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Nicaragua, Department 1971 - 2005 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

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GEO1_NI identifies the household's state within Nicaragua in all sample years. States are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1_NI is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1_NI can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for Nicaragua can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time.

  • A municipality moved between Estelí and Leon between 1971 and 1995.
  • Zelaya split into Atlántico Norte and Atlántico Sur in 1998.


  • All households


  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005