Codes and Frequencies
YRIMM indicates the calendar year that a foreign-born person came to live in the country in which they were enumerated.
Comparability — Index
Trinidad and Tobago
Comparability — General
The variable is generally comparable across samples, although some samples restrict the question to non-citizens. Many of the values for Canada and Saint Lucia were reported as year ranges and are coded to the mid-points.
Year of immigration is available for additional samples in categorized form in YRIMM2.
Comparability — Brazil [top]
The 2010 sample is bottom-coded at 1920.
Comparability — Canada [top]
The 1991 data are restricted to permanent residents born abroad who are not from the Atlantic Provinces and the territories. The 2001 and 2011 census questions also refer to foreign-born persons who have permanent residence (landed immigrant). The 1971 and 1981 samples do not include specific instructions on this regard.
The 1971-2011 census questions request the year corresponding to the first time the person immigrated to Canada (not the most recent if the person immigrated more than once).
Some responses for 1971-2011 were coded into intervals, and they are recoded to the midpoints in this variable. The 1971, 1981, 1991, and 2001 samples are bottom-coded at 1945, while the 2011 sample is bottom-coded at 1971. See the unharmonized source variables for the original categories.
Comparability — Colombia [top]
The 2005 sample is bottom-coded at 1950.
Comparability — Costa Rica [top]
The 2010 sample is bottom-coded at 1960.
Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]
The 1981 census was both de jure and de facto. The 2002 and 2010 censuses were de jure. In 1981, the question was asked only of habitually resident foreign-born persons. Therefore, this variable is comparable across all samples.
The 1981 sample is bottom-coded at 1949; the 2002 sample at 1992; and the 2010 sample at 1954.
Comparability — Ecuador [top]
The 2001 and 2010 samples are bottom-coded at 1949 and 1950, respectively.
Comparability — El Salvador [top]
The 1992 and 2007 samples are bottom-coded at 1960 and 1969, respectively.
Comparability — Greece [top]
The 2001 is bottom-coded at 1949 or earlier, while in 2011 there is a bottom-code at 1931 or earlier.
Comparability — Guatemala [top]
The 2002 sample is bottom-coded at 1970.
Comparability — Honduras [top]
The 1974 sample has the largest span of years, while later samples are less detailed. The 1974 sample is bottom-coded at 1930 or earlier, the 1988 sample is bottom-coded at 1970 or earlier, and the 2001 sample is bottom-coded at 1978 or earlier.
Comparability — Italy [top]
The 2001 and 2011 samples are bottom-coded at 1904 and 1928, respectively.
Comparability — Jamaica [top]
The universe for Jamaica 1982 and 2001 is foreign-born persons; in 1991 it is foreign-born persons in private households or selected collective households (including religious, educational, military, and other institutions).
Some responses for Jamaica 1982 were coded into intervals, and they are recoded to the mid-points in this variable. The bottom-code is 1959 in 1982, 1930 in 1991, and 1981 in 2001. The top-code is 1981 in 1982.
Comparability — Jordan [top]
The data are calculated from the person's number of years in the country. The Census was taken on October 2, 2004, so the variable does not map precisely to the calendar year of arrival. Approximately 25% of the cases should be classified in the earlier year.
Comparability — Nicaragua [top]
The 1971 data are classified into 5-year intervals from 1950-1964, and recoded to their midpoints. This sample also is bottom-coded at 1949, and top-coded at 1970 (representing those arriving in 1970-71).
The 1995 and 2005 samples are bottom-coded at 1970 and 1979, respectively.
Comparability — Paraguay [top]
The 1982 and 2002 samples are bottom-coded at 1925 and 1950, respectively. Tourists who are included in the 2002 census universe were coded as "NIU (not in universe)".
Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]
All but the most recent immigrants have their data reported in intervals, coded to the mid-points. The original intervals are preserved in the unharmonized data.
Comparability — Spain [top]
The 2011 source data report year of most recent arrival to Spain. The 2011 sample is bottom-coded at 1905.
Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]
The 2011 sample is bottom-coded at 1949.
Comparability — United States [top]
The 2000 U.S. data were coded into intervals for persons who entered between 1930 and 1934 and before 1920. The data are recoded to the mid-points of those intervals. The bottom-code is 1910 in 2000, 1919 in 2005 and 2010, and 1921 in 2015.
Comparability — Uruguay [top]
The 1996 sample is bottom-coded at 1921. The 2011 sample is bottom-coded at 1945.
Comparability — Venezuela [top]
The data are calculated from the person's number of years in the country. The census was taken on October 21, so there is not an exact mapping of years in the country to calendar year of arrival. For each value of YRIMM about 20% of the cases should be classified in the next earlier year.
- Argentina 1970: Foreign-born persons
- Argentina 1980: Foreign-born persons
- Bolivia 2001: Foreign-born persons
- Brazil 2010: Foreign-born persons
- Canada 1971: Foreign-born persons
- Canada 1981: Foreign-born persons
- Canada 1991: Permanent residents born abroad and not from the Atlantic provinces and the territories
- Canada 2001: Permanent residents born abroad
- Canada 2011: Permanent residents born abroad
- Chile 1992: Foreign-born persons
- Chile 2002: Foreign-born persons
- Colombia 1985: Foreign-born persons
- Colombia 2005: Foreign-born persons
- Costa Rica 1984: Foreign-born persons
- Costa Rica 2000: Foreign-born persons
- Costa Rica 2011: Foreign-born persons
- Dominican Republic 1981: Habitually resident foreign-born persons
- Dominican Republic 2002: Foreign-born persons
- Dominican Republic 2010: Foreign-born persons
- Ecuador 2001: Foreign-born persons who reside in the household
- Ecuador 2010: Foreign-born persons who reside in the household
- El Salvador 1992: Foreign-born persons
- El Salvador 2007: Foreign-born persons
- Greece 2001: Foreign-born persons
- Greece 2011: Foreign-born persons
- Guatemala 1973: Foreign-born persons
- Guatemala 1981: Foreign-born persons
- Guatemala 1994: Foreign-born persons
- Guatemala 2002: Foreign-born persons
- Honduras 1974: Foreign-born persons
- Honduras 1988: Foreign-born persons
- Honduras 2001: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2001: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2011: Foreign-born persons who permanently transferred to Italy
- Italy 2011Q1: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2012Q1: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2013Q1: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2014Q1: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2015Q1: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2016Q1: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2017Q1: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2018Q1: Foreign-born persons
- Jamaica 1982: Foreign-born persons in private households or selected collective households
- Jamaica 1991: Foreigh-born persons
- Jamaica 2001: Foreign-born persons in private households or selected collective households
- Jordan 2004: Foreigh-born persons
- Malaysia 2000: Foreign-born persons
- Nicaragua 1971: Foreign-born persons
- Nicaragua 1995: Foreign-born persons
- Nicaragua 2005: Foreign-born persons
- Paraguay 1982: Foreign-born persons
- Paraguay 2002: Foreign-born persons
- Puerto Rico 2010: Foreign-born persons
- Saint Lucia 1980: Foreign-born persons
- Saint Lucia 1991: Foreign-born persons
- South Africa 2011: Foreign-born persons in private households and transient and tourist hotels
- Spain 2001: Non-citizens
- Spain 2005Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2005Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2005Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2005Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2006Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2006Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2006Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2006Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2007Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2007Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2007Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2007Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2008Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2008Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2008Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2008Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2009Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2009Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2009Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2009Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2010Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2010Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2010Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2010Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2011: Foreign-born persons
- Spain 2011Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2011Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2011Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2011Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2012Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2012Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2012Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2012Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2013Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2013Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2013Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2013Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2014Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2014Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2014Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2014Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2015Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2015Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2015Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2015Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2016Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2016Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2016Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2016Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2017Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2017Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2017Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2017Q4: Non-citizens
- Spain 2018Q1: Non-citizens
- Spain 2018Q2: Non-citizens
- Spain 2018Q3: Non-citizens
- Spain 2018Q4: Non-citizens
- Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Foreign-born persons in private households
- United States 2000: Foreign-born persons and persons born in US outlying areas
- United States 2005: Foreign-born persons and persons born in US outlying areas
- United States 2010: Foreign-born persons and persons born in US outlying areas
- United States 2015: Foreign-born persons and persons born in US outlying areas
- Uruguay 1996: Foreign-born persons
- Uruguay 2011: Foreign-born persons
- Venezuela 1981: Foreign-born persons
- Argentina: 1970, 1980
- Bolivia: 2001
- Brazil: 2010
- Canada: 1911, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Chile: 1992, 2002
- Colombia: 1985, 2005
- Costa Rica: 1984, 2000, 2011
- Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
- Ecuador: 2001, 2010
- El Salvador: 1992, 2007
- Greece: 2001, 2011
- Guatemala: 1973, 1981, 1994, 2002
- Honduras: 1974, 1988, 2001
- Italy: 2001, 2011, 2011Q1, 2012Q1, 2013Q1, 2014Q1, 2015Q1, 2016Q1, 2017Q1, 2018Q1
- Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
- Jordan: 2004
- Malaysia: 2000
- Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
- Paraguay: 1982, 2002
- Puerto Rico: 2010
- Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
- South Africa: 2011
- Spain: 2001, 2005Q1, 2005Q2, 2005Q3, 2005Q4, 2006Q1, 2006Q2, 2006Q3, 2006Q4, 2007Q1, 2007Q2, 2007Q3, 2007Q4, 2008Q1, 2008Q2, 2008Q3, 2008Q4, 2009Q1, 2009Q2, 2009Q3, 2009Q4, 2010Q1, 2010Q2, 2010Q3, 2010Q4, 2011, 2011Q1, 2011Q2, 2011Q3, 2011Q4, 2012Q1, 2012Q2, 2012Q3, 2012Q4, 2013Q1, 2013Q2, 2013Q3, 2013Q4, 2014Q1, 2014Q2, 2014Q3, 2014Q4, 2015Q1, 2015Q2, 2015Q3, 2015Q4, 2016Q1, 2016Q2, 2016Q3, 2016Q4, 2017Q1, 2017Q2, 2017Q3, 2017Q4, 2018Q1, 2018Q2, 2018Q3, 2018Q4
- Trinidad and Tobago: 2011
- United States: 1900, 1910, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
- Uruguay: 1996, 2011
- Venezuela: 1981