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Canada, Province 1971 - 2011 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

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GEO1_CA identifies the household's province within Canada in all sample years. Provinces are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1_CA is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1_CA can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for Canada can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level, refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Where officially-defined provinces have populations under 20,000, they have been regionalized (combined) with neighboring provinces. Due to confidentiality reasons, the 1971 sample is missing 3 provinces, noted below.

Missing provinces and confidentiality issues:

  • Northwest Territories, Prince Edward Island, and Yukon were excluded in 1971.
  • Yukon and Northwest Territories combined with Prince Edward Island in 1981.


  • All households


  • Canada: 1911, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011