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Codes and Frequencies

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


      class Cityus : public Editor {

  Cityus(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
  void edit() {

    long a = getRecoded();
    switch (dataSet) {
    case dataset_id::us1980a:
      a = (US1980A_0016(0) - US1980A_0016(0) % 10) / 10;
    case dataset_id::us1990a:
      a = (US1990A_0016(0) - US1990A_0016(0) % 10) / 10;
    case dataset_id::us2000a:
      a = (US2000A_0016(0) - US2000A_0016(0) % 10) / 10;
    case dataset_id::us2005a:
      a = (US2005A_0027(0) - US2005A_0027(0) % 10) / 10;




CITYUS indicates the household's city of residence for households located in identifiable cities in the United States from 1980 to present. For more information of CITYUS, refer to the CITY variable in IPUMS-USA.

The full set of geography variables for the United States can be found in the IPUMS International Geography variables list. For cross-national geographic analysis on the first and second major administrative level refer to GEOLEV1 and GEOLEV2. More information on IPUMS-International geography can be found here.

Comparability — General

This variable is essentially comparable across samples, but not all cities are identified in each year.

The 1980 sample allows the city of residence to be given for households living in many, but not all, cities with populations of 100,000+.

The 1990-2015 samples divide the nation into Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs), containing 100,000 or more residents. While PUMA boundaries are sometimes coterminous with city boundaries, they are not specifically designed to be so, and they often are not. This means that some of the residents of a given city were grouped in a PUMA with residents of other contiguous civil divisions. Therefore, we usually identified the city of residence only if the PUMA(s) comprising that city were completely coterminous with the city. In some cases, we identified the city of residence even though the PUMA boundaries did not strictly follow city boundaries. These were PUMA(s) that we judged to be relatively "uncontaminated" with residents from outside the city (usually less than 1% non-city). For more information of CITYUS, refer to the CITY variable in IPUMS-USA.


  • All households in identifiable cities


  • United States: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020