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Botswana, District 1981 - 2011 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

Codes and Frequencies

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GEO1_BW identifies the household's district within Botswana in all sample years. Districts are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1_BW is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1_BW can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for Botswana can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time. Where officially-defined districts have populations under 20,000, they have been regionalized (combined) with neighboring districts.

Boundary changes and confidentiality issues:

  • Sowa (also referred to as Sowa Town/Sowa Pan) was combined with Central Tutume in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
  • The Central Kgalagadi Game Reserve (CKGR) was combined with Ghanzi (called Gansti in 1981) in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
  • Orapa was combined with Central Boteti in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
  • Delta (also called Ngamiland Delta and/or Okavango Delta) was combined with Ngamiland West in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
  • Jwaneng was combined with Ngwaketse (includes Ngwaketse South, Southern, Ngwaketse West) in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
  • Kwaneng South and Kwaneng North have been combined into one "Kwaneng" unit after boundary changes.



  • All households


  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011