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Poland, Voivodship 1978 - 1988 [Level 1; consistent boundaries, GIS]

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


GEO1ALT_PL identifies the household's voivodship within Poland in 1978 and 1988. Voivodships are the first level administrative units of the country. GEO1ALT_PL is spatially harmonized to account for political boundary changes across census years. Some detail is lost in harmonization; see the comparability discussion. A GIS map (in shapefile format), corresponding to GEO1ALT_PL can be downloaded from the GIS Boundary files page in the IPUMS International web site.

The full set of geography variables for Poland can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level of any country refer to GEOLEV1, and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

Poland reorganized between 1988 and 2002. We therefore created a second harmonized variable named GEO1_PL. GEO1_PL covers 2002 and 2011 census years.


  • All households


  • Poland: 1978, 1988