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Codes and Frequencies



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Description

CITIZEN indicates the person's citizenship status within the country in which they were enumerated.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Austria
Benin
Canada
Ecuador
Germany
Greece
Honduras
Hungary
Indonesia
Ireland
Malaysia
Mali
Palestine
Poland
Romania
Rwanda
South Africa
Switzerland
Turkey
United States
Venezuela
Zambia

Comparability — General

The variable is comparable across samples. Some samples distinguish between persons who were citizens by birth and naturalized citizens. Stateless persons are also identified in some samples.

For many samples, the country of citizenship is available in NATION.

Comparability — Austria [top]

In the 2011 Austrian sample, stateless are combined with "unknown."

Comparability — Benin [top]

Naturalized citizens are only identified in 2013.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The 1991, 2001, and 2011 samples identify naturalized citizens, but the 1971 and 1991 do not. The universe for 1981 does not include inmates, while others include all persons.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

Persons with a citizenship card or civil registration are classified as Ecuadorean citizens.

Comparability — Germany [top]

In the Germany 1987 census, persons who have German/foreign dual nationalities are categorized as German citizens; in addition, persons whose citizenship is included in the "other" category and stateless persons are not separately identified, so both are considered "not citizens."

Comparability — Greece [top]

The 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, and 2011 samples classify both Greek and dual citizenship persons as Greek citizens.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

Naturalized citizens are only identified in 1961.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

In 2001, stateless and foreign citizens are coded as separate categories. However, these two categories are grouped together in 2011 and are classified as "not a citizen."

The 2001 sample identifies persons with two or more citizenships, but it does not specify whether they have Hungarian citizenship or not. These persons are coded as "unknown" in CITIZEN.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The 1980-1995 censuses group "stateless" persons with Chinese citizens, whereas the 2010 census separates these categories; the treatment of this population in 1971 and 2000 is unclear but presumably they are grouped into the non-citizen population per 1980-1995.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

In the Ireland 2002 census, persons without nationality are included within the unknown category; in 2006 and 2011, persons without nationality are separately identified.

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

The universe for the question in 1970 and 1980 was age 12 and older, while it was asked of all persons in 1991 and 2001.

Comparability — Mali [top]

Persons with dual nationality were to report their most recent country of citizenship; those with uncertain status were to report country of birth.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The 2007 census did not ask the question of persons in the area of Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967.

Comparability — Poland [top]

In 2002 and 2011, Polish persons and those with an additional citizenship (besides Polish) are classified as citizens. The 2011 identifies stateless persons.

Comparability — Romania [top]

The 1992 sample includes stateless persons. The 2011 sample identifies separately citizens by birth and by naturalization.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The 1991 sample identifies naturalized citizens, but the 2002 sample does not make this distinction.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

South African 1996 and 2011 census asked the citizenship question only of residents in private households. The 2001 census asked the question of all persons.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

In the Switzerland samples, persons who have Swiss/foreign dual nationalities are categorized as Swiss citizens.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

The 1990 and 2000 censuses identify persons without a nationality. Persons who have Turkish/foreign dual citizenship were classified as Turkish citizens.

Comparability — United States [top]

The pre-1940 U.S. samples only identify citizenship status for men age 21 and older. All others are coded to not in universe.

The 1900 and 1910 U.S. samples identify persons who were not yet citizens but had received "first papers." They are coded to non-citizens, but the information on first papers is preserved in the unharmonized source variables for those samples.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

Venezuelan censuses did not ask the citizenship question to persons born in Venezuela, but IPUMS codes them as citizens. The 1981 sample has a much greater proportion of naturalized persons than the other samples.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

In 1990 and 2000, the question was asked of all persons. In 2010, the question was asked of present household members and visitors. The 1990 and 2000 enumeration instructions indicate that this question should have been asked only of present household members and visitors, but citizenship is reported for almost all absent household members; they are included in the universe.

Universe

  • Argentina 1980: All persons
  • Armenia 2001: All persons
  • Armenia 2011: All persons
  • Austria 1971: All persons
  • Austria 1981: All persons
  • Austria 1991: All persons
  • Austria 2001: All persons
  • Austria 2011: All persons
  • Bangladesh 1991: All persons
  • Belarus 1999: All persons
  • Belarus 2009: All persons
  • Benin 1979: All persons
  • Benin 1992: All persons
  • Benin 2002: All persons
  • Benin 2013: All persons
  • Botswana 1981: Present residents
  • Botswana 1991: All persons
  • Botswana 2001: All persons
  • Botswana 2011: All persons
  • Brazil 2010: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Present or absent residents of the household
  • Burkina Faso 2006: All persons
  • Cameroon 1976: All persons
  • Cameroon 1987: All persons
  • Cameroon 2005: All persons
  • Canada 1971: All persons
  • Canada 1981: All persons, excluding inmates
  • Canada 1991: All persons
  • Canada 2001: All persons
  • Canada 2011: All persons
  • Costa Rica 1963: All persons
  • Costa Rica 1973: All persons
  • Costa Rica 1984: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2000: All persons
  • Ecuador 2010: All persons
  • Egypt 1986: All persons
  • Egypt 1996: All persons
  • Egypt 2006: All persons
  • Fiji 2007: All persons
  • France 1962: All persons
  • France 1968: All persons
  • France 1975: All persons
  • France 1982: All persons
  • France 1990: All persons
  • France 1999: All persons
  • France 2006: All persons
  • France 2011: All persons
  • Germany 1970: All persons
  • Germany 1987: All persons
  • Ghana 2000: All persons
  • Ghana 2010: All persons
  • Greece 1971: All persons
  • Greece 1981: All persons
  • Greece 1991: All persons
  • Greece 2001: All persons
  • Greece 2011: All persons
  • Guinea 1983: All persons
  • Guinea 1996: All persons
  • Haiti 1971: All persons
  • Honduras 1961: All persons
  • Honduras 1974: All persons
  • Hungary 2001: All persons
  • Hungary 2011: All persons
  • Indonesia 1971: All persons
  • Indonesia 1980: All persons
  • Indonesia 1985: All persons
  • Indonesia 1990: All persons
  • Indonesia 1995: All persons
  • Indonesia 2000: All persons
  • Indonesia 2010: All persons
  • Iran 2006: All persons
  • Iraq 1997: All persons
  • Ireland 2002: Non-absent persons
  • Ireland 2006: Non-absent persons
  • Ireland 2011: Non-absent persons
  • Italy 2001: All persons
  • Italy 2011: All persons
  • Jordan 2004: All persons
  • Kenya 1969: All persons
  • Kenya 1979: All persons
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: All persons
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: All persons
  • Lesotho 1996: All persons
  • Lesotho 2006: All persons
  • Liberia 1974: All persons
  • Liberia 2008: All persons
  • Malawi 1998: All persons
  • Malawi 2008: All persons
  • Malaysia 1970: Person age 12+
  • Malaysia 1980: Person age 12+
  • Malaysia 1991: All persons
  • Malaysia 2000: All persons
  • Mali 1987: All persons
  • Mali 1998: All persons
  • Mali 2009: All persons
  • Mexico 2015: All persons
  • Mongolia 1989: All persons
  • Mongolia 2000: All persons
  • Morocco 1982: All persons
  • Morocco 1994: All persons
  • Morocco 2004: All persons
  • Mozambique 1997: Household residents
  • Mozambique 2007: Household residents
  • Netherlands 1971: All persons
  • Netherlands 2001: All persons
  • Pakistan 1998: All persons
  • Palestine 1997: All persons
  • Palestine 2007: All persons except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Papua New Guinea 1990: All persons
  • Paraguay 2002: All persons
  • Philippines 1990: All persons
  • Poland 2002: All persons
  • Poland 2011: All persons
  • Portugal 1981: All persons
  • Portugal 1991: All persons
  • Portugal 2001: All persons
  • Portugal 2011: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1980: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1990: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2000: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2005: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2010: All persons
  • Romania 1992: All persons
  • Romania 2002: All persons
  • Romania 2011: All persons
  • Rwanda 1991: Non-visitors
  • Rwanda 2002: All persons
  • Senegal 1988: All persons
  • Senegal 2002: All persons
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All persons
  • Slovenia 2002: All persons
  • South Africa 1996: Persons in private households
  • South Africa 2001: All persons
  • South Africa 2011: All persons except those in institutions
  • Spain 1981: All persons
  • Spain 1991: All persons
  • Spain 2001: All persons
  • Spain 2011: All persons
  • Sudan 2008: All persons
  • Switzerland 1970: All persons
  • Switzerland 1980: All persons
  • Switzerland 1990: All persons
  • Switzerland 2000: All persons
  • Tanzania 1988: All persons
  • Tanzania 2002: All persons
  • Tanzania 2012: All persons
  • Thailand 2000: All persons
  • Turkey 1985: All persons
  • Turkey 1990: All persons
  • Turkey 2000: All persons
  • Uganda 1991: All persons
  • Uganda 2002: All persons
  • United States 1980: All persons
  • United States 1990: All persons
  • United States 2000: All persons
  • United States 2005: All persons
  • United States 2010: All persons
  • Uruguay 1963: All persons
  • Venezuela 1971: All persons
  • Venezuela 1981: All persons
  • Venezuela 1990: All persons
  • Venezuela 2001: All persons
  • Zambia 1990: All persons
  • Zambia 2000: All persons
  • Zambia 2010: Present household members and visitors
  • Zimbabwe 2012: All persons

Availability

  • Argentina: 1980
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Bangladesh: 1991
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000
  • Ecuador: 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • Fiji: 2007
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1970, 1987
  • Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971
  • Honduras: 1961, 1974
  • Hungary: 2001, 2011
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
  • Iran: 2006
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1969, 1979
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 2015
  • Mongolia: 1989, 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Netherlands: 1971, 2001
  • Pakistan: 1998
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Papua New Guinea: 1990
  • Paraguay: 2002
  • Philippines: 1990
  • Poland: 2002, 2011
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2011
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 2000
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • United States: 1870, 1900, 1910, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1963
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012