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CHBORN
Children ever born

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

CHBORN reports the number of children ever born to each woman of whom the question was asked. In most samples, women were to report all live births by all fathers, whether or not the child was still living.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Austria
Belarus
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Fiji
Germany
Greece
Guinea
Haiti
Hungary
Indonesia
Iran
Ireland
Israel
Jamaica
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Liberia
Malawi
Mali
Morocco
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Pakistan
Palestine
Panama
Paraguay
Philippines
Puerto Rico
Romania
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
South Africa
South Sudan
Spain
Sudan
Switzerland
Tanzania
Thailand
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
Uganda
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia

Comparability — General

CHBORN is comparable among all the samples, aside from universe differences. Most censuses asked all females above a certain age the question, but some capped the age as well. In addition, some censuses limited the question to women who had ever been married or who have ever been pregnant.

Census data on childbirths are often considered unreliable. Numerous samples have unlikely or impossible numbers of births, but we have not attempted to correct those cases.

The 1960 Brazil and 1970 Chile samples are the only ones to include still births in CHBORN.

The 1971 Ireland sample only records children born in the present marriage, and instructed enumerators to double check year of marriage against year of birth.

Users should be sensitive about the interpretation of the "unknown/not reported" category, which is large for some samples. In many cases, this may mean zero births. It is also possible that unmarried persons with children could tend to be over-represented here.

Some samples impose a top-code on the number of children. See the codes page frequencies for the samples in question, if this might affect your analysis.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

The universe changes from age 12 and older in 1970 to age 14 and older in later years. The 1980 sample top-codes the data at 8+, while 1991 and 2001 cap it at 16+.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

The data are top-coded at 7 or more births in the 2001 and 2011 samples.

Comparability — Austria [top]

The universe changes from age 15 and older in 1981-1991, to age 16 and older in 2001. The 1981 and 1991 samples are top-coded at ten or more births; 2001 is top-coded at 8 or more.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

The top code changes from 13+ in 1999 to 7+ in 2009.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

In Bolivia, the universe changed from age 12 and older in 1976 and 1992 to age 15 and older in 2001.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

In 1981, the CHBORN is top-coded at 15. In 1991, the top code is 20. In 2001, CHBRON is constructed based on separate questions about male children ever born and female children ever born and has a top code of 10. The 2011 sample is top-coded at 18.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

In 1960, stillbirths are included in CHBORN. In other Brazilian samples, this information was recorded separately.
For the 1980 sample, the integrated variable was constructed from separate questions of male and female births.

The age universe changes from 10+ in 1960, to 15+ in 1970-1980, and back to 10+ in 1991-2010.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The universe changes over time: in the 1985 and 1996 samples, female respondents age 12 and older answered the question; in the 2006 sample, the questions were asked of females age 10 and older. The variable is top-coded at 12 in 1996 and 2006.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The variable is fully comparable across samples.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

The variable is top-coded at 18+ in 2005.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The 1971-1981 samples restrict the universe to ever-married females; the 1991 sample does not. The top code drops from 14 in 1971, to 9 in 1981, to 7 in 1991.
The top-code changes from 14 in 1971, to 9 in 1981, to 7 in 1991.

Comparability — Chile [top]

The 1970 sample includes stillbirths.

The age universe for women who were asked the question changes over time: age 12 and older in 1960; 15 and older in 1970, 1982, and 2002; and 14 and older in 1992. The samples have different top codes.

Comparability — China [top]

The universe changes from females age 15 to 64 in 1982 and to females age 15 to 50 in 2000. The 1990 sample is top-coded at 9 or more births; the 2000 sample is top-coded at 12 or more births.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

The age universe changes from 15 and older in 1973 and 1985, to 12 and older in 1993 and 2005. For 1993, the variable was constructed with separate questions for male and female children.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The age universe changes from 15 and older for 1973-1984 to 12 and older in 2000 and 2011.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The universe for the 1970, 2002 and 2010 sample is women age 15 and older; in the 1981 sample it is women age 12 and older. The 1970 sample is top coded at 20 and the 1981 sample is top coded at 15.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

The age universe changes from 15 and older for 1962-1990 to 12 and older in 2001-2010.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

The 1992 variable is not top coded. For the 2007 variable, the number of children is calculated from two separate variables, the number of male and female children born. Each of those variables is top-coded at 12+ children, as is CHBORN for that sample. See the unharmonized source variables to identify the affected cases.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The universe in 1984 and 1994 includes female residents age 10 and older. The 2007 sample includes only long-form female respondents age 10 and older.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

The 1966 sample is top-coded at 16 births or more and 2007 sample is at 7 or more. The universe of females age 15+ is consistent across samples.

Comparability — Germany [top]

Childbearing data are not available for the 1987 sample, and the universe differs across the earlier samples. In 1970, women are asked to report the total number of "legitimate" children born alive. In 1971, married women are asked to report the number of children born in their current marriage. The 1981 census question is asked of all women, regardless of marital status, and explicitly includes births occurring outside of the current marriage. The 1970 sample records up to 12 children, while the 1971 and 1981 samples record up to 20 children per woman.

Comparability — Greece [top]

In 1991 and 2001, the question was asked of females born before calendar year 1981 and 1991, respectively. Enumeration occurred in the middle of March, so the age universe is approximately age 10+ in those samples. The 2011 sample is top-coded at 11+.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The data are top-coded at 13 or more births. The 1983 census contained fertility questions, but those data are not preserved in the microdata.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

The age universe has changed over time from females age 15 and older in 1982 to females age 13 and older in 2003. Top-coding changes from 20+ in 1982 to 18+ in 2003.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The universe differs between samples. In 1990, the universe is females age 14 and older; in 1970, 1980 and 2001 the universe is females age 15 and older. In 2011, the question was asked of all females but births are recorded for females age 13 and older only.

The 1990, 2001, and 2011 censuses included responses for men. Men are excluded from CHBORN, but are available in the corresponding unharmonized variables for these samples.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The 1980, 1990, and 2000 variables are top-coded at 30+ children, 10+ children, and 20+ children respectively. The other samples are not top-coded. For the 1980 variable, the number of children is calculated from two separate variables, the total number of living children and the total number of dead children. Each of those variables is top-coded at 30+ children, as is CHBORN for that sample; see the unharmonized source variables to identify the affected cases.

The 1995 and 2010 universes differ significantly from other years. The 1995 sample limits the age universe of respondents, and the 2010 sample is the only one to include never-married women as well.

Comparability — Iran [top]

Both samples provide data for ever-married females only. The 2011 sample provides data for females age 10 and older only.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

For the 1971 sample, the variable records only the children born to married women from their current marriage. All other births are not recorded. The 2011 question was asked to present women.

The 1971 sample is top-coded at 10 or more. The 2011 sample is top-coded at 9 or more.

Comparability — Israel [top]

The universe changes significantly from ever-married females in 1983 to all females age 15+ in 1995.

The data for 1995 were coded into a small number of categories: 3 to 4, 5 to 7, and 8 or more. In each case the data are coded to the lowest value of the interval (3, 5, and 8). The 1995 top code is 8 or more; 1983 has no top code.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The universe varies across samples. The 1982 sample includes women age 14 or older who are not full-time students. The 1991 sample includes only women ages 14 to 64. The 2001 sample includes only women ages 14 to 49 who ever had a live birth.

The samples have different top-codes.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The 1979 sample is top-coded at 20 births or more, 1999 is top-coded at 18 or more, and 2009 is top-coded at 15 or more.

The universe is females age 12 and older for all samples except 1979. The 1979 enumeration form indicates that the universe was females age 12+, but it appears to actually be females age 15+. There are a large proportion of missing cases.

Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]

The data are top-coded at 15 or more births.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The age universe goes from 10 or older in 1974 to women age 12 to 54 in the 2008 sample.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The universe varies across samples: the 1987 sample includes women age 10 or older, while the 1998 and 2008 samples only include women age 12 or older. Additionally, the 2008 sample only includes non-visiting women. The variables are otherwise comparable.

The samples have different top-codes.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The age universe changes from women age 12+ in the 1987 and 1998 samples to women age 12 to 49 for the 2009 sample. The 2009 sample is top-coded at 12 or more children.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The data for all samples are calculated from multiple input variables. 1982 and 1994 are top-coded at 10+ children; the 2004 variable is top-coded at 13+ children. Original details are preserved in the unharmonized source variables

The 1982 census asked the fertility questions only of women age 50 or less; the other years do not cap the age of respondents.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

The universe varies importantly across samples: the 1997 sample includes women between ages 12 and 50, while the 2007 sample includes woman residents age 12 or older.

The variable is constructed from two variables that are each top-coded; the data therefore underreport the actual number of children for a small number of cases. See the unharmonized source variables to identify the affected cases.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

The 1995 and 2005 variables are top-coded at 20+ children and the 1971 variable is not top-coded at all. The minimum age of respondents varies across samples.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

The universe changes from the 2006 sample women age 15 and older or ever-married who ever been pregnant to women age 15 and older who have ever been pregnant for the 2007 sample. Both samples are top-coded at 10 or more children.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

Fertility data are available only in 1973. The number of children is calculated from separate variables on male and female children. Each of those variables has a top code affecting a small number of cases, and CHBORN underestimates the true value for those women. See the unharmonized source variables to identify the affected cases.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

Respondents were asked to report only children born to them while they were married.

Comparability — Panama [top]

Only indigenous females age 12 and older were asked the question in 1960. The age universe changes from 15 and older in 1970-1990, to 12 and older in 2000-2010. The 2010 sample is top-coded at 16 or more births.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The universe varies across samples: the 1962 and 2002 samples include women residents age 12 or older, while the 1972 sample includes woman residents age 15 or older, and the 1982 and 1992 samples include women age 14 or older.

The samples have different top-codes.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

Only ever-married females age 15 to 49 are in the universe for the Philippines.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The age universe changes from 14 and older 1970 to 15 and older thereafter. All samples are top-coded at 12+ children.

Comparability — Romania [top]

In 1977 and 1992, the census asked the question of females born before calendar year 1962 and 1978, respectively. The censuses were taken in the first week of January, so the universe is effectively age 16+ and age 15+ in those samples. The age universe of age 12 or older in 2002 was imposed by IPUMS to make the sample comparable to others. All of the affected females had zero children. The 2011 sample has an age universe of 15+.

The 2002 sample has a top code of 17+ and the 2011 sample has a top code of 16+.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

In both samples, the data were calculated from separate responses for male and female children. The separate variables were top-coded at 13+ in 2002, so values above 13 could be affected. See the unharmonized variables.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

The universe is highly unusual. Both samples restrict the question to females who were not attending school. The 1980 sample asked the question of females age 14+, while 1991 limited it to females age 15 to 65.

Both samples are top-coded at 12+ children born.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The number of children is calculated from separate variables on male and female children. Each of those variables has a top code affecting a small number of cases, and CHBORN underestimates the true value for those women. See the unharmonized source variables to identify the affected cases.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The universe differs slightly across samples. All samples restrict the universe to women age 12 or older, but the 2011 sample only asked the question to females in private households age 12 or older.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

The data are calculated from two separate variables and top-coded at 12 or more children.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The 1981 the sample limits the universe to females age 14 and older who were ever-married. In 1991, the universe changes to females age 12 and older, regardless of marital status. The 1991 data are also top-coded at 7 or more births.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

The universe is restricted to ever married females age 12 to 54.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

Number of children was asked of both men and women during the 2000 census. The male responses are removed from CHBORN but are available in the unharmonized source variable. The 2000 census is top-coded at 13.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

In 1988, the number of children ever born is calculated from six separate variables. In 2002, CHBORN is top-coded at 20. In 2012, the variable is top-coded at 15+.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

All censuses limited the question to ever-married women. There are some minor differences in the minimum age universe as well.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

In the 1970 and 2000 samples, the universe is females age 14 and older. In 2011, the universe is females age 14 to 54. The top-codes change from 16+ in 1970 to 15+ in 2000 to 11+ in 2011.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

The 1990 and 2000 variables are calculated from two separate variables, and all samples are top-coded at 10+ children.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

The universe changes significantly: from age 12 and older in 1991 to age 12 to 54 in 2002.

Comparability — United States [top]

The data are top-coded at 12+ births. Only ever-married women were asked this question in 1960, while all women were asked in 1970, 1980, and 1990.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

Only the 1996 question is top-coded, at 14+ children.

The 2006 survey asked the fertility question of both men and women. Male responses are retained in the unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The data are top-coded at 8 or more births in 1971.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

In all samples, the number of children ever born was asked only of women of childbearing age (15 to 49).

Comparability — Zambia [top]

The universe differs slightly across samples. All samples restrict the universe to women age 12 or older, but the 2010 sample only asked the question to present household members and visitors, excluding absent household members. The 1990 and 2000 enumeration instructions indicate that this question should have been asked only of present household members and visitors, but children ever born is reported for almost all absent household members; they are included in the universe for these samples. All samples are top-coded at 10 or more children.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Females age 12+
  • Argentina 1980: Females age 14+
  • Argentina 1991: Females age 14+
  • Argentina 2001: Females age 14+
  • Armenia 2001: Females age 15+
  • Armenia 2011: Females age 15+
  • Austria 1981: Females age 15+
  • Austria 1991: Females age 15+
  • Austria 2001: Females age 16+
  • Belarus 1999: Females age 15+
  • Belarus 2009: Females age 15+
  • Bolivia 1976: Females age 12+
  • Bolivia 1992: Females age 12+
  • Bolivia 2001: Females age 15+
  • Botswana 1981: Present resident females age 12+
  • Botswana 1991: Females age 12+
  • Botswana 2001: Female age 12+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Botswana 2011: Female age 12+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Brazil 1960: Females age 10+
  • Brazil 1970: Females age 15+
  • Brazil 1980: Females age 15+
  • Brazil 1991: Females age 10+
  • Brazil 2000: Females age 10+
  • Brazil 2010: Females age 10+
  • Burkina Faso 1985: Females age 12+
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Female household residents aged 12+
  • Burkina Faso 2006: Females age 10+
  • Cambodia 1998: Females age 15+
  • Cambodia 2008: Females age 15+
  • Cameroon 2005: Females age 12+
  • Canada 1971: Ever-married females age 15+
  • Canada 1981: Ever-married females age 15+, not institutionalized
  • Canada 1991: Females age 15+
  • Chile 1960: Females age 12+
  • Chile 1970: Females age 15+
  • Chile 1982: Females age 15+
  • Chile 1992: Females age 14+
  • Chile 2002: Females age 15+
  • China 1982: Females age 15 to 64
  • China 1990: Females age 15 to 64
  • China 2000: Females age 15-50
  • Colombia 1973: Females age 15+
  • Colombia 1985: Females age 15+
  • Colombia 1993: Females age 12+
  • Colombia 2005: Females age 12+
  • Costa Rica 1973: Females age 15+
  • Costa Rica 1984: Females age 15+
  • Costa Rica 2000: Females age 12+
  • Costa Rica 2011: Females age 12+
  • Dominican Republic 1970: Females age 15+
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Females age 12+
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Females age 15+
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Females age 15+
  • Ecuador 1974: Females age 15+
  • Ecuador 1982: Females age 15+
  • Ecuador 1990: Females age 15+
  • Ecuador 2001: Females age 12+
  • Ecuador 2010: Females age 12+
  • El Salvador 1992: Females age 12+
  • El Salvador 2007: Females age 12+
  • Ethiopia 1984: Female residents age 10+
  • Ethiopia 1994: Female residents age 10+
  • Ethiopia 2007: Long form female respondents age 10+
  • Fiji 1966: Females age 15+
  • Fiji 1976: Females age 15+
  • Fiji 2007: Females age 15+
  • Germany 1970: Ever-married females
  • Germany 1971: Married females
  • Germany 1981: Females
  • Ghana 2000: Females age 12+
  • Ghana 2010: Females age 12+
  • Greece 1991: Females born before 1981
  • Greece 2001: Females born before 1991
  • Greece 2011: Females age 10+
  • Guinea 1996: Females age 12+
  • Haiti 1982: Females age 15+
  • Haiti 2003: Females age 13+
  • Hungary 1970: Females age 15+
  • Hungary 1980: Females age 15+
  • Hungary 1990: Females age 14+
  • Hungary 2001: Females age 15+
  • Hungary 2011: All females
  • Indonesia 1971: Ever-married females
  • Indonesia 1976: Ever-married females
  • Indonesia 1980: Ever-married females
  • Indonesia 1990: Ever-married females age 10+
  • Indonesia 1995: Ever-married females age 10 to 54
  • Indonesia 2000: Ever-married females age 10+
  • Indonesia 2010: Females age 10+ in regular enumeration areas
  • Iran 2006: Ever-married females
  • Iran 2011: Ever-married females age 10+
  • Iraq 1997: Ever-married females age 12+
  • Ireland 1971: Married females age 14+
  • Ireland 2011: Present women
  • Israel 1972: Ever-married females age 14+
  • Israel 1983: Ever-married females age 15+
  • Israel 1995: Females age 15+
  • Jamaica 1982: Females age 14+ in private households and some group quarters who are not full-time students
  • Jamaica 1991: Females age 14 to 64 in private households and some group quarters who are not full-time primary or secondary students
  • Jamaica 2001: Females age 14 to 49
  • Kenya 1969: Females age 12+
  • Kenya 1979: Females age 15+
  • Kenya 1989: Females age 12+
  • Kenya 1999: Females age 12+
  • Kenya 2009: Females age 12+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Females age 15+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Females age 15+
  • Liberia 1974: Females age 10+
  • Liberia 2008: Females age 12 to 54
  • Malawi 1987: Females age 10+
  • Malawi 1998: Females age 12+
  • Malawi 2008: Non-visitor females age 12+
  • Malaysia 1970: Ever-married females age 10+
  • Malaysia 1980: Ever-married females age 10+
  • Mali 1987: Females age 12+
  • Mali 1998: Females age 12+
  • Mali 2009: Females age 12 to 49
  • Mexico 1960: Females age 12+
  • Mexico 1970: Females age 12+
  • Mexico 1990: Females age 12+
  • Mexico 2000: Females age 12+
  • Mexico 2005: Females age 12+
  • Mexico 2010: Females age 12+
  • Mexico 2015: Females age 12+
  • Mongolia 1989: Females age 15+
  • Morocco 1982: Ever-married females age 50 or less
  • Morocco 1994: Ever-married females age 10+
  • Morocco 2004: Ever-married females
  • Mozambique 1997: Female residents age 12 to 50
  • Mozambique 2007: Female residents age 12+
  • Nicaragua 1971: Females age 15+
  • Nicaragua 1995: Females age 14+
  • Nicaragua 2005: Females age 13+
  • Nigeria 2006: Females age 15+ or ever-married who had ever been pregnant
  • Nigeria 2007: Females age 15+ who had ever been pregnant
  • Pakistan 1973: Ever-married females
  • Palestine 1997: Ever-married females age 12+
  • Palestine 2007: Ever-married females age 12+ except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: Indigenous females age 12+
  • Panama 1970: Females age 15+
  • Panama 1980: Females age 15+
  • Panama 1990: Females age 15+
  • Panama 2000: Females age 12+
  • Panama 2010: Females age 12+
  • Paraguay 1962: Females age 12+
  • Paraguay 1972: Females age 15+
  • Paraguay 1982: Females age 14+
  • Paraguay 1992: Females age 14+
  • Paraguay 2002: Females age 12+
  • Peru 1993: Females age 12+
  • Peru 2007: Females age 12+
  • Philippines 1990: Ever-married females age 15 to 49
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Females age 14+
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Females age 15+
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Females age 15+
  • Romania 1977: Females born before 1962
  • Romania 1992: Females born before 1978
  • Romania 2002: Females age 12+
  • Romania 2011: Females age 15+
  • Rwanda 1991: Non-visitor females age 12+
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitor females age 12+
  • Saint Lucia 1980: Females age 14+ not attending school full time
  • Saint Lucia 1991: Females age 15 to 65 not attending school full time
  • Senegal 2002: Females age 12+
  • Sierra Leone 2004: Females age 10+
  • Slovenia 2002: Females age 15+
  • South Africa 1996: Females age 12+ in private households
  • South Africa 2001: Females age 12 to 50
  • South Africa 2007: Females age 12 to 50
  • South Africa 2011: Females age 12 to 50 in private households
  • South Sudan 2008: Females age 12 to 54
  • Spain 1981: Ever-married females age 14+
  • Spain 1991: Females age 12+
  • Sudan 2008: Ever-married females age 12 to 54
  • Switzerland 2000: Females age 12+
  • Tanzania 1988: Females age 12+
  • Tanzania 2002: Females age 12+
  • Tanzania 2012: Females age 12+
  • Thailand 1970: Ever-married females age 11+
  • Thailand 1980: Ever-married females age 11+
  • Thailand 1990: Ever-married females age 13+
  • Thailand 2000: Ever-married females age 13+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1970: Females age 14+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Females age 14+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Females age 14 to 54 in private households
  • Turkey 1985: Ever-married females age 12+
  • Turkey 1990: Ever-married females age 12+
  • Turkey 2000: Ever-married females age 12+
  • Uganda 1991: Females age 12+
  • Uganda 2002: Females age 12 to 54
  • Ukraine 2001: Females age 15+
  • United States 1960: Ever-married females age 14+
  • United States 1970: Females age 14+
  • United States 1980: Females age 15+
  • United States 1990: Females age 15+
  • Uruguay 1975: Females age 15+
  • Uruguay 1985: Females age 15+
  • Uruguay 1996: Females age 15+
  • Uruguay 2006: Females age 14+
  • Uruguay 2011: Females age 12+
  • Venezuela 1971: Females age 15+
  • Venezuela 1990: Females age 12+
  • Venezuela 2001: Females age 12+
  • Vietnam 1989: Females age 15 to 49
  • Vietnam 1999: Females age 15 to 49
  • Vietnam 2009: Females age 15 to 49
  • Zambia 1990: Females age 12+
  • Zambia 2000: Females age 12+
  • Zambia 2010: Present household member and visitor females age 12+

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2008
  • Cameroon: 2005
  • Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • China: 1982, 1990, 2000
  • Colombia: 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Fiji: 1966, 1976, 2007
  • Germany: 1970-1971, 1981
  • Ghana: 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1996
  • Haiti: 1982, 2003
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Kenya: 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 1989
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006-2007
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990
  • Uruguay: 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010