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Turkey, Province 1985 - 2000 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

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GEO1_TR identifies the household's province within Turkey in all sample years. Provinces are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1_TR is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1_TR can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for Turkey can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time.

Boundary changes:

  • In 1989, Aksaray province split from Niğde; Bayburt split from Gümüşhane; Karaman split from Konya; and Kırıkkale split from Ankara.
  • In 1990, Batman and Şırnak formed from parts of Hakkari, Mardin, and Siirt.
  • Bartın split from Zonguldak in 1991.
  • In 1994, Ardahan and Iğdir split from Kars.
  • Karabük province formed by taking Eskipazar and Ovacık districts from Çankırı province and Eflani, Karabuk, Safranbolu, and Yenice districts from Zonguldak province in 1995.
  • Kilis province split from Gaziantep in 1995.
  • Yalova province formed by taking Armutlu district from Bursa province, Çiftlikköy, Çınarcık, Termal, and Yalova districts from İstanbul province, and Altınova district from Kocaeli province in 1995.
  • Osmaniye province split from Adana, with the addition of a small part of Gaziantep in 1997.
  • Düzce province split from Bolu in 1999.


  • All households


  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000