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Brazil, State 1960 - 2010 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

Codes and Frequencies

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GEO1_BR identifies the household's state within Brazil in all sample years. States are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1_BR is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1_BR can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for Brazil can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time.

  • The state of Tocantins was formed out of Goias in 1989.
  • Mato Grosso do Sul split from Mato Grosso in 1979.
  • The state of Guanabara was merged with the state of Rio de Janeiro in 1975.
  • The municipality of Serra dos Aimorés received its own code in 1960, when its status was in litigation between two states. It subsequently became part of Minas Gerais by 1970.
  • The 1970 sample is missing the island of Fernando de Noronha. The island was under military authority until 1981, and has been administered by the state of Pernambuco. Due to confidentiality issues, it was merged with Pernambuco in the 1960 and 1980 sample.

Missing states: The 1960 sample is missing 11 states, including the entire North region. These states are:

  • Rondônia
  • Acre
  • Amazonas
  • Roraima
  • Pará
  • Amapá
  • Maranhão
  • Piauí
  • Espírito Santo
  • Guanabara
  • Santa Catarina


  • All households


  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010