INCTOT is a 7-digit numeric variable.
9999998 = Unknown/missing.
9999999 = NIU (not in universe).
Brazil 1991: 9,999,997+
Canada 1971: 50,000+ females in Atlantic region; 75,000+ for others
Canada 1981: 75,000+ all females, males in Atlantic region; 100,000+ males other regions
Canada 1991-2001: 200,000+
Dominican Republic 1981: 3,000+
Dominican Republic 2002: 500,000+
Indonesia 1976: 600,000+
Mexico 1970: 5,500,000+
Panama 2010: 10,000+
Puerto Rico 1980: 50,000+
South Africa 1996: 360,001+
South Africa 2001-2011: 2,457,601+
Trinidad and Tobago 1970: 1,200+
Trinidad and Tobago 2000: 13,000+
U.S.A. 1960: 25,000+
U.S.A. 1970: 50,000+
U.S.A. 1980: 75,000+
U.S.A. 1990: State median of values over 400,000
U.S.A. 2000: 999,998+
U.S.A. 2015: 9,999,999+
Canada 1981-2001: -50,000
U.S.A. 1960: -9,900
U.S.A. 1970: -9,900
U.S.A. 1980: -9,995
U.S.A. 1990, 2005: -19,998
U.S.A. 2000: -20,000
U.S.A. 2015: -19,999+
INCTOT reports the person's total personal income from all sources in the previous month or year.
Comparability — Index
Trinidad and Tobago
Comparability — General
Amounts are expressed as they were reported at the time of the census in the currency of the respective country. Figures are not adjusted for inflation or devaluation.
Figures for some samples represent the midpoints of intervals and are not exact currency amounts.
The timeframe for the data differs:
Previous twelve months: Puerto Rico 2005-2010, South Africa, United States 2005-2015
Previous month: Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Mexico, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago 2000, Venezuela
The universe for 1981 Dominican Republic includes only people who ever worked, which is more restrictive than other samples.
Comparability — Brazil [top]
All Brazilian figures are monthly income: the previous month's income for employees or the average monthly income for the year for persons who did not work the previous month or otherwise had irregular or variable income.
In 2000 and 2010, total gross income includes labor income and income from sources such as retirement, pension, social programs and returns on financial investments.
Brazilian currency changed considerably over time. The cruzeiro was devalued at 1,000 to 1 in 1967. The cruzado, equal to 1,000 cruzeiros, was introduced in 1986. In 1989 the cruzado was devalued, with 1 new cruzado = 1,000 old cruzados. In March 1990, the cruzeiro replaced the cruzado, with no change in value. In 1993, the cruzeiro reais replaced the cruzeiro, with 1 cruzeiro reias = 1,000 cruzeiros. Finally, in 1994 the currency was changed to the real, where 1 real = 2,750 cruzeiros reais.
Total income data are available for 1960 in INCTBR, but they are grouped into broad income categories.
Comparability — Canada [top]
The data refer to income in the previous calendar year in Canadian dollars. The reported amounts can be negative in all samples.
Comparability — Colombia [top]
Colombian data are income in pesos in the month prior to the census.
Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]
In both samples, the data report monthly income.
There is a significant universe difference between samples. The 1981 sample restricts the universe to persons who ever worked, though the data include income from all sources for those persons. Respondents had the choice of reporting income on a monthly or annual basis; it was converted to monthly income in post-enumeration coding.
The universe for the 2002 sample was persons age 10+, regardless of employment history.
Comparability — Mexico [top]
All Mexican figures are monthly income in pesos.
Mexico underwent major devaluations of the currency in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. A "new" peso equivalent to one thousand old pesos was introduced in 1993. Users must account for these changes when making comparisons across this period.
Income in the 1970 sample was reported in eighty categories, each representing a range of incomes. The data have been recoded to the midpoints of the intervals to make them more comparable with other samples.
Comparability — Panama [top]
The data report monthly income. The universe changes between samples. A value of "1" in 2010 indicates "some income."
Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]
All censuses told respondents to include income from all sources, with the later censuses giving more detailed instructions.
Persons in the Puerto Rico samples can report negative incomes. The data is top-coded in 1980.
Comparability — South Africa [top]
The data are annual income in Rands for the twelve months prior to the census. In all three samples the data are recoded to the midpoints of the broad intervals given in the original data. The top interval is coded to its lowest possible value (e.g, code 360001 for 360,001+). The original intervals are documented below:
|1996 Intervals||2001-11 Intervals|
|No income||No income|
Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]
The reference period for the 1970 sample varies on an individual basis and is reported in
Comparability — United States [top]
All censuses told respondents to include income from all sources, with the later censuses giving more detailed instructions. The 2005, 2010, and 2015 data refer to the previous 12 months, while earlier samples report income for the previous calendar year.
The codes for all years prior to 1990 represent midpoints of intervals and are not exact dollar amounts.
Persons in the U.S. samples can report negative incomes. The U.S. data are top-coded differently in each census.
Comparability — Venezuela [top]
The data report monthly income. The labor income component is either from the previous month or the last month that the person worked.
- Brazil 1970: Persons age 10+
- Brazil 1980: Persons age 10+
- Brazil 1991: Persons age 10+
- Brazil 2000: Persons age 10+
- Brazil 2010: Persons age 10+
- Canada 1971: Persons age 15+, excluding inmates
- Canada 1981: Persons age 15+
- Canada 1991: Persons age 15+
- Canada 2001: Persons age 15+
- Canada 2011: Persons age 15+
- Colombia 1973: Persons age 10+
- Dominican Republic 1981: Persons age 10+ who ever worked for pay
- Dominican Republic 2002: Persons age 10+
- Mexico 1970: Persons age 12+
- Mexico 1995: Persons age 12+
- Mexico 2000: Persons age 12+
- Panama 1980: Persons age 10+
- Panama 1990: Persons age 15+
- Panama 2010: All persons
- Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 14+
- Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 15+
- Puerto Rico 1990: All persons
- Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 15+
- Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 15+
- Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 15+
- South Africa 1996: Persons in private households
- South Africa 2001: All persons
- South Africa 2007: Persons in private households
- South Africa 2011: Persons in private households
- Trinidad and Tobago 1970: Persons age 10+ who were economically active in the last 12 months
- Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons age 15+
- United States 1960: Persons age 14+
- United States 1970: Persons age 14+
- United States 1980: Persons age 15+
- United States 1990: All persons
- United States 2000: Persons age 15+
- United States 2005: Persons age 15+
- United States 2010: Persons age 15+
- United States 2015: Persons age 15+
- Venezuela 2001: Persons age 10+
- Brazil: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
- Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Colombia: 1973
- Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002
- Mexico: 1970, 1995, 2000
- Panama: 1980, 1990, 2010
- Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
- South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
- Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 2000
- United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
- Venezuela: 2001