Codes and Frequencies
YRSIMM indicates the number of years since a foreign-born person immigrated to their country of enumeration.
Comparability — Index
Trinidad and Tobago
Comparability — General
The variable is fully comparable across samples, apart from samples which are non-citizens exclusively.
For most samples the values in YRSIMM are calculated from year of immigration (YRIMM). Because the censuses were taken at different times of the year, it means that most values are understated by a number of months.
For samples other than Venezuela, the original year of immigration can be reconstructed by subtracting the value for YRSIMM from the year of the census.
See YRSIMM2 for a similar variable on year of immigration coded into ranges of years.
Comparability — Brazil [top]
The 2010 sample is top-coded at 90 years.
Comparability — Canada [top]
In 1971-2011, many of the original responses were coded into intervals. These are recoded to the mid-points, rounding down. The responses "2000-2001" in 2001 and "2010-2011" in 2011 are coded to "1" year, because both censuses were taken in mid-year. The top-codes are 26+ years in 1971, 36+ years in 1981, 46+ years in 1991, 56+ years in 2001, and 41+in 2011.
The 1991 data are restricted to permanent residents born abroad who are not from the Atlantic Provinces and the territories. The 2001 and 2011 census questions also refer to foreign-born persons who have permanent residence (landed immigrant). The 1971 and 1981 samples do not include specific instructions on this regard.
Data are available for persons in the Atlantic Provinces in 1991, but they were coded into broad intervals incompatible with YRSIMM. See the unharmonized source variable.
The 1971-2011 census questions request the year corresponding to the first time the person immigrated to Canada (not the most recent if the person immigrated more than once).
Comparability — Costa Rica [top]
The 2000 and 2011 samples are top-coded at 71+ years and 51+ years, respectively.
Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]
The 1981 census was both de jure and de facto. The 2002 and 2010 censuses were de jure. In 1981, the question was asked only of habitually resident foreign-born persons. Therefore, this variable is comparable across all samples.
Top-codes differ significantly: the 1981 sample is top-coded at 32 years; the 2002 sample at 10 years; and the 2010 sample at 56 years.
Comparability — Ecuador [top]
The 2010 sample is top-coded at 60 years.
Comparability — El Salvador [top]
The 1992 and 2007 samples are top-coded at 32 years and 38 years, respectively.
Comparability — Greece [top]
The 2011 sample is the top-coded at 80+ years, and the 2001 sample at 52+ years.
Comparability — Honduras [top]
The 1974 sample is the most detailed available sample. The 1974 sample is top-coded at 44+ years; 1988 is top-coded at 18+ years; 2001 is top-coded at 23+ years.
Comparability — Italy [top]
The 2011 sample is top-coded at 83+ years.
Comparability — Jamaica [top]
The universe for Jamaica 1982 and 2001 is foreign-born persons; in 1991 it is foreign-born persons in private households or selected collective households (including religious, educational, military, and other institutions).
Some responses for Jamaica 1982 were coded into intervals, and they are recoded to the mid-points in this variable. The top-code is 23+ in 1982, 61+ in 1991, and 20+ in 2001. The bottom-code is 1 or less in 1982.
Comparability — Nicaragua [top]
The 1971 data are classified into 5-year intervals from 7-21 years and are recoded to their midpoints. This sample also is top-coded at 22 years, and the range from 0 to 1 year is coded as 1 year.
The 1995 and 2005 samples are top-coded at 25 years and 26 years, respectively. The 1995 data do not contain any responses indicating a 1995 arrival, so there no responses indicating 0 years.
Comparability — Paraguay [top]
The 1982 and 2002 samples are top-coded at 57+ years and 52+ years, respectively. Tourists who are included in the 2002 census universe were coded as "NIU (not in unverse)."
Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]
In the 1980 sample, some of the original responses were coded into intervals, such as 1970 to 1972 and 1973 to 1974. These responses are recoded to the mid-points, rounding down. The interval "1979-1980" in the 1980 sample is coded to "1" year, because the census was taken mid-way through 1980.
Both samples are top-coded at relatively low values: 11+ years in 1980, and 6+ years in 1991.
Comparability — South Africa [top]
The 2011 sample is top-coded at 76+ years.
Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]
The 2011 sample is top-coded at 62+ years.
Comparability — United States [top]
The 2000 U.S. data are coded into intervals for persons born 1930-1934 and before 1920. The data are coded to the mid-points of those intervals. The 2005 and 2010 data are continuous, however, the 2015 sample is not.
Comparability — Uruguay [top]
The 1996 sample is top-coded at 75 years. The 2011 sample is top-coded at 66 years.
Comparability — Venezuela [top]
Only the data for Venezuela are actual number of years since immigration; they are not recoded from calendar year. Immigrants who arrived less than one year before the census are not identified in Venezuela.
- Argentina 1970: Foreign-born persons
- Argentina 1980: Foreign-born persons
- Bolivia 2001: Foreign-born persons
- Brazil 2010: Foreign-born persons
- Canada 1971: Foreign-born persons
- Canada 1981: Foreign-born persons
- Canada 1991: Permanent residents born abroad and not from the Atlantic Provinces
- Canada 2001: Permanent residents born abroad
- Canada 2011: Permanent residents born abroad
- Chile 1992: Foreign-born persons
- Chile 2002: Foreign-born persons
- Costa Rica 1984: Foreign-born persons
- Costa Rica 2000: Foreign-born persons
- Costa Rica 2011: Foreign-born persons
- Dominican Republic 1981: Habitually resident foreign-born persons
- Dominican Republic 2002: Foreign-born persons
- Dominican Republic 2010: Foreign-born persons
- Ecuador 2001: Foreign-born persons who resided in the household
- Ecuador 2010: Foreign-born persons who resided in the household
- El Salvador 1992: Foreign-born persons
- El Salvador 2007: Foreign-born persons
- Greece 2001: Foreign-born persons
- Greece 2011: Foreign-born persons
- Honduras 1974: Foreign-born persons
- Honduras 1988: Foreign-born persons
- Honduras 2001: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2001: Foreign-born persons
- Italy 2011: Foreign-born persons who permanently transferred to Italy
- Jamaica 1982: Foreign-born persons in private households or selected collective households
- Jamaica 1991: Non-citizens
- Jamaica 2001: Foreign-born persons in private households or selected collective households
- Jordan 2004: Foreign-born persons
- Malaysia 2000: Foreign-born persons
- Nicaragua 1971: Foreign-born persons
- Nicaragua 1995: Foreign-born persons
- Nicaragua 2005: Foreign-born persons
- Paraguay 1982: Foreign-born persons
- Paraguay 2002: Foreign-born persons
- Puerto Rico 2010: Foreign-born persons
- Saint Lucia 1980: Foreign-born persons
- Saint Lucia 1991: Foreign-born persons
- South Africa 2011: Foreign-born persons in private households and transient and tourist hotels
- Spain 2001: Non-citizens
- Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons born abroad in private households
- United States 2000: Foreign-born persons and persons born in US outlying areas
- United States 2005: Foreign-born persons and persons born in US outlying areas
- United States 2010: Foreign-born persons and persons born in US outlying areas
- United States 2015: Foreign-born persons and persons born in US outlying areas
- Uruguay 1996: Foreign-born persons
- Uruguay 2011: Foreign-born persons
- Venezuela 1981: Foreign-born persons
- Argentina: 1970, 1980
- Bolivia: 2001
- Brazil: 2010
- Canada: 1911, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Chile: 1992, 2002
- Colombia: 1985, 2005
- Costa Rica: 1984, 2000, 2011
- Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
- Ecuador: 2001, 2010
- El Salvador: 1992, 2007
- Greece: 2001, 2011
- Honduras: 1974, 1988, 2001
- Italy: 2001, 2011
- Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
- Jordan: 2004
- Malaysia: 2000
- Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
- Paraguay: 1982, 2002
- Puerto Rico: 2010
- Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
- South Africa: 2011
- Spain: 2001
- Trinidad and Tobago: 2011
- United States: 1900, 1910, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
- Uruguay: 1996, 1996, 2011, 2011
- Venezuela: 1981