10 X . . X . .
Nicaragua 2005 10 X . . X . .
Nigeria 2006-07 0.6 . X X X . X
Nigeria 2007-08 0.6 . X X X . X
Nigeria 2008-09 0.7 . X X X . X
Nigeria 2009-10 0.5 . X X X . X
Nigeria 2010-11 0.5 . X X X . X
Pakistan 1973 2 . . X X . X
Pakistan 1981 10 . . . . X X
Pakistan 1998 10 X . . X . .
Palestine 1997 10 X . . X . X
Palestine 2007 10 X . . X . X
Panama 1960 5 . X . X . .
Panama 1970 10 . . . X . .
Panama 1980 10 X . . X . X
Panama 1990 10 X . . X . .
Panama 2000 10 X . . X . .
Panama 2010 10 X . . X . .
Paraguay 1962 5 X . . X . .
Paraguay 1972 10 X . . X . .
Paraguay 1982 10 X . . X . .
Paraguay 1992 10 X . . X . .
Paraguay 2002 10 X . . X . X

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Peru 1993 10 X . . X . .
Peru 2007 10 X . . X . .
Philippines 1990 10 . . X X . X
Philippines 1995 10 X . . X . .
Philippines 2000 10 . . X X . X
Poland 1978 10 X . . X . .
Poland 1988 10 X . . X . .
Poland 2002 10 X . . X . .
Poland 2011 10 X . . X . .
Portugal 1981 5 X . . X . .
Portugal 1991 5 X . . X . .
Portugal 2001 5 X . . X . .
Portugal 2011 5 X . . X . .
Puerto Rico 1970 1 . X . X . .
Puerto Rico 1980 5 . X . X . .
Puerto Rico 1990 5 . X . X . X
Puerto Rico 2000 5 . X . X . X
Puerto Rico 2005 1 . X . X . X
Puerto Rico 2010 1 X . . X . X
Romania 1977 10 X . . X . .
Romania 1992 10 X . . X . .
Romania 2002 10 X . . X . .
Romania 2011 10 X . . X . .
Rwanda 1991 10 X . . X . .
Rwanda 2002 10 X . . X . .
Saint Lucia 1980 10 X . . X . .
Saint Lucia 1991 10 X . . X . .
Senegal 1988 10 X . . X . .
Senegal 2002 10 X . . X . .
Sierra Leone 2004 10 X . . X . .

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Slovenia 2002 10 X . . X . .
South Africa 1996 10 X . . X . X
South Africa 2001 10 X . . X . X
South Africa 2007 2 . . X X . X
South Africa 2011 8.6 X X . X . X
South Sudan 2008 7 . X X X . X
Spain 1981 5 . X . X . X
Spain 1991 5 X . . X . X
Spain 2001 5 X . . X . .
Spain 2011 10 X . . X . X
Sudan 2008 16.6 . X X X . X
Switzerland 1970 5 X . . X . .
Switzerland 1980 5 X . . X . .
Switzerland 1990 5 X . . X . .
Switzerland 2000 5 X . . X . .
Tanzania 1988 10 . . X X . X
Tanzania 2002 10 . . X X . X
Tanzania 2012 10 . X . X . X
Thailand 1970 2 . X . X . X
Thailand 1980 1 . X . X . X
Thailand 1990 1 . . X X . X
Thailand 2000 1 . . X X . X
Trinidad & Tobago 1970 10 X . . X . .
Trinidad & Tobago 1980 10 X . . X . .
Trinidad & Tobago 1990 10 X . . X . .
Trinidad & Tobago 2000 10 X . . X . .
Trinidad & Tobago 2011 8.8 X . . X . .
Turkey 1985 5 X . . X . .
Turkey 1990 5 X . . X . .
Turkey 2000 5 X . . X . .

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Sample Sample fraction (%) Systematic sampling Complex stratification Geographic clustering Household clustering Persons not organized into households Differential weighting
1 2 3 4 5 6
Uganda 1991 10 . . X X . X
Uganda 2002 10 X . . X . .
Ukraine 2001 10 X . . X . .
United Kingdom 1991 1 X . . X . .
United Kingdom 2001 3 . . . . X .
United States 1960 1 . X . X . .
United States 1970 1 . X . X . .
United States 1980 5 . X . X . .
United States 1990 5 . X . X . X
United States 2000 5 . X . X . X
United States 2005 1 . X . X . X
United States 2010 1 . X . X . X
Uruguay 1963 10 X . . X . .
Uruguay 1975 10 X . . X . .
Uruguay 1985 10 X . . X . .
Uruguay 1996 10 X . . X . .
Uruguay 2006 8.4 . X X X . X
Uruguay 2011 10 X . . X . .
Venezuela 1971 10 . X . X . X
Venezuela 1981 10 X . . X . .
Venezuela 1990 10 . X . X . X
Venezuela 2001 10 X . . X . .
Vietnam 1989 5 . X X X . X
Vietnam 1999 3 . X X X . X
Vietnam 2009 15 . X X X . X
Zambia 1990 10 X . . X . .
Zambia 2000 10 X . . X . .
Zambia 2010 10 X . . X . .

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Supported By

National Institutes of Health National Science Foundation Stat/Transfer University of Minnesota