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Codes and Frequencies

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


REGNUS indicates the census region in the United States in which the household was enumerated. REGNUS is the largest-scale geographic identifier available in the U.S. samples. REGNUS is harmonized by name and does not account for boundary changes over time.

The full set of geography variables for the United States can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1 and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

This variable is fully comparable across the U.S. samples.

States are recoded into the following 1990 census regional and divisional classification system:

1. Northeast Region

  • New England Division: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont
  • Middle Atlantic Division: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania

2. Midwest Region

  • East North Central Division: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin
  • West North Central Division: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

3. South Region

  • South Atlantic Division: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia
  • East South Central Division: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee
  • West South Central Division: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma/Indian Territory, Texas

4. West Region

  • Mountain Division: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming
  • Pacific Division: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington

9. State Unknown

  • 1980 and 1990: to protect confidentiality, state cannot be identified for PUMAs or county groups that cross state boundaries.


  • All households


  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015