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Venezuela, State 1971 - 2001 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

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GEO1_VE identifies the household's state (estado), or dependencies (dependencias federales), or capital district (distrito capital) within Venezuela in all sample years. States are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1_VE is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1_VE can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for Venezuela can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time. Where officially-defined states have populations under 20,000, they have been regionalized (combined) with neighboring states.

Boundary changes and confidentiality issues:

  • Vargas was formed from a part of Federal District in 1998.
  • Merida expanded by acquiring a portion of Barinas after 1990.
  • Federal Dependencies is combined with Nueva Esparata in sample years 1971, 1981, and 2001 for confidentiality reasons.


  • All households


  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001