Codes and Frequencies
YRSCHOOL indicates the highest grade/level of schooling the person had completed, in years. Only formal schooling is counted. YRSCHOOL accounts for the number of years of study, regardless of the track or kind of study. Information on degree and/or technical track is available in EDATTAIN. Years of schooling for Israel, categorized into intervals, are given in YRSCHOOL2.
Users should pay close attention to the top-codes in each sample, as discussed in the comparability section.
Comparability — Index
Comparability — General
YRSCHOOL is top-coded differently across samples, and this can present a serious comparability issue. Samples often report exact years of schooling through secondary school, but some have a maximum number or report only a terminal degree such as "university" or "some university."
In some samples the top codes significantly under-estimate the years of schooling of persons with post-secondary education. In samples that did not provide years of schooling above secondary, all post-secondary education is coded to a single value one year above completed secondary schooling. The affected samples are Bangladesh, Botswana 2001, Cambodia, Colombia 1993, Ethiopia, Fiji, Kenya, Honduras 1961, Hungary 1980 and 1990, Lesotho, Malaysia, Nepal, Nigeria, Peru, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda 2002, United States 2010-2015, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
The maximum top-code in any sample is 18+ years. The following samples have a top code of less than 18+ years:
12+: All Bangladesh (diploma), Colombia 1993, Honduras 1961, Hungary 1980-1990, all Peru, Papua New Guinea 1980, 2000, Philippines (technical)
13+: All Bangladesh (higher education) , Botswana 2001, all Cambodia, all Ethiopia, all Fiji, all Kenya, Laos 2005, all Lesotho, Malaysia 1980-1991, Nepal (university), all Nigeria, all South Africa, Sierra Leone (technical and tertiary), United States 2010-2015, all Zambia
14+: Philippines (university), Tanzania, Uganda 2002, Zimbabwe 2012
15+: Papua New Guinea 1990
16+: Brazil 1970, Indonesia 1976-1980, Uruguay 1963-1985, 2006 (technical and teaching)
17+: Argentina 2001, Benin 1979, Bolivia 2001, Botswana 1981-1991, Brazil 1960, 1980-2000, Colombia 2005, Haiti 1971, Indonesia 1985-1995 and 2005, Liberia 2008, Palestine, all Thailand, Uruguay 1963-1985, 2006 (university)
For most samples, years of schooling is inferred from the person's educational attainment, except for the following: Argentina 2001, Brazil 2000, Chile 1982,2002, Costa Rica 1973-2011, India 1983, all Jamaica, Saint Lucia 1980, Mexico 1960, 2000-2010, and Palestine 1997.
In cases where YRSCHOOL is calculated from information on level and grade within level, it is assumed that persons completed the average number of grades in earlier levels. For example, it is assumed that a person in the second year of university completed the modal number of years through secondary school for that sample.
Some samples reported either the person's highest grade completed or the current grade if they were still attending school. Whenever a person was attending a particular grade, we have assumed that the highest grade they had completed was one less than the grade they were currently attending. Persons currently attending school could conceivably have attained a higher level of education than indicated by their present level of study. Pre-school education is not counted.
There are several "not specified" categories containing responses that did not translate into a specific number of years of schooling. Adult literacy education is included among the unspecified categories.
Samples that did not give individual years of schooling at least through secondary school are not included in YRSCHOOL. This often is the case for developed countries. It is possible to approximate years of study for most of those samples using the country-specific educational variables, but that has been left to individual researchers. See the country-specific education variables such as EDUCBY, EDUCES, or EDUCHU.
Comparability — Argentina [top]
More than 7 years of primary is treated as 7 years. Secondary study begins at 8 years. Tertiary begins at 14 years. Persons with more than 6 years of secondary are coded to 14+ years, mixed in among persons with some tertiary education. Four or more years of university study is considered as university completed, so persons with post-graduate studies have 18+ years of schooling.
The top-code is 18+ for 1970-1991, 2010 and 17+ for 2001.
Comparability — Bangladesh [top]
"Training" is assumed to require completion of junior secondary (8 years of prior education) and to have 2 years of duration, thus it is coded to 10 years. "Diploma" is assumed to require the secondary school certificate (10 years of prior education) and to have 2 or more years of duration, thus it is coded to 12+ years. Class 11 is not separately identified by any sample, so YRSCHOOL does not include persons with 11 years. Higher education requires the higher secondary certificate or 12 years of prior education, hence people with bachelor, bachelor honors, or higher attainment are top-coded at 13+ years of schooling.
Comparability — Benin [top]
For all samples, we assumed that university studies require the completion of the upper secondary level. Thus, university starts after 13 years of prior study.
In 1992, persons who reported "Islamic school" did not provide their educational attainment in the formal system, so they are classified in "not specified" category.
Comparability — Bolivia [top]
Bolivia has 12 years of primary and secondary education in all samples, although the levels with the system changed over time.
In the 1976 and 1992 samples, technical education and teachers' school were not identified as upper secondary or post-secondary. Therefore, these individuals were classified as having technical education after primary, with precise years of schooling unknown.
Comparability — Botswana [top]
In 1981 and 1991, university education implies at least 12 years of prior study, including 7 years of primary, 3 years of junior secondary, and 2 years of senior secondary. For these two samples, the data are top-coded at 17+ years.
In 2001 and 2011, non-formal education is considered to be equivalent to formal primary, so it is classified starting at 1 year of schooling.
The 2001 sample did not provide individual years of schooling for vocational/technical or higher education. Students who completed 5-6 years of secondary (minimum required for university) and who pursued higher education are coded to 13+ years. Attendance to vocational/technical education can be identified using the unharmonized source variables for this sample, but was not used in YRSCHOOL.
The 2011 sample includes years of schooling for vocational and technical programs and more detail about university studies. Vocational and technical is assumed to start at 8 years; therefore, we effectively underestimate years of schooling for persons declaring vocational or technical education but who previously completed junior or senior secondary. Undergraduate programs start at 13 years of schooling and post-graduate degrees are coded at 17 years or more, assuming that completion of an undergraduate program entails 4 years of study.
Comparability — Brazil [top]
The Brazil samples identify years of schooling up to 17 or more. The Brazilian samples give a separate code for "adult literacy", which is assigned its own code among the unspecified categories.
For the Brazil 1980 and 1991 samples two sets of questions were used to infer years of schooling: grade currently attended for persons in school and grade completed for persons not in school. The information on the grade currently attended was used in those cases providing responses for both sets of questions.
The 2010 Brazil sample is not included in YRSCHOOL. The sample provides years of schooling for persons currently attending, but reports only degrees or grouped years for persons who have completed schooling. See the unharmonized source variables to access this information, and EDUCBR for harmonized educational attainment across samples.
Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]
University admission requires completion of the second cycle of secondary school, which implies 13 years of prior education.
Comparability — Cambodia [top]
The samples are comparable.
Years of schooling are calculated from educational attainment, which contains individual grades up to post-secondary, after which only certificates or degrees were given. Due to lack of specific year information above secondary, years of schooling is capped at 13+ years.
Years of schooling above primary may be overestimated due to changes in the educational system of Cambodia. Refer to EDUCKH for details on those changes.
In 2008, the technical/vocational pre-secondary diploma is coded a year above lower secondary, together with grade 10. Lower secondary education is a prerequisite for technical/vocational training.
Comparability — Cameroon [top]
The French and English education systems are separately identified in 1976 and 1987, so a 6-4-3 structure is used to calculate years of education for persons under the French-speaking system and a 7-5-2 structure for persons under the English-speaking system. These two parallel systems are coded together in the 2005 sample, so we assumed 6 years of prior education for persons declaring secondary.
In all samples, persons with post-secondary are considered to have 13 years of prior education. This may underestimate the total years of education for persons who studied in the English-speaking system. Technical studies were classified according to the expected years of prior education given their entry requirements. Teacher training could have varying entry requirements and duration of studies, so it was classified under "some tertiary."
The Cameroon 2005 census instructions required registering the current year attending for persons currently enrolled in school, thus appropriate adjustments were implemented in YRSCHOOL.
Comparability — Chile [top]
For 1960, 1970 and 1992, the various types of technical education begin after 6 years of primary study. University education is assumed to have completed 12 years of schooling in addition to years at university. Persons who studied at professional institutes or centers of technical education in 1992 are also assumed to have 12 years of prior study.
In 1970, some persons recorded primary, secondary, or tertiary study but not the actual number of years completed.
Comparability — Colombia [top]
The 1993 sample is top-coded differently than the other years, posing a substantial comparability issue. The 1993 census only reports that a person reached the university level, not the specific number of years of tertiary/post-tertiary education completed. Persons with any university education are coded as having 12+ years of schooling, implying that they had completed at least one year of tertiary education. The top-code in 2005 is 17+ years.
Persons with a response of "special education" or "fundamental education" in the 1964 sample are coded as having completed zero years of schooling.
Colombia has eleven years of school before university entrance. The first year of university is therefore coded as twelve years of schooling.
In 2005, teacher's training started in the 5th year of secondary and lasted for four years. Thus, it was coded as equaling 10 to 13 years of education.
Comparability — Costa Rica [top]
In 1963, we assume 6 years of primary and 5 years of secondary for the calculation of years of schooling. In other years, the census office calculated years of schooling and included it in the data.
Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]
In the 1960 sample, primary grade 7 is interpreted as grade 1 of intermediate; for this sample, there is no grade 2 of intermediate, so there are no persons having 8 years of schooling.
In the 2002 sample, one year of education was subtracted for persons currently enrolled in school, given that enumeration instructions required registering the current year attending for this group. Other samples for Dominican Republic recorded the last grade or year completed.
For all samples, we assumed university studies require the completion of the secondary level. Thus, university starts after 12 years of prior study.
Comparability — Ecuador [top]
In all years, post-secondary education begins after 12 years of study.
The 1962 census had a category for "special education," which was a type of technical education. We have assumed that years of special education happen after 6 years of primary. See EDUCEC for full details on educational attainment.
The 1990-2010 samples identify persons with university graduate education. To calculate years of schooling, we assumed 4 years of undergraduate education, the average number of years for persons who completed university.
In Ecuador 2010 one year of education was subtracted for persons currently enrolled in school, given that instructions required registering the current year attending for this group. Other Ecuador samples recorded the last grade or year completed.
Comparability — El Salvador [top]
El Salvador has a 9-3 system, comprising 9 years of primary and 2-3 years of secondary education. Thus, 12 years of prior schooling were assumed for post-secondary non-university, technical university, and university studies. Bachelor university degrees usually take 5 years of education, which is also the modal number of years for this level. Therefore, for El Salvador 2007 sample, masters and doctorate studies imply the completion of at least 12 plus 5 years of previous schooling.
Comparability — Fiji [top]
Each of the Fiji samples includes different types of technical, teacher, and higher education. For YRSCHOOL, we assumed these required completion of secondary (12 years of previous education), which may overestimate years of schooling for some categories of technical or teacher training. The Fiji samples are top-coded at 13+ years.
In the 1976, 1986, 1996, and 2014 samples, persons currently in school stated the grade they were attending. Therefore, one year of schooling is subtracted from persons in primary or secondary. Other forms of education were assigned to the top-code for these samples, so no deduction was implemented. The data for the 2007 are calculated from separate questions for persons currently attending and those who attended in the past. A similar adjustment was implemented for persons currently in school.
The 2014 sample has less detail available for persons who attended school in the past, who only report whether their highest level completed was primary (coded to 6 years), secondary (coded to 12 years), or tertiary education (sent to the top-code of 13 years). Therefore, years of schooling are effectively underestimated for persons currently not in school who had incomplete primary, secondary, or tertiary.
The 1966 Fiji sample is not included in YRSCHOOL. That sample does have a variable on years of schooling, but it is top-coded at 7+ years and was therefore deemed too dissimilar to include here. The data are available in the unharmonized source variable FJ1966A_0412.
Comparability — Ghana [top]
There was a change in educational system in 1987 affecting middle school and academic secondary school. Persons with attainment in these levels received their educations under the two different systems, depending on their age. The old system had 4 years of middle school and 7 years of secondary school. The new system replaced middle school with 3 years of JSS (Junior Secondary School) and secondary school with 3 years of SSS (Senior Secondary School).
For Ghana 1984, the educational attainment information is coded only under the old 6-4-7 system. Persons who completed upper secondary should have attained 17 years of schooling. However, year 7 of secondary education was not included in the original data, which suggests it may have been coded together with year 6. Therefore, persons with upper secondary completed are coded to 16 years of schooling, while those with post-secondary education to 18+ years.
For Ghana 2000, persons younger than age 30 are classified in the new system. Hence, this group has 6 years at the end of primary, 9 years at the end of lower secondary, 12 years at the end of academic or vocational secondary, on top of which additional education is added. Persons of 30+ years have 6 years at the end of primary, 10 years at the end of lower secondary, and 17 years at the end of secondary (the old system offered a unique upper secondary school).
For Ghana 2010, it is possible to separately identify persons who attended primary and secondary under the old 6-4-7 system or the new 6-3-3 system. We assume that persons younger than age 40 who declare vocational education had only 9 years or prior study (rather than 10) and those who declare post-secondary education had only 12 years of prior study (rather than 17). In addition, post-graduate studies require 4 years of prior university education.
Comparability — Guatemala [top]
The samples are comparable. Years of schooling are calculated from educational attainment, which contains individual grades up to post-secondary. Tertiary education (starting at 13 years) is defined by the enumeration instructions as university studies or those at higher-level technical schools. See EDUCGT for additional details.
Comparability — Guinea [top]
It should be noted that the length of primary and secondary education varies between the 1983 and 1996 samples. In the former, people graduated high school after 12 years, whereas in the latter, they did so after 13 years.
Since we cannot identify those individuals who went through the different educational systems, we assumed that 12 years of education were needed to begin post-secondary education. EDUCGN retains the full information in the separate samples.
Comparability — Haiti [top]
More than 6 years of primary is treated as 6 years. Technical and teacher training are considered as post-secondary technical, and higher education is equivalent to university studies. Therefore, we assume all these types of studies require 13 years of prior education.
In the 2003 sample, technical training is registered in a separate question as classes taken at a center for technical and professional formation. However, this question does not specify years within level, so this information could not be integrated for YRSCHOOL. This may underestimate years of schooling for persons with technical education.
The top-code for Haiti 1982 is 17+, and for Haiti 1971 and 2003 it is 18+ years.
Comparability — Honduras [top]
Higher education requires the completion of the upper cycle of secondary. In 1961, the data include up to 5 years of secondary and no disaggregated years of post-secondary, so YRSCHOOL is top-coded at 12+ years. In other samples, we assumed that higher education implies 12 years of prior study.
The implementation of the National Basic Curriculum is reflected in the source variable codes for the 2001 census. After this reform, primary education and the common cycle were merged to create a "basic education" level, which comprises a total of 9 grades. Thus, the last three grades of basic education are considered to be equivalent to the "common cycle."
Comparability — Hungary [top]
Years of schooling were not reported for post-secondary education. Because the number of years above secondary is unknown, the data for Hungary are top-coded at 12+ years.
The 1970 and 2001 samples have information on educational attainment, but it was not compatible with YRSCHOOL.
Comparability — India [top]
Only the 1983 sample contains information on years of schooling, interpreted as total years of formal education. The original variable caps the highest number of years of education at 30, but YRSCHOOL has a top code of 18.
Comparability — Indonesia [top]
Indonesia has a 6-3-3 system, which consists of 6 years of primary, 3 years of junior secondary, and 3 years of senior secondary school. In order to pursue a Diploma I/II, Academy/Diploma III, or University/Diploma IV we assume it is necessary to complete senior secondary school, which means 12 years of prior education.
All samples include a category for completion of level, which was assumed to be equivalent to the maximum expected (and usually modal) number of years for that level. Completion of Diploma I/II is equivalent to 2 additional years of schooling, Academy/Diploma III to 3 additional years of schooling, and University to 4 additional years of schooling. The number of years of schooling for each of these types of education was capped at the completion of level category. That is, Academy/Diploma III was capped at 3 years for Indonesia 1976-1990 and University was capped at 4 years for Indonesia 1976-1995, 2005. This translates into top-codes of 16+ years for Indonesia 1976 and 1980.
The Indonesia 1985-1995, 2005 samples identify whether a person reached the master or doctorate level, but not the specific number of years for each degree. Thus, persons with graduate studies are coded as having 17+ years of schooling, implying that they had completed 12 plus 4 years of prior education (primary, secondary, and undergraduate degree) and at least one additional year. The top-code for Indonesia 1985-1995, 2005 is 17+ years.
Comparability — Jamaica [top]
The universe is consistent across years apart from the exclusion of some group quarters in some years.
In 1982, responses indicating less than 7 years of schooling were originally reported in two-year ranges and are coded to the bottom of the range in this variable (e.g. 1-2 years of schooling is coded to 1 year). The 1982 sample is also top-coded at 11 or more years, whereas later samples are top-coded at 18 or more years.
The data distributions are highly inconsistent between samples despite the fact that in all years the variables stems from a census question specifically on years of schooling. See the frequencies on the codes page.
In all samples, years of schooling seem to include pre-school and likely overestimate total schooling relative to most other samples. Years of schooling appear particularly high for a large group of persons in the 2001 sample, but are reported here as they appear in the data.
Comparability — Kenya [top]
Kenya changed its educational system in 1985 from a 7-6 to an 8-4 structure, adding an extra year of primary school. However, responses in all Kenya samples include Standard 1 to 8 (primary) and Forms 1 to 6 (secondary), which do not exactly match either education system. Therefore, for YRSCHOOL we assume 8 years in primary are followed by secondary education. The data are top-coded at 13+ years, which includes Forms 5 and 6 and post-secondary education (given that censuses do not give detailed years of study above secondary).
In the Kenya 1979 sample, the Standard 7 and Standard 8 categories were reported as one combined category. In 2009, youth polytechnic is classified as "some technical after primary," given it requires at least primary but detailed years of study are not available.
The 1969 and 1989-2009 samples refer to education level completed, while the 1979 census asks only about the highest level reached. Therefore, one year of education was subtracted for persons currently in school in the 1979 census sample.
Comparability — Laos [top]
The 2005 sample provides information about the level and grade completed until upper secondary. Persons who completed the upper secondary level and who declare any vocational or higher education are sent to the top-code of 13+ years.
Comparability — Lesotho [top]
Persons who completed technical or vocational after primary were classified as having "some technical after primary," while those who completed technical or vocational after lower secondary were classified as having "some secondary."
The Lesotho samples did not provide individual years of schooling for post-secondary education. Students who completed upper secondary and who pursued either technical or university education are coded to 13+ years.
Comparability — Liberia [top]
In Liberia 2008, technical/vocational education is considered post-secondary technical, so it was classified under "some tertiary." For this sample, persons with university completed are coded to 16 years (i.e. they completed 12 plus 4 years of study), while those with post-graduate education are coded to 17+ years (i.e. they completed at least one additional year). The top-code for Liberia 2008 is 17+ years.
Comparability — Malawi [top]
Prior to 2008, the question was asked to all persons age 5+ years, but in 2008 it was asked to non-visitors age 3+ years.
Categories are fully comparable up to 12 years of schooling. After 12 years, persons with upper secondary education and those with university education are combined together depending on years completed in each level (e.g. Secondary Form 5 and Form 6 are combined together with year 1 and year 2 of university, respectively). Completion of "Ordinary" secondary education (Form 1-4) is the minimum requirement for entrance into university. In 2008, a new category of "other tertiary education" is included in the question and is coded together with university education.
In 2008, people who reported a higher secondary grade than "Form 6" are coded together with persons with "Form 6" education in order to conform to the educational system of Malawi.
Comparability — Malaysia [top]
Only the 1980 and 1991 samples provide information regarding years of schooling. Education in Malaysia includes 6 years of primary and 6 years of secondary education. Hence, people with college (post-secondary) education are top-coded at 13+ years of schooling.
Comparability — Mali [top]
In 1998, vocational education has alternative tracks with different entry requirements; therefore, 6 years of prior education were assumed if a primary school certificate [CEP] was required, 9 years if it was a fundamental studies diploma [DEF], and 12 years if it was a baccalaureate [BAC].
In 2009, vocational school does not specify entry requirements; thus, it is considered as a technical track of upper secondary, implying it requires 9 years or prior studies. This assumption may not properly reflect years of study for persons who pursued vocational education that required holding a primary school certificate [CEP] or a baccalaureate [BAC].
For university education and teachers' school, 12 years of prior education were assumed, since both require holding a baccalaureate [BAC] degree. The duration of university studies depend on the degree pursued, therefore 4 years of prior education (the modal number of years) were considered for people with graduate education.
Persons indicating that they attended vocational school with entry requirements CEP or DEF but without indication on the number of years were classified as having some technical education after primary. In the case of unknown years of study for vocational school with entry requirement BAC, teacher's school, university, or post-university they were classified as having some tertiary education. Finally, persons who completed Koranic schools were categorized as not specified.
Comparability — Mexico [top]
YRSCHOOL is top-coded at 18+ years, although a few respondents claimed more years of university study.
In 1970-1995 and 2015, years of schooling is inferred from separate information on level of study and year within level.
Comparability — Morocco [top]
The Morocco 1982 sample follows a 5-4-3 system, while the Morocco 1994 and 2004 samples have a 9-3 structure. Under either system, post-secondary education implies 12 years of prior study.
Comparability — Nepal [top]
Since the School Leaving Certificate (SLC) implies only passing an examination but not additional years of education, those with SLC as their highest educational attainment are classified as completing class 10.
The 2001 and 2011 census report the level of education reached after class 10 but without indication of the number of years attained. Persons with intermediate / higher secondary or with technical education (degrees administered by the CTEVT, Medical assistant, or Sub-overseer) are coded as having 11+ years of study, while persons with a bachelor's, master's or Ph.D. degree are coded as having 13+ years of study. The distinction is associated with the different requirements for each level: class 10 or SLC examination are usually required for technical studies, but university studies begin after completing intermediate / higher secondary.
Comparability — Nicaragua [top]
Nicaragua has a 6-5 system, consisting of 6 years of primary and 5 years of secondary school. Therefore, post-secondary technical or university in Nicaragua 1971 and university in Nicaragua 1995 and 2005 have 11 years of prior education (which coincides with the model number of years for secondary). For the 1995 and 2005 Nicaragua samples basic technical requires at least primary (6 years of prior education), mid-level technical at least year 3 of secondary (9 years of prior education), and advanced technical complete secondary (11 years of prior education). The literacy programs in Nicaragua 1995 are coded under adult literacy.
Comparability — Nigeria [top]
In Nigeria 2010, "lower 6" refers to 6 years, "modern schooling" to 9 years, and "upper 6" to 12 years of education, all of these under the old education system. For this sample, persons with Quranic education were categorized as not specified, those with adult education as having "some primary", while those with teacher or vocational/technical training as having "some secondary".
For all samples, the General Certificate of Education (GCE) Advanced level, the National Diploma (ND), the National Certificate of Education (NCE), and polytechnic/professional education are considered as post-secondary technical education. Thus, these categories are top-coded as 13+, which is a year above completion of senior secondary.
Comparability — Palestine [top]
Palestine reports a maximum of 17 years of schooling.
Comparability — Panama [top]
With 6 years of primary, 6 years of secondary, people have 12 years of education at the end of pre-tertiary education. Vocational education is interpreted as a technical track of lower secondary, so it implies 6 years or prior education. All years report individual years of study at the college level, to a top-code of 18+ years.
Comparability — Papua New Guinea [top]
The Papua New Guinea samples 1980 and 2000 did not provide individual years of schooling for post-secondary education, thus they are top-coded at 12+ years. The 1990 sample provides additional detail for post-secondary and is top-coded at 15+ years of schooling.
Comparability — Philippines [top]
The Philippines samples reported various numbers of years of study for post-secondary degrees. To facilitate comparisons, we capped the years of study for each degree type as follows: training or associate degrees at 2 years (a total of 12 years of education); bachelor's degrees or higher at 4 years (a total of 14 years).
Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]
The 1990, 2000, and 2005 censuses asked for "educational attainment" rather than specific years of schooling. YRSCHOOL is therefore not available for those Puerto Rico samples, but see EDATTAIN and EDUCPR.
Comparability — Rwanda [top]
Primary schooling is considered to be 6 years, although some persons reported 7 or more. Secondary school is years 7 to 12. Post-secondary schooling starts at 13 years.
Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]
Only the 1980 sample provides information on years of schooling, but the first 6 years of education are coded in pairs (1-2, 3-4, and 5-6) not year by year. Persons in these groups are coded to the lower value of the interval. The variable is top-coded at 11+ years.
Comparability — Senegal [top]
Persons with higher education were assumed as having 13 years of prior education, since a baccalaureate degree is required.
Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]
Years of schooling may be underestimated for some persons with post-primary education. Secondary education was originally reported in 3-year ranges and is coded to the bottom level in the range. Years of schooling for persons with vocational training (including nursing) are coded above the minimum requirement of junior secondary education.
Technical post-secondary and university education are top-coded at 13+ years which is a year above the minimum requirement of senior secondary education.
Koranic school is classified under "not specified."
Comparability — South Africa [top]
None of the samples indicate years of post-secondary education, so all such persons are coded to 13+ years. Person without a diploma with claim the equivalent of 12 years of schooling are coded to 11 years. See EDUCZA for full details on educational attainment.
Comparability — Tanzania [top]
Primary is considered to be 7 years, although some persons reported more. Secondary is years 8 to 13. Years of post-secondary education are not given, so the data are top-coded at 14+ years. Training after secondary education is classified as having "some tertiary" education.
Comparability — Thailand [top]
In 1970, the vocational junior level begins at 5 years, since this corresponds to primary vocational. The vocational senior and higher vocational levels in 1970 and 1980 are classified as equivalent to lower and upper secondary vocational in 1990 and 2000.
The secondary level has a maximum number of 5 years in the general track in 1970 and 1980. Therefore, for purposes of comparability, the tertiary level begins at 13 years for all samples. Persons with 6 years of secondary education are mixed with persons with 1 year of tertiary education.
In 1970, 1980, and 1990 there are several teacher training alternatives at the secondary level, but none of them indicate number of years of education. All these teacher training categories are classified as having "some secondary" education.
Bachelor degrees usually require 4 years for completion. Therefore, persons with master's or Ph.D. degrees are assumed to have 4 years of undergraduate education and are classified as having 17+, which is the top code for years of schooling in Thailand.
In 1990, some persons report post-secondary vocational degrees but only some indicate numbers of years of education. If these are not indicated, the post-secondary vocational degrees are classified as having "some tertiary" education.
In 1990 and 2000, some persons report having religious education, but only in 1990 are equivalences identified with a grade and level in non-religious education. Thus, for the latter case, persons are classified according to the corresponding equivalence; otherwise, they were classified as "not specified."
Comparability — Togo [top]
The education in Togo has a 6-4-3 or 6-4-2 system, including six years of primary, four years of a first cycle of secondary (leading to the BEPC), and two to three years of a second cycle of secondary (leading to a baccalaureate). The short cycle of professional training, long cycle of professional training, and the professional school are assumed to start after the first cycle of secondary, with 10 years or prior education. Higher education is assumed to start after completing the second cycle of secondary, with 13 years of prior education.
Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]
Trinidad and Tobago has a 7-3-2 education system, with 7 years of primary, 3 years of junior secondary, and 2 years of senior secondary. Some students may opt to continue for 2 additional years of secondary, which are for university preparation.
Primary is coded to 1-7 years and secondary to 8-14 years. Post-secondary education is considered to start after 12 years of schooling, which include 7 years of primary and only 5 years of secondary.
Comparability — Uganda [top]
The Ugandan education system has 7 years of primary, followed by either 3 years of junior secondary or 6 years of senior secondary. After that, there are 5 years of university (for 1991). The 2002 sample lacks years of post-secondary education, so the data are capped at 14+ years for all post-secondary study.
Comparability — United States [top]
In 1980, persons who had passed a high school equivalency examination (GED) were to indicate that they had completed twelve years of school.
The 1990, 2000, and 2005 censuses asked for "educational attainment" (degree or milestone) rather than specific years of schooling. YRSCHOOL is therefore not available for those U.S. samples, but see EDATTAIN and EDUCUS.
The 2010 and 2015 samples indicate detailed years within level only up to grade 12 but not for post-secondary education. Therefore, the top-code for the U.S. 2010-2015 is 13+.
Comparability — Uruguay [top]
There are notable differences in the universe and in the number of cases recorded as "unknown" for education variables across samples from Uruguay. In particular, samples prior to 1996 record information for people age 6 and older, 1996 records information for people age 3 and older, and 2006 for all people.
Uruguay has a 6-3-3 system, consisting of 6 years of primary, 3 years of the first secondary cycle, and 3 years of the second secondary cycle. Thus, all types of post-secondary technical/teaching or university studies are assumed to require the completion of 12 years of prior education.
The Uruguay 1975 and 1985 include a category for completion of level, which was assumed to be equivalent to the maximum expected number of years for that level. Completion of technical/teaching studies is equivalent to 4 additional years of schooling and university education is equivalent to 5 additional years of schooling. The number of years of schooling for each of these types of education was capped at the completion of level category. That is, in all samples, post-secondary technical/teaching was capped at 4 years and university at 5 years. This translates into top-codes of 16+ years for post-secondary technical/teaching and 17+ for university studies for the Uruguay 1963-1985, 2006 samples.
In the Uruguay 1963 sample, the technical degrees that do not include the number of years completed within level are coded as "some tertiary". In the Uruguay 1975 and 1985 samples other schooling should include mostly post-secondary technical education, but this is not explicitly stated in the enumeration instructions. Therefore, these cases are classified as "not specified". In the Uruguay 2006 sample, graduate school (masters or doctorate studies) is assumed to require 12 years of primary and secondary plus 5 years of university (the expected number of undergraduate years).
Comparability — Venezuela [top]
In all years, post-secondary education begins after 12 years of study.
The 2001 census identifies "special education," which refers to education especially designed to serve segments of the population who suffer from a disability. This was identified separately from regular education.
Comparability — Vietnam [top]
The treatment of post-secondary education is not consistent across samples. The Vietnam 1989 and 1999 census only reports specific years of schooling for general school (grades 1 through 12). For these samples, we have assigned persons with college or post-graduate degrees a minimum number of years of schooling appropriate to that level of study, assuming 12 years through secondary. Persons with post-secondary education are coded to 18 years in 1989, while undergraduates are coded to 13 years. The Vietnam 2009 census reports specific years of schooling for primary, secondary, and tertiary education.
The modal number of years for completing education shifts from 8 years in 1989-1999 to 9 years in 2009.
Comparability — Zambia [top]
Post-secondary education comprises the following categories: General Certificate of Education (GCE) Advanced level or undergraduate, certificates or diplomas, bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees. Thus, these categories are top-coded at 13+ which is a year above completion of grade 12.
Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]
The 2012 sample does not provide information about the number of years in post-secondary education. Students who pursued any post-secondary education are top-coded at 14+.
- Argentina 1970: Persons age 5+
- Argentina 1980: Persons age 5+
- Argentina 1991: Persons age 3+
- Argentina 2001: Persons age 3+
- Argentina 2010: Persons age 3+
- Bangladesh 1991: Persons age 5+
- Bangladesh 2001: Persons age 6+
- Bangladesh 2011: Persons age 7+
- Benin 1979: Persons age 6+
- Benin 1992: Persons age 3+ in private households
- Benin 2002: Residents age 3+
- Benin 2013: Persons age 3+
- Bolivia 1976: Persons age 5+
- Bolivia 1992: Persons age 6+
- Bolivia 2001: Persons age 4+
- Botswana 1981: Present residents age 5+
- Botswana 1991: Persons age 5+
- Botswana 2001: Persons age 2+ except institutionalized non-residents
- Botswana 2011: Persons age 2+ except institutionalized non-residents
- Brazil 1960: Persons age 5+
- Brazil 1970: Persons age 5+
- Brazil 1980: Persons age 5+
- Brazil 1991: Persons age 5+
- Brazil 2000: Persons age 6+
- Burkina Faso 1985: Residents age 10+
- Cambodia 1998: All persons
- Cambodia 2004: All persons
- Cambodia 2008: All persons
- Cambodia 2013: All persons
- Cameroon 1976: Persons age 4+
- Cameroon 1987: Persons age 3+
- Cameroon 2005: Persons age 3+
- Chile 1960: Persons age 5+
- Chile 1970: Persons age 5+
- Chile 1982: Persons age 5+
- Chile 1992: Persons age 5+
- Chile 2002: Persons age 5+
- Colombia 1964: Persons age 5+
- Colombia 1973: Persons age 5+
- Colombia 1985: Persons age 5+
- Colombia 1993: Persons age 5+
- Colombia 2005: Persons age 3+
- Costa Rica 1963: Persons age 7+
- Costa Rica 1973: Persons age 6+
- Costa Rica 1984: Persons age 5+
- Costa Rica 2000: Persons age 5+
- Costa Rica 2011: All persons
- Dominican Republic 1960: All persons
- Dominican Republic 1970: Persons age 5+
- Dominican Republic 1981: Persons age 5+
- Dominican Republic 2002: Persons age 3+
- Dominican Republic 2010: Persons age 3+
- Ecuador 1962: Persons age 6+
- Ecuador 1974: Persons age 6+
- Ecuador 1982: Persons age 6+
- Ecuador 1990: Persons age 6+
- Ecuador 2001: Persons age 5+
- Ecuador 2010: Persons age 5+
- El Salvador 1992: Persons age 5+
- El Salvador 2007: Persons age 5+
- Ethiopia 1984: Residents age 5+
- Ethiopia 1994: Residents age 5+
- Ethiopia 2007: Long form respondents
- Fiji 1976: All persons
- Fiji 1986: All persons
- Fiji 1996: All persons
- Fiji 2007: All persons
- Fiji 2014: All persons
- Ghana 1984: Persons age 5+ who attended primary school or above
- Ghana 2000: Persons age 3+
- Ghana 2010: Persons age 3+
- Guatemala 1964: Persons age 7+
- Guatemala 1973: Persons age 7+
- Guatemala 1981: Persons age 7+
- Guatemala 1994: Persons age 7+
- Guatemala 2002: Persons age 7+
- Guinea 1983: Persons age 6+, not absent residents
- Guinea 1996: Household residents age 6+
- Haiti 1971: Persons age 5+
- Haiti 1982: Persons age 6+
- Haiti 2003: Persons age 5+
- Honduras 1961: Persons age 5+
- Honduras 1974: Persons age 6+
- Honduras 1988: Persons age 5+
- Honduras 2001: Persons age 5+
- Hungary 1980: Persons age 7+
- Hungary 1990: Persons age 7+
- India 1983: All persons
- Indonesia 1976: All persons
- Indonesia 1980: All persons
- Indonesia 1985: Persons age 5+
- Indonesia 1990: Persons age 5+
- Indonesia 1995: Persons age 5+
- Indonesia 2005: Persons age 5+
- Jamaica 1982: Persons age 4+ in private households and some group quarters
- Jamaica 1991: Persons age 4+ in private households and some group households
- Jamaica 2001: Persons age 4+
- Kenya 1969: All persons
- Kenya 1979: Persons age 5+
- Kenya 1989: Persons age 6+
- Kenya 1999: Persons age 5+
- Kenya 2009: Persons age 3+
- Laos 2005: Persona age 6+
- Lesotho 1996: Persons age 5+
- Lesotho 2006: Persons age 2+
- Liberia 1974: Persons age 5+
- Liberia 2008: Persons age 5+
- Malawi 1987: Persons age 5+
- Malawi 1998: Persons age 5+
- Malawi 2008: Non-visitors age 3+
- Malaysia 1980: All persons
- Malaysia 1991: All persons
- Mali 1998: Persons age 6+
- Mali 2009: Persons age 3+
- Mexico 1960: Persons age 6+
- Mexico 1970: Persons age 6+
- Mexico 1990: Persons age 5+
- Mexico 1995: Persons age 5+
- Mexico 2000: Persons age 5+
- Mexico 2005: Persons age 5+
- Mexico 2010: Persons age 3+
- Mexico 2015: Persons age 3+
- Morocco 1982: All persons
- Morocco 1994: All persons
- Morocco 2004: All persons
- Nepal 2001: Persons age 6+
- Nepal 2011: Persons age 5+
- Nicaragua 1971: Persons age 6+
- Nicaragua 1995: Persons age 5+
- Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 5+
- Nigeria 2006: All persons
- Nigeria 2007: All persons
- Nigeria 2008: All persons
- Nigeria 2009: All persons
- Nigeria 2010: Persons age 5+
- Palestine 1997: Persons age 5+
- Panama 1960: Persons age 7+ not in indigenous groups
- Panama 1970: Persons age 6+
- Panama 1980: Persons age 4+
- Panama 1990: Persons age 5+
- Panama 2000: Persons age 4+
- Panama 2010: Persons age 4+
- Papua New Guinea 1980: Persons age 5+
- Papua New Guinea 1990: Persons age 5+
- Papua New Guinea 2000: Persons age 5+
- Paraguay 1962: Persons age 7+
- Paraguay 1972: Persons age 7+
- Paraguay 1982: Persons age 7+
- Paraguay 1992: Persons age 5+
- Peru 1993: Persons age 5+
- Peru 2007: Persons age 3+
- Philippines 1990: Persons age 5+
- Philippines 1995: Persons age 5+
- Philippines 2000: Persons age 5+
- Philippines 2010: Persons age 5+
- Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 3+
- Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 3+
- Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 3+
- Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors age 6+
- Rwanda 2012: Persons age 3+
- Saint Lucia 1980: All persons
- Senegal 1988: Persons age 6+
- Senegal 2002: Persons age 3+
- Sierra Leone 2004: Persons age 6+
- South Africa 1996: Persons age 5+
- South Africa 2001: Persons age 5+
- South Africa 2007: Persons age 5+ not in institutions
- South Africa 2011: Persons age 5+ in private households
- Tanzania 1988: Persons age 5+
- Tanzania 2002: Persons age 5+
- Tanzania 2012: Persons age 4+
- Thailand 1970: Persons age 5+
- Thailand 1980: Persons age 5+
- Thailand 1990: Persons age 5+
- Thailand 2000: Persons age 5+
- Togo 2010: Persons age 3+
- Trinidad and Tobago 1980: All persons
- Trinidad and Tobago 1990: All persons
- Trinidad and Tobago 2000: All persons
- Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago
- Uganda 1991: Persons age 5+
- Uganda 2002: Persons age 5+
- United States 1960: Persons age 5+
- United States 1970: Persons age 3+
- United States 1980: All persons
- United States 2010: Persons age 3+
- United States 2015: Persons age 3+
- Uruguay 1963: Persons age 6+
- Uruguay 1975: Persons age 6+
- Uruguay 1985: Persons age 6+
- Uruguay 1996: Persons age 3+
- Uruguay 2006: All persons
- Venezuela 1971: Persons age 5+
- Venezuela 1981: Persons age 5+
- Venezuela 1990: Persons age 3+
- Venezuela 2001: Persons age 3+
- Vietnam 1989: Persons age 5+
- Vietnam 1999: Persons age 5+
- Vietnam 2009: Persons age 5+
- Zambia 1990: Persons age 5+
- Zambia 2000: Persons age 5+
- Zambia 2010: Present members and visitors 5+
- Zimbabwe 2012: Persons age 3+
- Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
- Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
- Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
- Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
- Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
- Burkina Faso: 1985
- Cambodia: 1998, 2004, 2008, 2013
- Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
- Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
- Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
- Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
- Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
- Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
- El Salvador: 1992, 2007
- Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
- Fiji: 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007, 2014
- Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
- Guatemala: 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994, 2002
- Guinea: 1983, 1996
- Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
- Honduras: 1961, 1974, 1988, 2001
- Hungary: 1980, 1990
- India: 1983
- Indonesia: 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005
- Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
- Kenya: 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009
- Laos: 2005
- Lesotho: 1996, 2006
- Liberia: 1974, 2008
- Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
- Malaysia: 1980, 1991
- Mali: 1998, 2009
- Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
- Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
- Nepal: 2001, 2011
- Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
- Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
- Palestine: 1997
- Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
- Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000
- Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
- Peru: 1993, 2007
- Philippines: 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
- Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 2010
- Rwanda: 2002, 2012
- Saint Lucia: 1980
- Senegal: 1988, 2002
- Sierra Leone: 2004
- South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
- Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
- Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
- Togo: 2010
- Trinidad and Tobago: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
- Uganda: 1991, 2002
- United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 2010, 2015
- Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006
- Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
- Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
- Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
- Zimbabwe: 2012