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India, State 1983 - 2009 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

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GEO1_IN identifies the household's state and union territories within India in all sample years. States and union territories are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1_IN is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1_IN can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for India can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level, refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time. Where officially-defined states have populations under 20,000, they have been regionalized (combined) with neighboring states.
Boundary changes:

  • Daman and Diu split from Goa in 1987 to become a separate state.
  • Chhattisgarh split from Madhya Pradesh in 2000 to become a separate state.
  • Jharkhand split from Bihar in 2000 to become a separate state.
  • Uttaranchal split from Uttar Pradesh in 2000 to become a separate state.


  • All households


  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009