Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart
EDATTAIN
Educational attainment, international recode

Codes and Frequencies




Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Description

EDATTAIN records the person's educational attainment in terms of the level of schooling completed (degree or other milestone). The emphasis on level completed is critical: a person attending the final year of secondary education receives the code for having completed lower secondary only -- and in some samples only primary.

EDATTAIN does not necessarily reflect any particular country's definition of the various levels of schooling in terms of terminology or the number of years of schooling. EDATTAIN is an attempt to merge -- into a single, roughly comparable variable -- samples that provide degrees, ones that provide actual years of schooling, and those that have some of both. In addition to EDATTAIN, a country-specific education classification is provided which loses no information and reflects the particular educational system of that country (for example EDUCBR for Brazil, EDUCCL for Chile, and EDUCUS for the United States). As always, users can refer to the original education source variables for each sample, if they wish.

Many samples also give single years of schooling completed, recorded in YRSCHOOL. Some samples provide educational information in a form that could not be incorporated into EDATTAIN.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Austria
Bangladesh
Belarus
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Fiji
France
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guinea
Haiti
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Jordan
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Liberia
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mexico
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Pakistan
Palestine
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Romania
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovenia
South Africa
South Sudan
Spain
Sudan
Switzerland
Tanzania
Thailand
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia

Comparability — General

The first digit of EDATTAIN -- denoting less than primary, primary, secondary, or tertiary education -- is largely comparable across countries. The second and third digits retain details such as differing years of primary schooling, technical versus general study tracks, and different types of degrees earned.

To create a consistent standard across countries, we applied the United Nations standard of six years of primary schooling, three years of lower secondary schooling, and three years of higher secondary schooling. It was not possible to sustain these distinctions consistently across all samples because of differing national educational systems. The second and third digits of EDATTAIN account for most such differences.

For samples in which only individual years of study were reported, we grouped those years according to the 6-3-3 classification. Where individual years of study were not available and a country had a primary system of 5 years, this is noted with a distinct detailed code. A few countries had a 4-year primary system, which for international comparability gets a distinct code under "less than primary."

In countries specifying only degrees and not years of study, we classified the degree into one of the existing categories. If the number of years to attain a degree did not precisely fit our system, we coded the degree into the highest available category that was lower than the years of study typical for the degree in question.

A number of countries revised their educational systems at some point. In those countries, different age cohorts may have experienced systems where degrees and educational thresholds required varying numbers of years of schooling. IPUMS does not try to correct for this cohort education distortion within samples. Users should take note and apply their own solution if accounting for such changes is critical for their research.

Some countries have an age universe for EDATTAIN that excludes most persons currently in school.

The contents of various categories are described below:

No schooling -- Means no formal grade levels were completed, but it includes pre-school and kindergarten.

Some primary completed -- Includes adult education and literacy classes, where those are identified.

Primary (4 yrs) -- Indicates completion of a four-year system of primary study. For international comparability, it is coded within "less than primary."

Primary (5 yrs) -- Indicates completion of a five-year system of primary study in Bangladesh, Belarus, Colombia, Nepal, and Spain 1981.

Primary (6 yrs) -- Indicates six years of study; the international standard for EDATTAIN.

Lower secondary -- Means completion of nine to eleven years of study. It is divided into technical and general study tracks. The general track allows continuing study at higher levels; technical degrees are terminal.

Secondary study -- Has detailed categories for some college study and (less frequently) technical degrees. Post-secondary technical education is classified under secondary study to distinguish it from a university degree. The post-secondary technical category includes both persons pursuing a degree and those who have graduated.

University completed -- University degrees are not distinguished in all samples. When a sample reported only the number of years of university study, we considered completion of four or more years to equal a university degree. Persons with fewer than four years of university study are coded "secondary, some university."

Comparability — Argentina [top]

In 1993 there was an educational reform that modified the 7-5 (primary and secondary) to a 9-3 structure (general basic education and multidisciplinary). In 2006, a further reform substituted the 9-3 system and allowed education jurisdictions to organize either under a 6-6 or a 7-5 structure (primary and secondary).

Argentina's 7-year primary system is coded as "primary (6)." Completion of lower secondary implies 9 to 11 years of education, but it includes different grades depending on which education system the person attended. The 1970 and 1980 samples identify both general and technical secondary tracks. Completed secondary is 5 or 6 years, according to the correspondent system. In the 2010 sample, special education is coded as less than primary. Four or more years of university study is classified as university completed; less than four years is coded as "some university."

Comparability — Armenia [top]

During the 2000's, Armenia changed its education system structure from a 3-5-2 to a 4-5-3 (for more details, see EDUCAM). Armenia's 3-year or 4-year primary education is coded to "less than primary" for international comparability. The 8-year or 9-year "basic" level is coded to lower secondary, thus no internationally comparable 6-year primary level is identified. Secondary school indicates 10 to 12 years of schooling.

Comparability — Austria [top]

Austria does not report years of education, only levels. In 2011, the source variable for educational attainment is derived from the highest level completed based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) categories, which creates some differences for EDATTAIN with respect to previous samples.

Only the 2011 Austria sample identifies persons with primary education, while none of the available samples distinguishes persons with less than primary school. Compulsory secondary school entails 9 years of education and is classified as lower secondary completed. Given its compulsory nature and the fact that the age universe excludes people likely to be attending primary or lower secondary, it is plausible to assume that most people actually completed at least lower secondary. This assumption is explicitly stated in the Austria enumeration instructions for the 1971-1991 samples. In 2011, it is possible to verify that only a small proportion of persons below the age of 65 years old declare primary education as their highest level attained (3% of cases on average).

Higher technical/vocational, intermediate technical/vocational, and apprenticeships are considered as upper secondary technical. None of these categories for upper secondary technical are represented in Austria 2011. Both post-secondary technical/vocational courses and (academic non-university) intermediate degrees are coded as post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

Bangladesh has a 5-3-2-2 system, comprising 5 grades of primary, 3 years of junior secondary, 2 years of secondary, and 2 years of higher secondary. Primary education is coded as primary completed (5 years). Students holding a secondary school certificate (SSC), a higher secondary certificate (HSC), or equivalent degrees are classified as having completed secondary education. Training is considered as a technical track of upper secondary and diploma as post-secondary technical education. The 2011 sample does not identify technical education.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

Belarus does not report years of education, only level of education and whether it was completed. Belarus has a 5-year primary education system, and lower secondary is not identified. The vocational-technical secondary is considered a secondary technical degree, while the specialized secondary is classified as post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The educational system in Bolivia changed dramatically across the samples. In 1976, two educational systems were recorded. The old system had 6-6 years, split between primary and secondary. The new system had 5-3-4 years of basic, lower middle, and middle education. In 1992, the prevailing system was the 5-3-4 system. The 2001 census recorded persons in either the old 5-3-4 system or the new 8-4 year system, split between primary and secondary education.

Everyone with 5 years of schooling in the 5-3-4 system is coded as "primary (5 years)." Otherwise, 6 to 8 years of schooling in each sample is coded as "primary (6 years)" completed. This underestimates the attainment of persons with an 8-year intermediate degree, as they are not credited with lower-secondary education, which by default is equal to 9 years of study in EDATTAIN.

All samples identify lower secondary technical study. Four years of technical study is interpreted as secondary technical. In 2001, both secondary and post-secondary technical education are identified. Based on frequency distribution, university education is interpreted as completion of the fifth year of post-secondary study.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

Botswana has a 7-3-2 system, which consists of 7 years of primary, 3 years of junior (lower) secondary, and 2 years of senior (upper) secondary. Persons with 6 years or more of primary were classified as "primary (6 years)", those with 3-4 years of secondary as "lower secondary", and those with 5-6 years as "secondary completed."

The 2001 and 2011 samples report non-formal education. This level is offered to youths and adults who dropped the primary school and it is classified as "some primary."

In 2001, information about post-secondary studies is inferred from a separate question about training, which includes vocational, technical, and university studies.

In 2011, persons with 3 or more years of vocational and technical studies are classified as having completed a technical (upper) secondary track. These programs are offered after the completion of either junior (lower) or senior (upper) secondary.

For university studies, 1 to 3 years is interpreted as "some college/university," and 4 or more years as "university completed." In 2011, higher education certificates are classified as "some college/university."

Comparability — Brazil [top]

Brazil changed from a 4-4-3 to an 8-3 system of grades in 1971, and to a 9-3 system in 2006. For EDATTAIN, Brazil is coded into the 6-3-3 standard, with 11 years, rather than 12, indicating completion of secondary education. See YRSCHOOL for actual years of study. The 4-year primary threshold for Brazil is identified with a detailed code under "Less than Primary Completed." In the 2010 sample, we needed to impose some equivalences because the information on the specific grade/year is generally not available for persons who attended school in the past; for example, persons who attended the old middle or junior school and grades 5 to 8 of elementary school are coded as having "primary (6 years)". This might create small coding discrepancies across samples.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

Burkina Faso has a 6-4-3 system, comprising 6 years of primary, 4 years in the first cycle of secondary (leading to the BEPC degree), and 3 years in the second cycle of secondary (leading to a baccalaureate degree). In the 1985 sample, the post-primary degree is considered completed after 4 years of education, the post-BEPC after 3 years, and higher education after 4 years. In the 1996 sample, the intermediate (CM) cycle in primary is considered as completion of primary (6 years). The 2006 census sample reports the current level/year for persons currently in school, so adjustments were implemented to reflect this information in terms of educational attainment; those with unknown school attendance are coded as unknown in this variable, even if they report information on educational attainment.

The age universe differs substantially across samples: residents age 10 or more in 1985, residents age 6 or more in 1996, and persons age 3 or more in 2006.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

Cambodia's education system changed from a 4-3-3 system to a 5-3-3 system in 1986 and to a 6-3-3 system in 1996. For EDATTAIN, we assume a 6-year primary system, which may underestimate primary education completion for persons in the old systems. Secondary education is divided into two cycles of 3 years each, which we have interpreted as lower and higher secondary.

The universe for the unharmonized educational attainment variables for Cambodia 1998 and 2008 censuses is persons who ever attended school. In the integrated EDATTAIN variable we recoded persons age 5 or older who never attended school as having "no schooling" for comparability purposes.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

Cameroon has two coexisting education systems: the French-speaking system with a 6-4-3 structure and the English-speaking education system with a 7-5-2 structure. In order to consistently classify persons with similar number of years of education, coding for EDATTAIN follows the 6-4-3 structure, which is the most frequently reported across census samples. In the 1976 sample, secondary technical in the English-speaking system is top-coded at grade 5, so this system does not have an upper secondary technical track completed.

The post-primary, post-CEPE, and post-BEPC degrees are considered completed after 3 years of education, while those pursuing higher education after 4 years. The following levels are considered as post-secondary technical studies: the old teacher's school, teacher's school, and higher specialized education in the 1976 sample, the post-probationary and post-baccalaureate in the 1987 sample, and the post-probationary in the 2005 sample. The university category in the 2005 sample includes other institutions of higher education.

The Cameroon 2005 census instructions required registering the current year attending for persons currently enrolled in school, thus some adjustments were implemented to decrement their attainment in EDATTAIN.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The educational system of Canada has a 6-6 structure with 6 years of elementary education and 6 years of secondary education. Only 1971 asked the education question of all persons; from 1981 to 2011, the universe excluded persons under age 15.

The 1971 sample does not identify technical education at the secondary or post-secondary levels.

The 2011 sample includes a category indicating "no certificate, diploma, or degree," which is categorized as "less than primary completed," but it actually includes persons with no schooling, primary, or lower secondary education. This creates a significant comparability issue with previous samples, as primary or lower secondary completed cannot be separately identified. Furthermore, the 2011 sample does not distinguish persons with "some college/university."

Comparability — Chile [top]

In 1960, basic/middle education was divided into a 6-year primary and a 6-year secondary. In the 1970 census, this system coexisted with the new 8-year basic and 4 -year middle education system. For EDATTAIN, we used number of years of schooling to recode the more modern system into the 6-year primary scheme used for this variable.

For university education, 1 to 4 years is interpreted as "some college," and 5 or more years as "university completed."

The 1982-2002 samples identify post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — China [top]

The 1982 sample provides less detailed information than later samples and it identifies whether or not the respondent had completed their studies for tertiary education only. In contrast, 1990 and 2000 samples indicate the last level reached and its completion status (attending, did not graduate, completed, or unknown).

In 1982, technical and general schools are not distinguished in the data. Enumeration instructions indicate that persons who studied in or graduated from secondary technical schools were classified under senior middle (secondary) school. Furthermore, those in vocational school were classified under junior or senior middle school, depending on their level. For the 1982 sample, persons who studied with private tutors were to provide a self-declared educational level.

Illiterate and semi-literate persons were coded as having less than primary education in all samples.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

Colombia has five years of primary study reflected in EDATTAIN.

Persons with "special" or "fundamental" education are coded "less than primary."

The 1993 sample combines some university education and a university degree in the same category. All such cases are coded to secondary, some university. The cases in 1993 that are coded "university" in EDATTAIN are persons who reached post-university study.

The identification of the technical education track is uneven across samples. In 2005, the last two years of Teaching School is treated as post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

Primary entails 6 years of study, academic secondary 5 years, and technical secondary 6 years. The 6-year technical secondary was introduced in the 1970's but it was not separately distinguished in the source variables for educational attainment for the 1973 or the 1984 samples. Therefore, for 1973 and 1984, 5 years of secondary are considered as upper secondary completed, given many people probably attended the old 5-year secondary or the new 5-year academic secondary. This overestimates secondary completion for those who attended the technical track.

For 1963, 1973, and 2011, university graduates and non-graduates are separately reported. For 1984 and 2000, persons with 4 or more years of higher education are coded as college graduates.

Comparability — Cuba [top]

Cuba does not report years of education, only levels. Cuba has 6 years of primary education, followed by 3 years of lower secondary and 3 years of upper secondary, which could be either on a general or technical track. The sample includes a category for the tertiary level, which is classified as "university completed," but it includes both higher non-university and university education.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The Dominican Republic changed from a 6-2-4 education system before the 1970s to a 6-4-2 structure in the 1970s, and later to a 4-4-2-2 structure after the 1990s.

Most samples report the last year or grade completed, except for 2002 where instructions required indicating the current year or grade for those attending school and the year or grade completed for those who attended in the past. Therefore, we subtracted one year from their declared years within level for those currently in school to reflect that they have not completed the year they are attending.

For all samples, 4 or more years of education is coded as university completed.

There are some changes in the age universe: all persons in 1960, persons age 5 or more in 1970 and 1981, and persons age 3 or more in 2002 and 2010.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

Literacy center education is treated as "some primary".

For 1962-1990, the educational system consisted of 6 years primary and 6 secondary. For 2001, the primary/secondary system was reformed to a 10-year basic education and 3-year middle education (see EDUCEC). For primary and lower secondary, both systems are converted to years of schooling: 6 years to complete primary, 9 years for lower secondary, 12 years for secondary. The first year of the new educational system is equivalent to kindergarten.

For all samples, persons with 5 or more years of higher education are identified as college graduates.

The 1962 sample has "special education," which we have interpreted as post-primary technical education. Persons with 3 or more years of special education are coded to "lower secondary technical track completed."

The 2001 and 2010 samples identify post-secondary technical education (technical colleges and institutes).

Comparability — Egypt [top]

Egypt does not report years of education, only levels. Primary education is coded as "primary (6)", which corresponds to the number of years available for most of the period after the 1950s. The preparatory stage is coded as lower secondary, "intermediate" as secondary completed, and studies "above intermediate" as post-secondary technical education.

The data for 1986 allows identifying completion of a technical track of lower and upper secondary, given it provides information on the field studied for all educational levels. In 1996 and 2006, persons who completed lower or upper secondary technical cannot be separately identified from the general track.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

El Salvador has a 9-3 system, comprising 9 years of primary and 2-3 years of secondary school. For both El Salvador samples, persons with 6 years or more of primary were classified as "primary (6 years)", those with 1 or 2 years of secondary as "lower secondary", and those with 3 or more years as "secondary completed". Vocational courses for persons that completed the 6th grade or primary education were considered as a technical track of lower secondary. For university education, 1 to 4 years is interpreted as "some college," and 5 or more years as "university completed."

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

In all Ethiopia samples, educational attainment includes information on the specific grades completed in basic education. The educational system in Ethiopia changed from a 6-2-4 structure to a 4-4-2-2 structure during the nineties (see EDUCET for more details). For EDATTAIN, grade 6 is classified as primary (6 years), grade 8 as lower secondary completed (i.e. completed the second cycle under either system), and grade 12 as upper secondary completed.

Post-secondary education includes different types of certificates and diplomas, all of them classified as post-secondary technical.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

Fiji has a 6-4-3 educational system, consisting of 6 years of primary, 4 years of junior secondary, and 3 years of secondary education. The last year of secondary education (form 7) is only identified in the 1996 and 2007 census samples. Therefore, we assume completion of upper secondary for 6 or more years at this level.

The Fiji samples use different categories to identify the types of tertiary education. For EDATTAIN, teaching, technical, and sub-professional studies in 1976 and certificate and diplomas in 1996-2007 are considered post-secondary technical. Professional, health, nursing, and related studies in 1976 are considered university completed. In the 1986 sample, the category for tertiary education does not specify whether it refers to technical or university studies, but it was assumed to be university completed. This may overestimate educational attainment for persons with technical studies (which are not separately identified in this sample).

In the 1976, 1986, and 1996 samples, persons currently in school stated the grade they were currently attending. The data for the 2007 sample are calculated from separate questions for persons currently attending and those who attended in the past. Therefore, appropriate adjustments have been implemented to reflect the level completed for those currently in school. Persons currently in their first year of a bachelor degree are considered to have completed form 6 and persons currently attending university are coded as having "some college/university".

Comparability — France [top]

France reports only degrees earned, not years of schooling. The lowest level of education reported is a six-year degree under the old system (coded to primary 6 years) and a ten-year degree after the extension of compulsory education (coded to lower secondary).

Note: persons with no degree were to leave the census question blank for all years. Thus there is no way to distinguish between persons who simply did not respond to the question and those who had no degrees. All such persons are coded as "less than primary" in EDATTAIN, which reflects their poor educational attainment as a group.

The 1982, 1990, and 1999 samples have two-year university degrees, which we have coded as "university."

The 2006 and 2011 samples identify persons who attended primary or middle school without receiving a certificate, who are coded as "some primary"; and persons who attended beyond middle school without getting a certificate, who are coded as "primary (6 years)".

Comparability — Germany [top]

The integrated EDATTAIN version for Germany has differences in the treatment of some educational levels due to the parallel education systems prior to the German unification. The 1970 and 1987 censuses correspond to the Federal Republic of Germany (West), while the 1971 and 1981 censuses correspond to the German Democratic Republic (East).

The age universes differ slightly across samples. The universe includes persons age 14 and older in 1981, 15 and older in 1970 and 1971, and age 15 to 64 in 1987.

Education is compulsory through age 14 or 15 in both countries, so completion of primary school usually implies the completion of at least 8th grade, but is coded to international standard for completion of primary school (6 years) in this variable for both West and East Germany. Two samples (GDR 1971 and FRG 1987) did not distinguish between people who attended primary school (grade not specified) and those who completed 8th grade. Given the compulsory nature of primary education and the fact that the age universe excludes people likely to be enrolled in primary school, people in the combined some primary/completed primary category are all assigned to the "completed primary" category.

All samples identify people who have completed lower secondary (completed 10th grade) and are relatively comparable. Vocational training tracks are slightly different in the two German republics.

In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), compulsory part-time vocational education is treated as a technical track of lower secondary, while full-time or advanced vocational training are treated as a technical track of upper secondary. Engineering or vocational college post secondary training, but through a system separate from university training and are coded to technical post-secondary training. For the FRG samples, university includes teacher colleges.

In the German Democratic Republic (GDR), the semi-skilled worker certificate is coded as a technical track of lower secondary, while the skilled worker certificate and the master craftsman certificate are coded as a technical track of upper secondary. As in the FRG, engineering and higher technical training college are coded to technical post-secondary.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

For Ghana, we had to convert information pertaining to attainment under two different educational systems. The system changed in 1987 from a 6-4-7 system to a 6-3-3 system. In that year seventh-level students, who otherwise would have entered the traditional first year of middle school, were instead admitted into new junior secondary schools (JSS) to begin a three-year combined training program in vocational, technical, and academic studies. The JSS system replaced the four-year middle school and the first three years of the traditional seven-year secondary school system. After three years in JSS, three years further training would be available in senior secondary schools (SSS), after which students could enter polytechnic institutions or university.

For Ghana 1984, the educational attainment information is coded only under the old 6-4-7 system. For higher comparability across countries and given the small proportion of persons attaining the second cycle of secondary (grades 6-7), it is assumed that completion of the upper secondary level requires 5 or more years of secondary education in the old system.

For Ghana 2000, we use the person's age to determine which educational system they attended and thus how many years of education correspond to completed levels. Persons 29 years or younger attended the new 3-year JSS lower secondary. Older persons needed four years to complete lower secondary.

The transition to the new upper secondary (SSS) is less clear cut. No one younger than 29 should have had the chance to attend the old secondary school, but some people of ages 20 to 29 responded they had 4 to 7 years of Secondary, which would only be possible in the old system. Hence, for this age cohort (29 years or younger), we interpret 3 years of Secondary as well as 5-7 years of secondary as complete upper secondary. 4 years of secondary are classified as "some" upper secondary education.

For Ghana 2010, the educational attainment information allows to separately identify persons who attended the old 6-4-7 system or the new 6-3-3 system. Thus, persons are classified according to the education system they attended and no adjustments based on age are necessary.

University is considered completed after 4 years of education.

Comparability — Greece [top]

Greece does not report years of education, only levels.

There are differences in the treatment of post-secondary education between 1971-1981 and 1991-2011. In the earlier years "completed university" includes any kind of post-secondary degree. In later years technical education is identified separately from university study.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

Guinea had a 6-6 system of primary and middle school in 1983. In 1996 the system was 6-4-3, split between primary, secondary 1 (lower secondary), and secondary 2 (upper secondary).

For EDATTAIN, primary education is six years in both samples. Lower secondary is 3 years after primary in 1983 and 4 years after primary in 1996, conforming to the new educational system. Secondary education means completion of 12 years of schooling in 1983 and 13 years of schooling in 1996.

Both samples identify technical degrees, but only 1996 separates secondary and post-secondary technical education. Technical education in the 1983 sample does not indicate the level of education preceding it. We have classified it as upper secondary technical education.

University education is completion of 5 years at the tertiary level.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

Haiti changed from a 6-3-4 to a 9-3 structure. Based on equivalences established in the census samples, we assumed the old 6-3-4 structure for EDATTAIN. Literacy classes are treated as "some primary". Technical and teacher training are considered as post-secondary technical and higher education is equivalent to university studies. Although duration of university degrees may vary, 4 years of study is treated as completion.

In the 2003 sample, technical training is derived from a question on classes taken at a center for technical and professional formation. For this sample, the first cycle of university corresponds to bachelor degrees, while the second and third cycles to post-graduate studies.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The structure of the educational system includes 1 year of pre-school education, 8 years of primary school, and 4 years of general secondary school.

In 2001 and 2011, the "primary (6)" category actually identifies persons in the first cycle of secondary. They had at least 8 years of schooling and many would qualify as completing lower secondary.

In 1980 and 1990, any higher elementary study after 8 years of primary is considered completion of lower secondary.

The 1970-2001 data allows identifying upper secondary technical education. The 2011 sample groups in a single category all types of secondary education (ISCED 3A, 3B, and 3C), which are classified as completion of an upper secondary general track. Previous samples distinguish between a general track (equivalent to ISCED 3A) and a technical track of upper secondary (apprentice school, equivalent to ISCED 3C). Therefore, a technical track of upper secondary is identified in 1970-2001, but not in the 2011 sample.

In 2011, the post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED 4) is categorized as "post-secondary technical education". In 1970-1990, post-secondary technical includes diplomas from a non-university institution.

Comparability — India [top]

The Indian samples are comparable but do not provide years of schooling within levels. Thus, EDATTAIN adheres to the Indian system of years: primary equals completion of 5 years, lower secondary is 8 years, and secondary is 10 years.

The higher secondary refers to those who completed eleventh and twelfth classes, which constitute a university preparatory system rather than a part of secondary education. Therefore, this category is classified as post-secondary non-tertiary education.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

Indonesia 1971, 2000, and 2010 only include level, but not years of education within level. For all the other samples, years within level are available but also whether the level was completed. Thus, only persons that indicate completion of a level are considered for each category, disregarding the number of years attained.

Indonesia has a 6-3-3 system, which consists of 6 years of primary, 3 years of junior secondary, and 3 years of senior secondary school, so it fits the IPUMS-International classification for EDATTAIN. The Diploma I/II and Academy/Diploma III are coded as post-secondary technical education. For the Indonesia 1980 sample, persons declaring completion of the old primary school system of 3 years are considered to have "some primary."

Comparability — Iran [top]

The changes in Iran's education system are reflected in the educational attainment, which codes categories according either to the 6-3-3 system that existed before the 1970s, the 5-3-4 system after the 1970s, or the 5-3-3-1 system after the 1990s. Persons holding a diploma under any of these systems are coded as "primary (5 years)". Middle school categories are classified whether they correspond to the 6-3-3 system or any of the more recent systems, thus incomplete middle school could be classified as either "primary (5 years)" or "primary (6 years)" while complete middle school corresponds to attainment of lower secondary. High school categories distinguish whether the person finished 2 or 3 grades and those who obtained a diploma, therefore only the latter were considered as completion of secondary.

Vocational education included different categories that could be offered to lower secondary or primary school graduates. The categories that specified completion of vocational education are considered a technical track of upper secondary, while those corresponding to incomplete vocational education are considered lower secondary. For some categories where it was not clear whether the vocational level was completed or not, we assumed the latter. It is not clear if this assumption under- or overestimates educational attainment, since some of these types of vocational education could have primary school as the requirement of entry.

Bachelor's degree programs (college programs) last four years. Master's degree programs take two years, and doctoral programs last four to five years.

In both samples, persons with religious studies are classified with "unknown" educational attainment, since it is not clear whether they completed a certain level for the entry requirement.

Comparability — Iraq [top]

Primary school has six years, followed by two six-year versions of secondary school: academic and vocational. Higher education has two types, institutes (technical degrees) and up to 6 years of college or university. Moreover, people who obtained a further degree (high diploma, masters, and doctoral degrees) are identified.

EDATTAIN is constructed by combining the educational attainment for people not attending school with the level of persons currently attending. One year must be subtracted from persons in school, since they had not yet completed that year.

For persons currently attending: lower secondary means 3 to 5 years of secondary education; academic secondary is 6 year of intermediate secondary and up to 3 years of college; technical secondary is 6 years of vocational secondary and up to 1 year of intermediate post-secondary; post-secondary is 2 to 5 years of post-secondary; college is 4 or more years of college.

"Less than primary" includes all persons who have not completed primary education (per current enrollment) and those without an academic certificate in hand (per highest certificate held).

Comparability — Ireland [top]

Information on educational attainment is derived from number of years completed within a given education level in 1971 and 1981, and from education level completed in other years.

In 1981 we consider 6 or more years as "primary (6 years)". In other census years, even though primary includes persons with no formal education, it is coded as "primary (6 years)". This assumption overestimates primary completion. In Ireland 1971 and 1981, we consider 3 to 5 years of secondary as "lower secondary" and 6 or more as "upper secondary". Similar criteria were used to classify persons declaring years of vocational education into the correspondent secondary vocational/technical tracks. In addition, persons with 4 or more years of tertiary education are considered to have "university completed". In the Ireland 1991-2011 censuses, the third level non-degree qualifications, which refer to persons who obtained a certificate/diploma not equivalent to a university degree, are classified as post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — Israel [top]

Israel provides highly aggregated educational attainment information, and several compromises were necessary to accommodate the coding structure of EDATTAIN.

The meaning of the "primary (6)" category differs across samples. In 1972 it means completion of 5 to 8 years of study. In 1983-1995 it means completion of primary or intermediate school (6 to 9 years of study).

Lower secondary in 1972 is 9 to 12 years of study without a degree. No lower secondary level was identified in 1983-1995. Upper secondary for all samples includes both persons with or without the matriculation (Bagrut) certificate.

Only the 1972 sample identifies persons with some college study without a degree. In 1983-1995 such persons are only credited with secondary education.

Comparability — Italy [top]

Primary indicates 5 years and lower secondary 8 years of study. General secondary education indicates a degree requiring 4 or 5 years of study after lower secondary; technical secondary requires 2 or 3 years after lower secondary.

Two- or three-year university degrees are coded to "some college/university."

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

Jamaica does not report years of education, only levels. Furthermore, for all samples, educational attainment refers to the last type of school attended for persons who ever attended, so it does not imply completion of the corresponding level. Therefore, for comparability purposes, we use years of schooling to determine completion for persons declaring ever attending primary or secondary school. The variable was coded as following: primary completed if the person has 6 or more years of schooling (7 years in 1982), lower secondary completed if attended junior and has 9 or more years, and upper secondary completed if the person has 11 or more years. In addition, the highest exam passed or qualification obtained was used to determine university completion. Persons who ever attended university and indicate they hold a university degree or professional qualification are coded as "university completed".

Comparability — Jordan [top]

Primary education indicates 6 years of study, lower secondary is 9 years, and completion of secondary is 10 years. Secondary technical degrees are identified as persons with intermediate diplomas ("some college").

Comparability — Kenya [top]

Kenya changed its educational system in 1985 to an 8-4-4 system (8 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary, and 4 years of university). Previously, Kenya had used a 7-6-3 system. In the Kenyan censuses, respondents simply provided the highest grade level completed (see EDUCKE) without any reference to a specific education system structure. Moreover, responses in all Kenya samples include standard 1 to 8 (primary) and forms 1 to 6 (secondary), which do not exactly match either education system.

For EDATTAIN, Kenya is coded into a 6-3-3 structure: standard 6 (or more) is interpreted as completion of primary, form 1 (or more) as completion of lower secondary, and form 4 (or more) as completion of upper secondary. This may overestimate educational attainment for some persons who only had 7 (and not 8) years of primary education.

In the Kenya 1969 and 1979 samples, it was assumed that persons with university studies completed this level, which may overestimate educational attainment for some of them (given completion is not explicitly stated). In the Kenya 2009 sample, for consistency, persons with "some college" were programmed using a separate source variable. In this sample, polytechnic is considered as a technical track of secondary and the middle level colleges are a form of post-secondary technical education.

The 1969 and 1989-2009 samples refer to education level completed, while the 1979 census asks only about the highest level reached. Thus, adjustments were implemented to reflect this information in terms of educational attainment.

Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]

Kyrgyz has a 4-year primary degree, which is coded "less than primary" in EDATTAIN. Basic general education indicates incomplete secondary education and is interpreted as lower secondary. No internationally comparable 6-year primary level is identified. In the 2009 sample, basic or initial vocational is coded as a technical track of lower secondary.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

Liberia has a 6-3-3 structure, with 6 years of primary, 3 years of junior high school, and 3 years of senior high school, so it fits the IPUMS-International classification for EDATTAIN. In the 1974 census, the source variable is coded following an 8-4 structure, with 8 years of primary and 4 years of high school. The integrated version in EDATTAIN applies the modern 6-3-3 system to this sample.

In Liberia 2008, technical/vocational education is considered post-secondary technical. Completion of university is assumed for persons with 4 or more years of study at this level in 1974, while the source variable includes a separate category for university completed in 2008.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

Malawi has an 8-6 education system, comprising 8 years in the primary (standard 1-8) and 6 years in the secondary level (form 1-6). In all Malawi samples, educational attainment was collected according to the highest level attended irrespective of whether or not the person passed an examination at that level. Persons with 8 years of primary were considered to have primary complete and classified as "primary (6 years)", those with 2 or 3 years of secondary were classified as "lower secondary" (they would have completed at least 9 years of education), and those with 4 or more years of secondary as "upper secondary". Regarding tertiary education, those with up to 3 years of university are considered to have "some college" and those with 4 or more years as "university completed". This may overestimate educational attainment. The "other" education category in Malawi 2008 is classified as "unknown".

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

The Malaysian education system has a vocational upper secondary segment. However, no distinction is made between high school degrees obtained from academic or vocational education. Hence, we do not distinguish the tracks explicitly.

In 1970 and 2000, only limited information on specific years of schooling within primary and secondary education was provided. Primary and secondary have six years.

Tertiary education is not comparable across samples. In 1970 and 1991, we cataloged all tertiary education as University Completed due to the lack of better information. In 1980, we distinguish between some college and completed university. In 2000, we are able to distinguish technical from academic education, but not between completed and incomplete degrees.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 1987 sample reports the last level attended, but no information is available regarding the last grade completed within level. As a consequence, educational attainment might be overestimated for this sample; this is evident, for example, by observing the small proportion of persons reporting "some primary completed" in 1987 compared to the respective proportion in 1998 (where both educational level and grade attained within level are reported).

Mali's 6-year first cycle of fundamental school is coded as "primary (6)" and the 3-year second cycle as lower secondary. Completion of the additional three years of upper secondary (general or technical) entails 12 years of schooling.

In 1998, the sample identifies the alternatives for vocational school according to their entry requirements, whether these are the Primary School Certificate (CEP), Fundamental Studies Diploma (DEF), or Baccalaureate (BAC). It is assumed that a completed degree for vocational school involves 4 or more years. Thus, persons with incomplete vocational-CEP were classified as "primary (6)", complete vocational-CEP and incomplete vocational-DEF as lower secondary, complete vocational-DEF as secondary completed, and BAC (complete or incomplete) as post-secondary technical education. Completed degrees were classified in the technical track, while incomplete degrees in the general track. Similarly, it is assumed that school for teachers (post-secondary technical) and university studies require 4 or more years to be considered complete.

In 2009, vocational school does not specify entry requirements; thus, it is considered as a technical track of upper secondary. This assumption may not properly reflect educational attainment for persons who pursued vocational education that required holding a Primary School Certificate (CEP) or a Baccalaureate (BAC).

Comparability — Mexico [top]

Mexico is comparable across years and generally fits the IPUMS-International classification for EDATTAIN. Everyone reporting four years of university study is considered to have attained a university degree. Teacher training studies are considered as technical education.

Comparability — Mongolia [top]

Primary education indicates completion of 3 years of school from 1975-1996, or 4 years of school before and after that period. In EDATTAIN this 4-year primary education is included with "less than primary" to enhance international comparability.

The 8-year general education level is coded as "lower secondary," thus no internationally comparable 6-year primary level is identified. Secondary education is a 10-year degree.

People who indicated they had technical education are classified as having lower secondary technical education in 1989, because no distinction between levels was made in that sample. In 2000, both lower and upper secondary technical education are identified.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The education system in Morocco changed in 1985 from a 5-4-3 to a 9-3 structure.

  • Thus, for the Morocco 1982 sample, persons with 5 years of primary were classified as "primary (5 years)", those with 4 to 6 years of secondary as "lower secondary", and those with 7 years as "secondary completed".
  • Reflecting the changes in the education system in the 1994 and 2004 samples, persons with 6 years or more of primary were classified as "primary (6 years)", those with 1 or 2 years of secondary as "lower secondary", and those with 3years as "secondary completed."

Tertiary education does not specify whether it refers to technical or university studies. Persons with 3 years or less of tertiary are coded as "some college/university" and persons with 4 years or more as "university completed". This may overestimate educational attainment for persons with technical studies.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

Mozambique has a 5-2-3-2 system, including primary first level (EP1, grades 1-5), primary second level (EP2, grades 6-7), secondary 1st cycle (grades 8-10), and secondary 2nd cycle (grades 11-12). For EDATTAIN, persons in the first level of primary or who have not completed the second level of primary are coded as "some primary", those who completed the second level of primary are coded as "primary (6 years)", while the two secondary cycles correspond to lower and upper secondary.

Technical education also required to establish some equivalences (based on the entrance requirements): elementary and basic technical school are considered as a technical track of lower secondary, while upper technical school and teacher training are treated as a technical track of upper secondary.

The Mozambique 1997 sample does not include persons with some university studies, while the 2007 sample distinguishes both incomplete and completed university.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

Nicaragua has a 6-5 system. For all samples, 3 or 4 years of secondary was classified as lower secondary and 5 years of secondary as upper secondary. Basic technical certificates were coded as a lower secondary technical track, mid-level technical certificates as an upper secondary technical track, and advanced technical as post-secondary technical. For all types of technical education completion is considered for persons with 3 years or more of study.

Nicaragua 1971 has a single category of superior (post-secondary) education which includes both technical post-secondary and university studies. Persons with 3 years or less of superior (post-secondary) are coded as "some college/university" and persons with 4 years or more as "university completed". This may overestimate educational attainment for persons with technical studies.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

Nigeria has a 6-3-3 structure, with 6 years of primary, 3 years of junior secondary, and 3 years of senior secondary, so it fits the IPUMS-International classification for EDATTAIN.

The General Certificate of Education (GCE) Advanced level, the National Diploma (ND), the National Certificate of Education (NCE), and polytechnic/professional education are considered as post-secondary technical education. In Nigeria 2010, adult education is classified as "some primary", teacher training and vocational/technical education as a technical track of upper secondary, while Quranic education is coded as "unknown" given no equivalences to formal schooling levels are identified.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

Pakistan does not report years of education, only levels. Pakistan's 8-year primary system is coded as "primary (6)," which comprises 5 years of primary and 3 years of middle school. Secondary education includes 2 years of high school and 2 years of intermediate school or higher secondary, which we have interpreted as lower and upper secondary, respectively. Persons holding a certificate or diploma are considered as having post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The Palestinian sample fits the general scheme for EDATTAIN. Primary is six years of elementary school, lower secondary is 9 years of schooling, and secondary is 12 years.

Comparability — Panama [top]

Panama has a 6-3-3 education system. The Panama 1990-2010 samples include additional categories for vocational education and for higher education not in a university, which are interpreted as a technical track of lower secondary and as post-secondary technical, respectively. Completion of vocational was assumed to require 3 years of study and college 4 years of university-level education.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The education system in Paraguay is organized in four cycles of 3 years each, which coincides with a 6-3-3 standard in other samples in EDATTAIN.

In 2002, basic adult education is coded as "some primary".

Teacher training and non-university education are classified as post-secondary technical education.

University is considered completed after 4 years of education.

Comparability — Peru [top]

The educational system in Peru had changes in structure that are reflected in additional categories in 1993. Between 1972 and 1982 Peru had a system with 9 grades, but before and after that period it consisted of 11 grades. In the 9-grade system, there are two coexisting structures: 4-2-3 for regular basic and 2-3-4 for trade school; however, for comparability purposes, 4 years of regular or trade school are coded to "primary (4)" (no primary complete level is identified for persons under this system) and 9 years as "secondary completed" (either in the general or technical track). In the 11-grade system for samples 1993 and 2007, primary school includes 6 years and secondary 5 years of education.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The Philippines has six years of elementary instruction followed by four years of high school. We do not identify a lower secondary level.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The education system in Poland changed in 1999 and categories do not equate well between 1978-1988 and 2002-2011. The categorization in 1978 is particularly problematic, as much detail in the original census was combined in the data in ways that are not well documented.

Before 1999, the education system comprised 8 years of primary, followed by secondary in either basic vocational (2-3 years), general secondary (4 years), or secondary vocational (4-5 years). After 1999, it included 6 years of primary, 3 years of lower secondary, and 2-4 years of upper secondary, which could be in a general or specialized track (3 years), technical track (4 years), or vocational track (2-3 years).

The 1978 and 1988 do not include a general track of lower secondary, as this level did not exist in the pre-1999 education system. In 2002 and 2011, persons with "lower secondary" or "general secondary without completion certificate" are classified in the general track of lower secondary. In all samples, the basic vocational education is considered a technical track of lower secondary.

In 1978, the general track of upper secondary completed may include persons with some secondary or post-secondary education.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

The education system in Portugal underwent a reform in the 1990's but it maintained a 4-2-3-3 structure before and after this change. Based on this structure, it was possible to consistently identify 4- and 6-year primary school attainment, as well as lower and upper secondary completion. Completion of upper secondary school indicates 12 years of study.

Post-secondary technical education is only recorded in 1981, 1991, and 2011.

"Some college" essentially means teacher training or similar study. In the 2011 census, enumerators were instructed to record these cases as bachelor degrees, so they are not separately identified.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The Puerto Rico samples for 1970, 1980, and 2010 reported individual years of study, but those for 1990-2005 grouped grades 1 to 4 and grades 5 to 8. For this latter group of samples, persons who completed grades 5 to 8 are coded as "primary (6)", which underestimates their educational attainment.

In the samples 1990-2010, persons with associate degrees are identified. However, only in 1990 they are divided into post-secondary technical and "some college" depending whether the degree was academic or occupational. The 2000-2011 samples do not distinguish between types of two-year degrees, and they are all coded to "some college" in those years.

Comparability — Romania [top]

Romania had a 4-4-4 or a 4-5-4 system. Primary education has 4 years. Lower secondary was expanded from 4 to 5 years in 1999 (grades 5-9). Upper secondary lasts 3 to 4 years (grades 10-12/13) and it has academic, vocational, and technical tracks.

The Romanian samples provide educational level completed, but not individual years. Literacy classes have been classified as "some primary." The 4-year primary level is coded to "primary (4)" under the "less than primary" grouping. The 8-year level is coded to lower secondary, thus no internationally comparable 6-year primary level is identified.

In 2011, the general track of upper secondary may include equivalent studies from a technical track.

The 2002 sample identifies 2-year (associates) college degrees, which are coded to "some college/university."

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The Rwanda sample provides detailed information on grades for primary school. In EDATTAIN, completion of primary means 6 years of study. Lower secondary is split between general and technical tracks, and it indicates 3 to 5 years of study after primary.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

The 1980 sample includes levels of education but not years within level, while the 1991 sample reports years of education only for primary school. Only in 1991 we are able to identify people who completed primary school, which are those with 7 or more years attained at this level. Persons in the primary level are classified as "some primary," which could underestimate their educational attainment in the 1980 sample. Since the completed secondary years of education are not available in either sample, persons with secondary are coded as "secondary completed," but this category could effectively overestimate the educational attainment for persons with incomplete secondary. In 1991, the category of pre-university is coded as post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

Senegal has a 6-year primary education system. Secondary education includes 4 years in the first cycle and 3 years in the second cycle, which we have interpreted as lower and upper secondary, respectively. The duration of university studies is variable, thus it is assumed that completion of a degree at this level involves at least 4 years of education. Technical or vocational studies are not explicitly identified by the variable, but those are recorded according to the equivalent number of years into secondary or higher education.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

Persons who report junior secondary and senior secondary could have completed grades 1-3 and are coded as "primary (6 years)" and "lower secondary" respectively. The vocational/commercial category is coded as a technical track of lower secondary, since it could include different types of education, not necessarily all of them post-secondary.

Comparability — Slovenia [top]

All persons with less than basic education (8 years of schooling) are grouped together and are coded as "less than primary." The 8-year basic degree is coded to "lower secondary," thus no internationally comparable 6-year primary level is identified.

Upper secondary professional and general education is education obtained by a person who finished the program of upper secondary professional or general education or a professional course of the fifth degree, a school for foremen or managers, a school or exam for a highly skilled worker. This level lasts 4 years and was classified as upper secondary general and unspecified track.

Upper secondary technical track includes persons who finished lower or middle vocational education or passed a school or exam for a semi-skilled or skilled worker. These programs last between 2 and 4 years.

Technical post-secondary education includes short-term tertiary education.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

Persons with standard 10 or grade 12 -- with or without a certificate or diploma -- are considered to have completed secondary schooling. Persons holding a certificate or diploma with less than standard 10 or grade 12 are coded as completed lower secondary.

The National Technical Certificates (NTC) levels 1-3 and similar qualifications were separately identified in the source variable for the 2011 sample, but combined with their equivalent grade/level in 2007. For further comparability, these were also combined in EDATTAIN with their equivalent education level in 2011. Technical studies of levels 4-6 for this sample were classified as post-secondary technical education.

All samples identify college graduates, but none identifies persons with some college education who did not get a degree. Such persons are credited only with completing secondary education.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

Completion of 8 years of primary is coded as "primary (6 years)". Persons with "junior 3" and "junior 4" are interpreted as having lower secondary incomplete and, thus, also coded as "primary (6 years)". A post-secondary diploma corresponds to post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The Spanish samples do not report years of educational attainment, only levels.

In the education system before the 1990's, at the end of primary, people had 5 years of education; at the end of middle school, eight years of education; and secondary was split between professional and technical tracks. Lower secondary refers to people who completed general (compulsory) basic education (EGB, in Spanish). Until the 1991 census sample, EGB was completed at 14 years of age (after 8 years of education). After the 2001 census sample, the old system coexists with one where the last stage of EGB (equivalent to middle school) was replaced by ESO (compulsory secondary education, in Spanish), which was completed at 16 years of age (after 10 years of education). Both are recorded under the lower secondary completed category.

The 1981 sample does not distinguish between technical and academic degrees at the high school (secondary) level. The category for some college or university for this sample includes both 4-year college as well as associate and technical students.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

Completion of 8 years of primary is coded as "primary (6 years)". Persons with "junior 3" and "junior 4" are interpreted as having lower secondary incomplete and, thus, also coded as "primary (6 years)". A post-secondary diploma corresponds to post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

Switzerland does not report years of education, only levels. For basic education, the samples do not identify completion of primary or secondary school, thus persons with mandatory schooling completed are classified as "secondary completed." Persons who completed trade school, an apprenticeship, or teacher training school are interpreted as holding a secondary technical degree, while those with higher professional school as having post-secondary technical education.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

Tanzania provided detailed information on grades within levels and we classified the data to fit the EDATTAIN standard where possible. "Primary (6)" means 6 or more years of primary, lower secondary means 2 or 3 years of secondary (9 or 10 years of study), and secondary means 4 or more years of secondary study (11 or more years total).

Comparability — Thailand [top]

Thailand's educational system changed across samples:

  • Before 1977, basic education included 7 grades in the primary level (P1-P4 and P5-P7), 3 grades in lower secondary (MS1-MS3), and 2 years in upper secondary (MS4-MS5).
  • After 1977, basic education includes 6 years in the primary level (P1-P6), 3 grades in lower secondary (M1-M3), and 3 grades in upper secondary (M4-M6).
  • In the 1970 and 1980 samples, the variable also identifies equivalences with the pre-1961 system, which had 4 grades in primary education (P1-P4) and 8 grades in secondary education (M1-M3, M4-M6, and M7-M8).

Thailand's 7-year primary system is coded as "primary (6)." In 1970, the junior vocational level (primary vocational) is also coded as "primary (6)," which underestimates their educational attainment.

Despite the changes in the educational system, all samples allow identification of lower and upper secondary levels, including in some cases both a general and technical track. In 1970-1990, the variable includes teacher training at the secondary level, which is classified as a technical secondary track.

A bachelor's degree usually requires 4 years for completion (though it could be shorter for some cases). Therefore, persons with 4 years or more of university education or equivalent are considered as "university completed."

In 1990 and 2000, some persons report having religious education, but only in 1990 are equivalences identified with a grade and level in non-religious education. Where possible, persons are classified according to the corresponding equivalence; otherwise, they are classified as "unknown".

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The Trinidad and Tobago 1970 sample provides only the educational level attained, but not individual years. The enumeration instructions for this sample asked about the level attended for persons in school, so we assume they have not completed the education level they report. The 1980-2011 samples identify the individual years completed within the education level attained.

Trinidad and Tobago has a 7-3-2 education system. Primary education lasts 7 years and is divided into an infant cycle (2 years) and a standard cycle (standard 1-5). Secondary education has two stages: 3 years of junior secondary and 2 years of upper secondary. Some students may opt to continue for 2 additional years of secondary schooling (lower and upper 6), which are for university preparation.

Persons with 6 years or more of primary were classified as "primary (6 years)", those with 3-4 years of secondary as "lower secondary", and those with 5-7 years as "secondary completed." For university education, 1 to 3 years is interpreted as "some college/university," and 4 or more years as "university completed."

The enumeration instructions do not clarify what education levels are included in "other", but this category presumably includes post-secondary non-university studies (such as training for teachers, nurses, among others.) Therefore, these studies have been classified as "post-secondary technical education."

Comparability — Turkey [top]

Turkey reports levels of education but not years within level. The education system in Turkey changed from a 5-3-3 or 5-3-4 to an 8-3 or 8-4 system in 1997. The 5-years primary level is classified as "primary (5 years)" under the old system and the 8-years basic education as "primary (6 years)". Higher education includes both technical and university education and was coded as "university completed". This may overestimate educational attainment for persons with technical studies.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

The 1991 sample does not indicate whether university was actually completed. We code 3 years of study as completion of university in 1991 (higher study lasts between 3 and 5 years).

The 2002 sample identifies post-secondary technical study.

Comparability — Ukraine [top]

Ukraine does not report years of education, only levels. It has a 4-5-2 system comprising 4 years of primary (grades 1 to 4), 5 years of basic secondary (grades 5 to 9), and 2 years of senior secondary (grades 10 to 11).

Primary general is coded as primary (4 years) and basic secondary as lower secondary, thus no internationally comparable 6-year primary level is identified for this sample. Initial higher education and incomplete higher education are considered post-secondary technical, even though this last assumption may underestimate educational attainment for those pursuing university studies. Enumeration instructions provide equivalences with past education structures prevalent in Ukraine but classification was performed following their current system.

Comparability — United States [top]

The U.S. samples for 1960-1980, 2010 posed no difficulties for categorization, because they reported individual years of study.

The 2000 and 2005 samples do not identify separately nursery and kindergarten and include these levels merged together with grades 1 to 4; thus, for these samples, these persons are included under "some primary", which over-estimates their educational attainment. The 1990-2005 U.S. samples grouped grades 1 to 4 and grades 5 to 8. We coded persons who completed grades 5 to 8 as "primary (6)", effectively under-estimating their average educational attainment.

Persons with two-year Associates degrees are divided into post-secondary technical and "some college" in 1990, depending on whether the degree was academic or occupational. The 2000-2010 samples do not distinguish between types of two-year degrees, and they are all coded to "some college" in those years.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

Uruguay has a 6-3-3 system, which consists of 6 years of primary, 3 years of the basic or first secondary cycle, and 3 years of the upper or second secondary cycle, so it fits the IPUMS-International classification for EDATTAIN.

For the Uruguay 1975 and 1985 samples, years within level are available but also whether the level was completed. Thus, only persons that indicate completion of a level are considered for each category, disregarding the number of years attained. For the Uruguay 1963, 1996, and 2006 samples 4 or more years of education is coded as university completed.

The educational attainment for the Uruguay 2006 and 2011 are constructed from two separate sets of variables, one set referring to current school attendance and the other referring to past school attendance. For 2006, in order to classify persons currently in school, we subtracted one year from their declared years within level to reflect that they have not completed the year they are attending. The Uruguay 2011 sample does not report years of education, only levels. Persons were classified in EDATTAIN according to their reported educational attainment and whether they completed the level or not. Both for 2006 and 2011, primary level includes primary special.

In all samples, unless otherwise specified, technical education categories were considered as post-secondary technical, including the University of Work (UTU) and the teacher, agrarian, industrial, and military/police schools. For the Uruguay 2006, persons were classified into lower secondary technical, upper secondary technical, or post-secondary technical according to the entrance requirements of the technical education they pursued.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The 1971 and 1981 samples identify lower secondary technical schooling, and the 1971 sample includes secondary technical degrees.

Depending on the education system and track attended (general or technical), completion of secondary education implies 2-3 years after 9 years of basic school or 5-6 years after 6 years of primary. Thus, a total of 11 or more years were considered as secondary completed across samples. In 2001, the last (third) year of upper secondary is not explicitly reported; therefore, we interpret "zero" years of college education as the third year of high school.

For all samples, persons with 5 or more years of higher education are considered college graduates.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

Vietnam reported individual years of schooling, and therefore fit into the 6-3-3 system used in EDATTAIN.

The educational system changed in 2009 to a 5-year primary completion. However, grade-level reporting was used to impose the international 6-3-3 standard for 2009, making educational attainment consistent across Vietnam samples.

In Vietnam 2009, persons with short-term technical training are coded as completing "primary (5 years)"; those with 3 or more years of upper secondary vocational education are considered to have completed secondary; and those with 3 or more years of college or 4 or more years of university are considered to have "university (complete)".

Comparability — Zambia [top]

Zambia has a 7-2-3 system, which consists of 7 years of primary (grades 1 to 7), 2 years of junior secondary (grades 8 to 9), and 3 years of senior secondary (grades 10 to 12). Persons with persons with 6 years or more of primary were classified as "primary (6 years)", those with 2-4 years of secondary as "lower secondary", and those with 5 years as "secondary completed."

Persons holding the General Certificate of Education (GCE) Advanced level or who are undergraduate students are considered under some college/university. Certificates or diplomas are classified as post-secondary technical.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Argentina 1980: Persons age 5+
  • Argentina 1991: Persons age 3+
  • Argentina 2001: Persons age 3+
  • Argentina 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Armenia 2001: Persons age 7+
  • Armenia 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Austria 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Austria 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Austria 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Austria 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Austria 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Bangladesh 1991: Persons age 5+
  • Bangladesh 2001: Persons age 6+
  • Bangladesh 2011: Persons age 7+
  • Belarus 1999: Persons age 15+
  • Belarus 2009: Persons age 10+
  • Bolivia 1976: Persons age 5+
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons age 6+
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons age 4+
  • Botswana 1981: Present residents age 5+
  • Botswana 1991: Persons age 5+
  • Botswana 2001: Persons age 2+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Botswana 2011: Persons age 2+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Brazil 1960: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 1980: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 1991: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 2000: Persons age 6+
  • Brazil 2010: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 1985: Residents age 10+
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Residents age 6+
  • Burkina Faso 2006: Persons age 3+
  • Cambodia 1998: Persons age 5+
  • Cambodia 2008: Persons age 5+
  • Cameroon 1976: Persons age 4+
  • Cameroon 1987: Persons age 3+
  • Cameroon 2005: Persons age 3+
  • Canada 1971: All persons
  • Canada 1981: Persons age 15+ not in prison
  • Canada 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Chile 1960: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 1982: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 1992: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 2002: Persons age 5+
  • China 1982: Persons age 6+
  • China 1990: Persons age 6+
  • China 2000: Persons age 6+
  • Colombia 1964: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 1973: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 1985: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 1993: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 2005: Persons age 3+
  • Costa Rica 1963: Persons age 7+
  • Costa Rica 1973: Persons age 6+
  • Costa Rica 1984: Persons age 5+
  • Costa Rica 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Costa Rica 2011: Persons age 5+
  • Cuba 2002: Persons age 6+
  • Dominican Republic 1960: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Persons age 5+
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Persons age 3+
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Ecuador 1962: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 1974: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 1982: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 1990: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 2001: Persons age 5+
  • Ecuador 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Egypt 1986: Persons age 6+
  • Egypt 1996: Persons age 10+
  • Egypt 2006: Persons age 10+
  • El Salvador 1992: Persons age 5+
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons age 5+
  • Ethiopia 1984: Residents age 5+
  • Ethiopia 1994: Residents age 5+
  • Ethiopia 2007: Long form respondents
  • Fiji 1976: All persons
  • Fiji 1986: All persons
  • Fiji 1996: All persons
  • Fiji 2007: All persons
  • France 1962: Persons age 17+
  • France 1968: Persons age 17+
  • France 1975: Persons age 17+
  • France 1982: Persons age 17+
  • France 1990: Persons age 17+
  • France 1999: Persons age 15+
  • France 2006: Persons age 14+
  • France 2011: Persons age 14+
  • Germany 1970: Persons age 14+
  • Germany 1971: Persons age 14+
  • Germany 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Germany 1987: Persons age 15 to 64
  • Ghana 1984: Perons age 5+
  • Ghana 2000: Persons age 3+
  • Ghana 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Greece 1971: Persons age 10+
  • Greece 1981: Persons age 10+
  • Greece 1991: Persons age 10+
  • Greece 2001: Persons age 5+
  • Greece 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Guinea 1983: Persons age 6+, not absent residents
  • Guinea 1996: Residents age 6+
  • Haiti 1971: Persons age 5+
  • Haiti 1982: Persons age 6+
  • Haiti 2003: Persons age 5+
  • Hungary 1970: Persons age 6+
  • Hungary 1980: Persons age 7+
  • Hungary 1990: Persons age 7+
  • Hungary 2001: Persons age 7+
  • Hungary 2011: Persons age 7+
  • India 1983: All persons
  • India 1987: All persons
  • India 1993: All persons
  • India 1999: All persons
  • India 2004: All persons
  • India 2009: All persons
  • Indonesia 1971: All persons
  • Indonesia 1976: All persons
  • Indonesia 1980: All persons
  • Indonesia 1985: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 2010: Persons age 5+ in regular enumeration areas
  • Iran 2006: Persons age 6+
  • Iran 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Iraq 1997: Persons age 10+
  • Ireland 1971: Persons age 14+ not attending school
  • Ireland 1981: Persons age 15+ not attending school
  • Ireland 1991: Persons age 15+ not attending school
  • Ireland 1996: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 2002: Present persons age 15+
  • Ireland 2006: Present persons age 15+
  • Ireland 2011: Present persons age 15+
  • Israel 1972: Persons age 14+
  • Israel 1983: Persons age 15+
  • Israel 1995: Persons age 15+
  • Italy 2001: Persons age 6+
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons in private and selected collective households
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons age 4+ in private and selected collective households
  • Jamaica 2001: Persons age 4+
  • Jordan 2004: Persons ages 15+
  • Kenya 1969: All persons
  • Kenya 1979: Persons age 5+
  • Kenya 1989: Persons age 6+
  • Kenya 1999: Persons age 5+
  • Kenya 2009: Persons age 3+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Persons age 6+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Persons age 6+
  • Liberia 1974: Persons age 5+
  • Liberia 2008: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 1987: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 1998: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 2008: Non-visitors age 3+
  • Malaysia 1970: All persons
  • Malaysia 1980: All persons
  • Malaysia 1991: All persons
  • Malaysia 2000: All persons
  • Mali 1987: Persons age 6+
  • Mali 1998: Persons age 6+
  • Mali 2009: Persons age 3+
  • Mexico 1960: Persons age 6+
  • Mexico 1970: Persons age 6+
  • Mexico 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Mexico 2015: Persons age 3+
  • Mongolia 1989: Persons age 7+
  • Mongolia 2000: Persons age 7+
  • Morocco 1982: All persons
  • Morocco 1994: All persons
  • Morocco 2004: All persons
  • Mozambique 1997: Residents age 5+
  • Mozambique 2007: Residents age 5+
  • Nicaragua 1971: Persons age 6+
  • Nicaragua 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Nigeria 2006: All persons
  • Nigeria 2007: All persons
  • Nigeria 2008: All persons
  • Nigeria 2009: All persons
  • Nigeria 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Pakistan 1973: Persons age 5+
  • Pakistan 1981: Persons age 5+
  • Pakistan 1998: Persons age 5+
  • Palestine 1997: Persons age 10+
  • Palestine 2007: Persons age 10+
  • Panama 1960: Person age 7+ not in indigenous groups
  • Panama 1970: Persons age 6+
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 4+
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 4+
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 4+
  • Paraguay 1962: Persons age 7+
  • Paraguay 1972: Persons age 7+
  • Paraguay 1982: Persons age 7+
  • Paraguay 1992: Persons age 5+
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Peru 1993: Persons age 5+
  • Peru 2007: Persons age 3+
  • Philippines 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Philippines 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Philippines 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Poland 1978: Persons age 15+
  • Poland 1988: Persons age 15+
  • Poland 2002: Persons age 12+
  • Poland 2011: Persons age 13+
  • Portugal 1981: All persons
  • Portugal 1991: All persons
  • Portugal 2001: All persons
  • Portugal 2011: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 3+
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 3+
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 3+
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 3+
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 3+
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Romania 1977: Persons age 10+
  • Romania 1992: Persons born before 1981
  • Romania 2002: Persons born before September 15, 1991
  • Romania 2011: Persons age 10+
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors age 6+
  • Saint Lucia 1980: All persons
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All persons
  • Senegal 1988: Persons age 6+
  • Senegal 2002: Persons age 3+
  • Sierra Leone 2004: Persons age 6+
  • Slovenia 2002: Persons age 15+
  • South Africa 1996: Persons age 5+
  • South Africa 2001: Persons age 5+
  • South Africa 2007: Persons age 5+ in private households
  • South Africa 2011: Persons age 5+ in private households
  • South Sudan 2008: Persons age 6+
  • Spain 1981: Persons age 10+
  • Spain 1991: Persons age 10+
  • Spain 2001: Persons who reside in the household
  • Spain 2011: Persons age 16+
  • Sudan 2008: Persons age 6+
  • Switzerland 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Tanzania 1988: Persons age 5+
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons age 4+
  • Thailand 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Thailand 1980: Persons age 5+
  • Thailand 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Thailand 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1970: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago
  • Turkey 1985: Persons age 6+
  • Turkey 1990: Persons age 6+
  • Turkey 2000: Persons age 6+
  • Uganda 1991: Persons age 5+
  • Uganda 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Ukraine 2001: Persons age 6+
  • United States 1960: Persons age 5+
  • United States 1970: Persons age 3+
  • United States 1980: Persons age 3+
  • United States 1990: Persons age 3+
  • United States 2000: Persons age 3+
  • United States 2005: Persons age 3+
  • United States 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Uruguay 1963: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1975: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1996: Persons age 3+
  • Uruguay 2006: All persons
  • Uruguay 2011: Persons age 4+
  • Venezuela 1971: Persons age 5+
  • Venezuela 1981: Persons age 5+
  • Venezuela 1990: Persons age 3+
  • Venezuela 2001: Persons age 3+
  • Vietnam 1989: Persons age 5+
  • Vietnam 1999: Persons age 5+
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 2010: Present members and visitors 5+

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2008
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • China: 1982, 1990, 2000
  • Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002
  • Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Fiji: 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1970-1971, 1981, 1987
  • Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 1989, 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006-2010
  • Pakistan: 1973, 1981, 1998
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 1995, 2000
  • Poland: 1978, 1988, 2002, 2011
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 2002
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010