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Codes and Frequencies



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Description

STEPMOM indicates whether a person's mother, as identified by MOMLOC, was most probably not the person's biological mother. Non-zero values of STEPMOM explain why it is probable that the person's mother was a step- or adopted mother. A value of 0 indicates no likely stepmother because (1) the mother identified in MOMLOC was probably the biological mother or (2) there is no mother of this person present in the household.

The codes for STEPMOM are as follows:

0 = Biological mother or no mother of this person present in household.
1 = Mother has no children borne or surviving.
2 = Child reports mother is deceased.
3 = Explicitly identified relationship (stepchild, adopted child, child of unmarried partner, stepchild/child-in-law).
4 = Mother reports no children in the home.
5 = Age difference between mother and child was less than 12 or greater than 54 years.
6 = Child exceeds known fertility of mother.

See PARRULE for a description of the linking process.

Users should note that there are many stepmothers and adopted mothers in the population that cannot be identified with information available in the censuses. Therefore, STEPMOM will always under-represent their actual number in the population.

Comparability — General

Rules 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 apply only in samples with the necessary variable detail. Rule 3 applies only for the children of the head and/or spouse.

Stepchildren are separately identified in the following countries and years: Brazil 1991 and Brazil 2010; Botswana 2001; Cameroon 2005; Chile 2002; Cuba 2002; Indonesia 1976, 1995, and 2010; Ireland 2006; Italy 2001; Jamaica 2001; Mexico 1990 and 2005; Nicaragua 2005; Philippines, all years; Portugal 1991 and 2001; Puerto Rico 1990 and 2000; South Africa 2001; Thailand 1970 (combined with adopted children), 1980, and 1990; Uganda 2002; United Kingdom 2001; United States 1990, 2000; and 2006; Uruguay 1996 and 2006.

In Haiti 1982 and 2003, stepchildren/children-in-law are combined into a joint category Persons in this category who link to the head are flagged as stepchildren.

Adopted children are identified in a small number of samples: Fiji 1976 and 2006; Mexico 1990 and 2005; Puerto Rico 2000; South Africa 2001 and 2007; Thailand 1970 (with stepchildren), 1980, and 1990; Trinidad and Tobago 2011; United States 2000 and 2010.

Unmarried partners are identified in the following samples: Austria, all years; Chile 1970-2002; France 1962, 1968, and 1975; Greece 2001; Hungary 1970, 1990, 2001, 2011; Ireland 1991-2006; Italy 2001; Jamaica 2001; Poland 2002; Puerto Rico 1990-2005; Romania 2002; Slovenia 2002; Spain 2001; Trinidad and Tobago 2011; United Kingdom 1991 and 2001; United States 1990-2010. Children of the head's unmarried partner are explicitly identified only in the United Kingdom, but other relatives and non-relatives are allowed to point to unmarried partners in the remaining samples.

No constructed family interrelationship variables are available for the individual-level samples that do not contain entire households of persons.

Universe

  • Persons under age 19

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2004, 2008, 2013
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Canada: 2011
  • Chile: 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • China: 1982, 1990, 2000
  • Colombia: 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Fiji: 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007, 2014
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Ghana: 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Guatemala: 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994, 2002
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
  • Honduras: 1974, 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1979, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011, 2011Q1, 2012Q1, 2013Q1, 2014Q1, 2015Q1, 2016Q1, 2017Q1, 2018Q1
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1969, 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Laos: 2005
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 1989, 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Nepal: 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Pakistan: 1973, 1998
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
  • Poland: 1978, 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Russia: 2002, 2010
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1991, 2001, 2005Q1, 2005Q2, 2005Q3, 2005Q4, 2006Q1, 2006Q2, 2006Q3, 2006Q4, 2007Q1, 2007Q2, 2007Q3, 2007Q4, 2008Q1, 2008Q2, 2008Q3, 2008Q4, 2009Q1, 2009Q2, 2009Q3, 2009Q4, 2010Q1, 2010Q2, 2010Q3, 2010Q4, 2011Q1, 2011Q2, 2011Q3, 2011Q4, 2012Q1, 2012Q2, 2012Q3, 2012Q4, 2013Q1, 2013Q2, 2013Q3, 2013Q4, 2014Q1, 2014Q2, 2014Q3, 2014Q4, 2015Q1, 2015Q2, 2015Q3, 2015Q4, 2016Q1, 2016Q2, 2016Q3, 2016Q4, 2017Q1, 2017Q2, 2017Q3, 2017Q4, 2018Q1, 2018Q2, 2018Q3, 2018Q4
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Togo: 1960, 1970, 2010
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1991
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012