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United States, PUMA 1970 [Level 2, GIS]

Codes and Frequencies

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GEO2_US1970 identifies the most detailed areas that can be delineated from the geographic codes available in United States PUMS (Public Use Microdata Series) files in 1970. In the 1970 PUMS files, the smallest identified units are “county groups”. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO2_US1970 can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site. The GIS boundary files for GEO2_US1970 are based on the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2000 TIGER/Line files.

The full set of geography variables for United States can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level of any country refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

The 1970 U.S. sample privileges the identification of metropolitan areas over states. If knowing both the state and metro area of residence would allow the identification of a subpopulation less than 250,000 persons, then state is coded to "State not identified"

The following states are coded to "State not identified":

  • Delaware
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • Vermont
  • Wyoming

Several county groups cross state boundaries. County-groups that cross state boundaries are also demarcated as "state not identified".


  • All households and group quarters; not available for Puerto Rico.


  • United States: 1970