Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart
Educational attainment, Ethiopia

Codes and Frequencies

Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Explore how IPUMS created this variable


      class Educet:public Editor {

    Educet(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::et2007a:
            if (ET2007A_0418() == 99 && ET2007A_0417() == 98)
                a = 100;




EDUCET indicates the person's educational attainment in Ethiopia in terms of the level of schooling completed.

Comparability — General

The educational system in Ethiopia experienced a reform in the nineties.

  • Before this reform, the country had a 6-2-4 structure, including 6 years of primary (grades 1 to 6), 2 years of lower secondary (grades 7 to 8), and 4 years of upper secondary (grades 9 to 12).
  • After this reform, the structure was a 4-4-2-2, including 8 years of primary (divided in 2 cycles of 4 years), 2 years of general secondary (grades 9 to 10), and 2 years of upper secondary (or preparatory, grades 11 to 12).

The source variable for Ethiopia 2007 identifies separately persons in grades 9 to 12 in the new system, after the reform in the nineties. For further comparability, these have been merged in EDUCET with the corresponding grades from the pre-reform system.

For the 1984 sample, persons able to read and write but without any educational qualification have been classified as being literate or having completed a literacy program. The enumeration instructions for Ethiopia 1984 indicate that persons who became literate in a literacy program, by learning on their own, and through religious education are included in this category. For 1994 and 2007, this category refers to adult (literacy) education.

Non-regular (or non-formal) education only appears in Ethiopia 1994 and 2007. It includes persons who pursued other forms of instruction, such as religious education.

Post-secondary includes vocational/technical and higher education. Students can continue in vocational/technical education after completing grade 10, which includes level 1-year programs leading to a certificate level 1, 2-years programs leading to a certificate level 2, and 3-years programs leading to a Diploma. These categories for level 1-3 programs only exist in the 2007 sample.

The Ethiopia 1994 and 2007 samples identify certificates and diplomas from institutions above grade 12, but not equivalent to bachelor degrees. In 1984, the educational attainment variable only indicates whether a person attended institutions above grade 12 to obtain a degree not equivalent to bachelor, without specifying the type of degree or whether it has been completed. These cases are labelled "certificate or diploma" for Ethiopia 1984. The degrees from institutions above grade 12 are all considered as higher education.

All samples distinguish bachelor (usually 4 years), master, and doctoral degrees at universities or equivalent institutions.


  • Ethiopia 1984: Residents age 5+
  • Ethiopia 1994: Residents age 5+
  • Ethiopia 2007: Long form respondents


  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007