Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart
Difficulty communicating (Washington group)

Codes and Frequencies

Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Explore how IPUMS created this variable


      class Wgcomm:public Editor {

    Wgcomm(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::tt2011a:
			if (TT2011A_0424() == 2 && TT2011A_0436() == 9)
                a = 1;
			if (TT2011A_0424() == 9 && TT2011A_0436() == 9)
                a = 8;




WGCOMM indicates the person's level of difficulty in communicating, related to being understood or understanding, even in a usual language.

Comparability — Index

Trinidad and Tobago

Comparability — General

The coding structure in WGCOMM follows recommendations from the United Nations Washington Group on Disability Statistics, which developed a set questions to assess degrees of functional difficulty across a range of basic activities. The questions aim to circumvent the stigma and ambiguity often associated with traditional yes-no questions on disability, which are harder to interpret with respect to expectations of functionality.

The Washington Group proposes a framework that identifies four levels of difficulty. Some countries deviate from the recommended four levels. The country specific comparability sections describe how these alternative scales are interpreted and harmonized into WGCOMM.

The information on the traditional (yes/no) questions to report a disability in the form of inability to speak or a significant speech impediment is available in DISMUTE.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

In 2011, the census question refers specifically to difficulty speaking and understanding because of a physical, mental, or emotional health condition.


  • Mauritius 2011: All persons
  • Morocco 2014: All persons
  • Senegal 2013: Residents age 1+ in ordinary households
  • South Africa 2011: Persons in private households
  • South Africa 2016: Persons age 5+
  • Suriname 2012: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago


  • Mauritius: 2011
  • Morocco: 2014
  • Senegal: 2013
  • South Africa: 2011, 2016
  • Suriname: 2012
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 2011