INCWAGE is a 7-digit numeric variable.
9999998 = Unknown/missing.
9999999 = NIU (not in universe).
Israel 1983: 74,716+
Israel 1995: 20,000+
Canada 1971: 50,000+ females in Atlantic region; 75,000+ for others
Canada 1981: 75,000+ all females, males in Atlantic region; 100,000+ males other regions
Canada 1991-2001: 200,000+
Dominican Republic 1981: 2000+
Germany 1970: 2,500+
Indonesia 1995: 9,999,997+
Italy Surveys 2011-2018: 3000+
Jamaica 1982: 100,000+
Jamaica 1991: 100,000+
Jamaica 2001: 3,000,000+
Panama 1970: 800+
Panama 2000: 9,997+
Panama 2010: 10,000+
Puerto Rico 1970-1980: 50,000+
Puerto Rico 1990: 140,000+
Puerto Rico 2000: 175,000+
Puerto Rico 2005: 999,999+
Puerto Rico 2010: 173,000+
Trinidad and Tobago 2000: 55,000+
U.S.A. 1960: 25,000+
U.S.A. 1970: 50,000+
U.S.A. 1980: 75,000+
U.S.A. 1990: State median of values over 140,000
U.S.A. 2000: State median of values over 175,000
U.S.A. 2005: 99.5th percentile within each state (Higher values are the state means of all cases above these cutoffs.)
U.S.A. 2010: 99.5th percentile within each state (Higher values are the state means of all cases above these cutoffs.)
U.S.A. 2015: 999,999+
INCWAGE reports the respondent's weekly, monthly or annual wage and salary income.
Comparability — Index
Trinidad and Tobago
Comparability — General
The data are recorded in the currency of each country in that census year; they are not adjusted for inflation. The samples also have different top-codes.
The data for the United States, Canada, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico are annual figures; the data for Israel, Germany, Indonesia, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay are monthly; other samples are weekly.
Income data for some samples were reported in intervals and are recoded to the midpoints.
Comparability — Canada [top]
The data are annual income for the previous calendar year. The samples have different top codes.
Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]
The data report work earnings in the last month in Dominican pesos. Respondents had the choice of reporting income on a monthly or annual basis; for responses reporting annual income, the number was divided by 12 to yield an approximate monthly income in post-enumeration coding.
Comparability — Germany [top]
The data are monthly net incomes in Deutsch Marks.
The 1970 data were reported as seven broad income ranges, and have been recoded to the midpoints of the intervals; "under 300" DM is recorded as 150 DM. See the unharmonized source variables for the original intervals.
The universe explicitly excludes self-employed farmers, unpaid farmers and foreigners, even if "economically active."
Comparability — India [top]
The data report the person's wage and salary income from the reference week.
Comparability — Indonesia [top]
The data are monthly income in rupiah.
The 1976 data are gross wage/salary plus any other subsidies, salary, etc. The responses were reported in thousands of rupiah. This data answer reflects the respondent's average monthly wage/salary in the past year.
The 1995 data are the wage received during the previous month. Wages are defined as the income they received as a worker or employee paid in cash or in goods by the establishment or employer after deductions. Income received in goods is valued at the local price. This variable was constructed by combining the question that reported the respondent's wage in cash and the question that reported the respondent's wage in goods.
Comparability — Israel [top]
The data report monthly income. The data were reported as income intervals and are recoded to the midpoints for INCEARN. See the unharmonized source variables for the original intervals.
Comparability — Italy [top]
Comparability — Jamaica [top]
All samples indicate annual income in Jamaican dollars obtained directly from all employment, before deductions (taxes). In samples with income intervals (1991 and 2001), intervals are recoded to midpoints, with bottom-coding (less than "$x") recoded to the midpoint of $0 to $x, and top-coding (more than "$x") represented as the top-coded value ("$x").
The 1982 data were reported in weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly or annual totals according to the preferences of the respondent and interviewer. Totals in this variable are converted to an annual period, if the respondent indicated being paid on a weekly, fortnightly (2 weeks), monthly (4 weeks), or quarterly (13 weeks). As such, totals may overestimate actual annual income. Unknown responses indicate either an unknown income or unknown pay period.
The 1991 data were recorded as annual income intervals and are recoded here to the midpoint of the interval. See the unharmonized source variables for the original intervals.
The 2001 sample reports income intervals in various periods (weekly, monthly or annual income). Those not reporting annual incomes were converted to such. See the unharmonized source variable for the original intervals.
Note: The currency experienced extreme inflation in 1991 and was subsequently steeply devalued, thus care should be taken in making comparisons over time.
Comparability — Panama [top]
The 1970 or 1980 wage data are the sum of fixed wages and commissions. The 1970 data were reported in broad intervals which were coded to the midpoints. Original data for 1970 samples were provided as weekly income which was converted to monthly income by multiplying the amount by 4. Data for 1980 were converted to monthly income from hourly, daily and weekly amounts (160 hours, 20 days, and 4 weeks to the month). See the unharmonized source variable for the original values.
The 1990, 2000 and 2010 data were reported as monthly income. The universe statements for the samples are slightly different with regards to the respondent's age and whether the respondent had worked in the reference period.
Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]
The data are annual income in US dollars for the previous calendar year for 1970-2000 and for previous 12 months for 2005-2010. The samples have different universes and top codes.
Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]
The data report the respondent's gross monthly income from paid employment in Trinidad and Tobago dollars. Gross income from self-employment is reported in
Comparability — United States [top]
The data are annual income for the previous calendar year for 1960-2000 and for previous 12 months for 2005, 2010, and 2015. The samples have different top codes and slightly different universe statements with regards to the respondent's age.
- Canada 1971: Persons age 15+
- Canada 1981: Persons age 15+, excluding inmates
- Canada 1991: Persons age 15+
- Canada 2001: Persons age 15+
- Dominican Republic 1981: Persons age 10+ who worked in the previous week or ever worked for pay
- Germany 1970: Persons age 15+ who are economically active or in the military (excluding self-employed farmers, unpaid family workers and foreigners)
- India 1983: All persons
- India 1987: All persons
- India 1993: All persons
- India 2004: All persons
- Indonesia 1976: Persons age 10+ who worked 2+ months during the past year and who were employees
- Indonesia 1995: Employees age 10+
- Israel 1983: Persons age 15+ who worked last year
- Israel 1995: Persons age 15+ who worked last year
- Italy 2011Q1: Persons age 15+ who were employees
- Italy 2012Q1: Persons age 15+ who were employees
- Italy 2013Q1: Persons age 15+ who were employees
- Italy 2014Q1: Persons age 15+ who were employees
- Italy 2015Q1: Persons age 15+ who were employees
- Italy 2016Q1: Persons age 15+ who were employees
- Italy 2017Q1: Persons age 15+ who were employees
- Italy 2018Q1: Persons age 15+ who were employees
- Jamaica 1982: Persons age 14+ who had a job in the past week in private households or select institutions
- Jamaica 1991: Persons age 14+ who had a job in the past week in private households or select institutions
- Jamaica 2001: Persons age 14+ who had a job in the past week
- Panama 1970: Persons age 10+ who worked for others last week
- Panama 1990: Persons age 10+
- Panama 2000: Persons age 10+
- Panama 2010: All persons
- Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 14+
- Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 16+
- Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 16+
- Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 15+
- Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 16+
- Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 16+
- Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons age 15+
- United States 1960: Persons age 14+
- United States 1970: Persons age 14+
- United States 1980: Persons age 16+
- United States 1990: Persons age 16+
- United States 2000: Persons age 15+
- United States 2005: Persons age 15+
- United States 2010: Persons age 16+
- United States 2015: Persons age 16+
- Uruguay 2006: All persons
- Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
- Dominican Republic: 1981
- Germany: 1970
- India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004
- Indonesia: 1976, 1995
- Israel: 1983, 1995
- Italy: 2011Q1, 2012Q1, 2013Q1, 2014Q1, 2015Q1, 2016Q1, 2017Q1, 2018Q1
- Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
- Panama: 1970, 1990, 2000, 2010
- Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
- Trinidad and Tobago: 2000
- United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
- Uruguay: 2006