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Panama, Province 1960 - 2010 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

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GEO1_PA identifies the household's province within Panama in all sample years. Provinces are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1_PA is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1_PA can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for Panama can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time.

Boundary changes:

  • In 1997 Comarca Ngobe Bugle was formed from parts of Bocas de Toro, Chiriqui, and Veraguas.
  • In 1983 Comarca Embera was formed from Darien.
  • In 2000 Comarca Kuna Yala (San Blas) was formed from Colon.

Users should note that year specific variables for Panama provinces are not available. This is due to inconsistencies in the first level and second level administrative unit boundary changes. Year specific variables would expose small areas with very low populations.


  • All households


  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010