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United States, State 1850 - 2020 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

Codes and Frequencies

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GEO1_US identifies the household's state within the United States in all sample years. States are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1_US is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1_US can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for the United States can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

The 1970 United States sample privileges the identification of metropolitan areas over states. If knowing both the state and metro area of residence would allow the identification of a subpopulation less than 250,000 persons, then the state is coded as "State not identified"


  • All households


  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020