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DISMUTE
Mute or speech impaired

Codes and Frequencies



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      class Dismute:public Editor {

public:
    Dismute(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::ug2002a:
        {
            if (UG2002A_0416() == 20 || UG2002A_0416() == 21)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::rw2002a:
        {
            if (RW2002A_0415() == 3 && RW2002A_0413() == 0)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::my2000a:
        {
            if (MY2000A_0436() == 3 || MY2000A_0437() == 3)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::ir2006a:
        {
            if (IR2006A_0443() != 3 && (IR2006A_0444() == 3 || IR2006A_0445() == 3))
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::jm1991a:
        {
            if (JM1991A_0414() == 99 && JM1991A_0412() == 9)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::mw2008a:
        {
            if (MW2008A_0418() != 3 && (MW2008A_0420() == 3 || MW2008A_0422() == 3))
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::sv1992a:
        {
            if ((SV1992A_0431() >= 0 && SV1992A_0431() <= 2 || SV1992A_0431() >= 4 && SV1992A_0431() <= 6) && (SV1992A_0432() == 3 || SV1992A_0433() == 3))
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::ke2009a:
        {
            if (KE2009A_0429() == 3 || KE2009A_0430() == 3)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::ss2008a:
        {
            if (SS2008A_0425() == 2 && SS2008A_0426() == 1)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::do2010a:
        {
            if (DO2010A_0418() == 1 || DO2010A_0419() == 1)
                a = 1;
            if (DO2010A_0418() == 2 && DO2010A_0419() == 2)
                a = 2;
            if (DO2010A_0418() == 9 && DO2010A_0419() == 9)
                a = 9;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::zm2010a:
        {
            if (ZM2010A_0473() == 99 && ZM2010A_0417() == 9)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::tt2011a:
        {
            if (TT2011A_0415() == 0 || TT2011A_0415() == 3)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::rw2012a:
        {
            if (RW2012A_0414() == 3 ||
			RW2012A_0416() == 3 ||
			RW2012A_0418() == 3 ||
			RW2012A_0420() == 3 ||
			RW2012A_0422() == 3)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
		case dataset_id::tg2010a:
        {
			a = 2;
            if (TG2010A_0420() == 3 || TG2010A_0421() == 3)
                a = 1;
            if (((TG2010A_0420() >= 0 && TG2010A_0420() <= 2) || (TG2010A_0420() >=4 && TG2010A_0420() <= 8)) 
				&& TG2010A_0421() == 9)
                a = 9;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::mu1990a:
        {
			if (MU1990A_0412() < 98 && MU1990A_0413() < 98 && MU1990A_0414() < 98)
				a = 2;
            if (MU1990A_0412() == 5 || MU1990A_0413() == 5 || MU1990A_0414() == 5)
                a = 1;
			if (MU1990A_0412() == 98 || MU1990A_0413() == 98 || MU1990A_0414() == 98)
                a = 9;		
		}
        break;
        case dataset_id::mu2000a:
        {
			if (MU2000A_0416() < 98 && MU2000A_0417() < 98 && MU2000A_0419() < 98)
				a = 2;
            if (MU2000A_0416() == 1 || MU2000A_0417() == 1 || MU2000A_0419() == 1)
                a = 1;
			if (MU2000A_0416() == 98 || MU2000A_0417() == 98 || MU2000A_0419() == 98)
                a = 9;		
		}
        break;
        case dataset_id::za2011a:
        {
            if (ZA2011A_0401() >= 0 && ZA2011A_0401() <= 4)
                a = 0;
		}
        break;
		}


        setData(a);
    }
};

    

Description

DISMUTE indicates if the person could not speak or had a significant speech impediment.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Bangladesh
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
France
Guatemala
Guinea
Haiti
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Jamaica
Kenya
Liberia
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritius
Mexico
Morocco
Mozambique
Nepal
Pakistan
Panama
Paraguay
Philippines
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
Sierra Leone
South Sudan
Sudan
Suriname
Tanzania
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
Uganda

Comparability — General

Different levels of speech impairment qualify as a "Yes" in different samples. In some samples it is the complete inability to speak, in others any significant speech difficulty qualifies. Some samples explicitly combined deaf and mute in one response, and they are included in this variable and DISDEAF. See the separate comparability statements and enumeration text for each sample.

In all samples only permanent conditions were to be considered disabilities.

Persons with multiple (non-specified) impairments are coded "Unknown" in all samples in which they are identified.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

In the 2011 sample, a person is considered as disabled if he/she is, by born or cause of others, physically unable, completely/partly handicapped or mentally retarded. A person is classified as disabled if he/she responds as having any difficulty in speech.

Comparability — Benin [top]

The census language was simply whether the person was mute in 2002 or if they were incapable of speaking or communicating in 2013.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

For all samples the variable is meant to gauge the level of disability: whether the person is totally unable to speak or has partial speech impairment.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

A person is classified as disabled if he/she responds as being mute or deaf and mute.

The 1985 sample only provides the type of disability for residents of the household. The 1996 and 2006 samples provide the type of disability for all persons. The samples do not distinguish between temporary and permanent disabilities.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The census question in both years defines a speech disability as the inability to speak at all (mute) or the inability to be understood through speech. People able to speak with stammering who are still comprehensible are not classified as disabled.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

In the 2005 sample, a person is classified as disabled if he/she responds as being mute.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

An affirmative response to the question indicates "difficulty with speaking".

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

In 1981 and 2002, a person is classified as disabled if he/she responds as being mute. In 2010, having permanent difficulties speaking are identified separately.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The 1986 and 1996 samples indicate deafness as a category within a question about the type of disability.

Persons with multiple unidentified disabilities are coded "unknown" for DISMUTE, because the exact disabilities in those cases are not specified. See DISABLED to identify these cases.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

The universe changes from all persons in the 1992 sample to persons in private households in the 2007 sample.

El Salvador 1992 refers to persons with total muteness, while the 2007 sample identifies permanent limitations in speaking.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The census questions differ over time. In 1984, the wording was "mute"; in 1994 it was a "hearing and speaking problem"; and in 2007 it was a "speaking difficulty."

Comparability — France [top]

The "Yes" response for the French sample is the combination of responses for "mute" and "deaf-mute".

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

In the 1994 sample, a person is classified as disabled if they have a positive response for being deaf mute.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The 1996 and 2014 data report responses for "mute" and "deaf and mute". Other multiple-disability responses that may have included muteness are not identified. An affirmative response indicates the person was completely mute.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

The 2003 sample, a person is classified as disabled if he/she responds as being mute.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The 1980 sample identifies in a single category persons who cannot speak at all (mute) and persons who cannot hear (deaf), not specifying whether either or both disabilities could be present.

Comparability — Iran [top]

The variable indicates whether a person has a speech and voice disorder, defined as any kind of weakness in speaking or making sounds by throat in a normal way. These include muteness, speech impediments, larynx defects, and mental problems which affect fluent speech.

Comparability — Iraq [top]

There were no specific instructions regarding muteness. Muteness was reported both separately and in combination with deafness.

Comparability — Israel [top]

This variable is derived from the question on languages spoken daily. We use the answer for the first language, which includes mute as a response. The universe is restrictive, including only persons age 15 or older.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

In both samples, the variable indicates a disability in speaking only, defined as a speech impairment or lack of speaking ability to perform activities in the "manner considered normal for a human being". Those with multiple disabilities, due to the inability to determine the type of disability, are grouped in the unknown category. See DISABLED to identify these cases.

There are slight variations on the question universes but the samples are otherwise comparable.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

In 2009, a person is classified as disabled if he/she responds as having any difficulty in speech. Speech and language disorders refer to problems in communication or difficulties in producing oral speech sounds or problems with voice quality. They might be characterized by an interruption in the flow or rhythm of speech, such as stammering. The respondents were to report up to three disabilities, being the first one the most disabling.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

In the 2008 sample, a person is classified as mute if she/he is unable to speak, has a speech impairment or is deaf and dumb.

Those with multiple disabilities are grouped in the unknown category due to the inability to determine the type of disability.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The census question asks if the respondent has any problems or difficulty in speaking which "inhibit the ability to work or participate in normal activities".

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

The 1980 sample had a single "deaf or dumb" response that was to be reported if the person was unable to attend normal schools or secure a job. The 2000 census allowed the recording of three separate disabilities instead of choosing the one that posed the greatest limitation. Speech limitation was reported separately from hearing in 2000.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The samples are comparable. The censuses combined responses for deaf and mute in the same category.

Comparability — Mauritius [top]

The 1990 and 2000 harmonized variables are constructed from the first, second, and third reported disabilities.

The 2011 sample reports different levels of difficulty in speaking and talking, where persons with any level of difficulty are classified as "yes". The difficulty levels are preserved in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

Mexico 2000 identifies persons who cannot speak, while Mexico 2010 refers to persons with difficulties communicating with others, either due to speech limitations or because they cannot converse in a comprehensible way. Both samples refer to a disability that limits the person's ability to carry out daily life activities and explicitly exclude babies who are not yet able to talk.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The 2004 sample identifies persons unable to practice daily activities in a normal way because of a total or partial vocal disability (muteness).

The 2014 sample indicates whether the person has any difficulty in communicating, where persons with any level of difficulty are classified as "yes". The difficulty levels are preserved in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

This variable is derived from the question on languages spoken daily. We use the answer for the first language, which includes mute as a response. Children under age 5 are not included in the universe.

Comparability — Nepal [top]

Disability is indicated as difficulty in speaking and being understood. People with multiple disabilities are coded into the "Unknown" category, because the exact disabilities in those cases are unknown.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

Responses for deaf, mute, and deaf and mute are combined together in the same category. The question was not asked in the 1981 and 1998 samples.

Comparability — Panama [top]

All samples report the inability to hear or talk as a single category. The 1980 sample asked the question only of persons age 40 and younger.

In 2010, the affirmative response to the question indicates the complete inability to hear or talk, even with the help of hearing aids. This question also includes those who communicate through sign language.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The question wording was "mute" for 1962-1992. The 2002 census specified responses for "mute" or "speaks with great difficulty".

Comparability — Philippines [top]

There is a major comparability issue among the Philippines samples. An affirmative response in 1990 indicates a complete inability to speak. In the 1995 and 2000 samples any significant speech impairment is considered a disability. In 2010, any functional disability in communicating is considered a disability.

The universe is age 5 and older in 2010 but includes all persons in earlier years.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

There is a minor universe difference between samples.

For the 2002 sample, there was a single question on type of disability. If a person had more than one disability, the most severe one was to be reported. This is not the case for the 2012 sample where respondents can list up to six types of disabilities.

The 2002 census combined responses for mute and deaf in the same category, but mute persons are separated out using the separate language question, which had a response for muteness. The 2012 census specifies whether the person had a disability regarding speaking.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

In the 1991 sample, "yes" responses to the question about presence of speech disability are coded as "mute" in this variable. The variable is not available in 1980.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The 2002 sample defines muteness as the loss of ability to speak that is limiting to daily activities. The 1988 sample asked a question about disability but did not specify muteness as a category.

The 2013 census question reports different levels of difficulty in speaking or communicating. Persons with any level of difficulty are classified as "yes" in 2013. These details are preserved in the unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

The variable indicates if the person's most serious disability is either a speech impairment or muteness. Therefore, a person may go unrecorded yet still have speaking difficulty because it is not his/her most "serious" disability.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

The variable indicates whether the person has any difficulty in speaking or is mute. Muteness and difficulty in speaking are separable using the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

The variable indicates whether the person has any difficulty in speaking.

Comparability — Suriname [top]

The 2012 sample reports different levels of difficulty in communicating, where persons with any level of difficulty seeing are classified as "yes". The difficulty levels are preserved in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The 2002 sample indicates muteness as one category within a general question about disability. There are no further instructions for what constitutes muteness in the 2002 sample. The question was not asked in the 1988 sample. Individuals with multiple handicaps are coded in the "unknown" category because the exact disabilities are not specified. See the DISABLED variable to identify these cases.

Comparability — Togo [top]

The respondent is classified as disabled if either of the two source disability variables indicate "deaf mute."

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The 2011 census asked whether a person had a severe speaking disability and whether the speaking disability was caused by physical, mental or emotional health. The 2000 census simply refers to a speaking impairment.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

In the 2000 sample, speech impaired refers to persons who cannot speak or who can in some circumstances speak only using a device held up to their larynx, thus limiting their daily life activities or work. Persons with more than one disability in the 2000 sample, due to the inability to determine the type of disability, are grouped in the unknown category.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

The 2002 sample stipulated that a disability was a condition expected to last 6 months or more. The threshold for disability in both samples is the ability to perform normal activities. The 1991 category was "deaf and dumb".

Universe

  • Bangladesh 2011: All persons
  • Benin 2002: All persons
  • Benin 2013: All persons
  • Botswana 1991: All persons
  • Botswana 2001: All persons
  • Botswana 2011: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 1985: Residents of the household
  • Burkina Faso 1996: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 2006: All persons
  • Cambodia 2008: All persons
  • Cambodia 2013: Present persons
  • Cameroon 2005: Residents of the household
  • Chile 1992: All persons
  • Chile 2002: All persons
  • Colombia 1993: All persons
  • Colombia 2005: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2011: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1981: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2002: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2010: All persons
  • Egypt 1986: All persons
  • Egypt 1996: All persons
  • El Salvador 1992: All persons
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons in private occupied dwellings
  • Ethiopia 1984: Residents of the household
  • Ethiopia 1994: Residents of the household
  • Ethiopia 2007: All persons
  • France 1962: All persons
  • Guatemala 1994: All persons
  • Guinea 1996: Residents
  • Guinea 2014: All persons
  • Haiti 2003: All persons
  • Indonesia 1980: All persons
  • Iran 2006: All persons
  • Iraq 1997: All persons
  • Israel 1983: Persons age 15+
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons in private households or selected institutions
  • Jamaica 2001: All persons
  • Kenya 2009: All persons
  • Lesotho 2006: All persons
  • Liberia 2008: All persons
  • Malawi 2008: Non-visitors
  • Malaysia 1980: All persons
  • Malaysia 2000: All persons
  • Mali 1987: All persons
  • Mali 1998: All persons
  • Mauritius 1990: All persons
  • Mauritius 2000: All persons
  • Mauritius 2011: All persons
  • Mexico 2000: All persons
  • Mexico 2010: All persons
  • Morocco 2004: All persons
  • Morocco 2014: All persons
  • Mozambique 2007: Residents age 5+
  • Nepal 2011: All persons
  • Pakistan 1973: All persons
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 40 or less
  • Panama 1990: All persons
  • Panama 2000: All persons
  • Panama 2010: All persons
  • Paraguay 1962: All persons
  • Paraguay 1982: All persons
  • Paraguay 1992: All persons
  • Paraguay 2002: All persons
  • Peru 1993: All persons
  • Peru 2007: All persons
  • Philippines 1990: All persons
  • Philippines 1995: All persons
  • Philippines 2000: All persons
  • Philippines 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors
  • Rwanda 2012: All persons
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All persons
  • Senegal 2002: All persons
  • Senegal 2013: Residents age 1+ in ordinary households
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All persons
  • South Africa 2001: All persons
  • South Africa 2007: Persons in private dwellings
  • South Africa 2011: Persons age 5+ in private households
  • South Africa 2016: Persons age 5+
  • South Sudan 2008: All persons
  • Sudan 2008: All persons
  • Suriname 2012: All persons
  • Tanzania 2002: All persons
  • Thailand 1990: All persons
  • Togo 2010: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago
  • Turkey 2000: All persons
  • Uganda 1991: All persons
  • Uganda 2002: All persons
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons in third trimester
  • Venezuela 1990: All persons
  • Zambia 2010: Present members and visitors
  • Zimbabwe 2012: All persons

Availability

  • Bangladesh: 2011
  • Benin: 2002, 2013
  • Botswana: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 2008, 2013
  • Cameroon: 2005
  • Canada: 1891, 1911
  • Chile: 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • France: 1962
  • Guatemala: 1994
  • Guinea: 1996, 2014
  • Haiti: 2003
  • Iceland: 1901
  • Indonesia: 1980
  • Iran: 2006
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1911
  • Israel: 1983
  • Jamaica: 1991, 2001
  • Kenya: 2009
  • Lesotho: 2006
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Malawi: 2008
  • Malaysia: 1980, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998
  • Mauritius: 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Mexico: 2000, 2010
  • Morocco: 2004, 2014
  • Mozambique: 2007
  • Nepal: 2011
  • Norway: 1865, 1875, 1900, 1910
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Panama: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
  • Rwanda: 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1991
  • Senegal: 2002, 2013
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • South Africa: 2001, 2007, 2011, 2016
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Suriname: 2012
  • Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
  • Tanzania: 2002
  • Thailand: 1990
  • Togo: 2010
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1851a, 1851b, 1861a, 1861b, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911
  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880b, 1910
  • Uruguay: 2006
  • Venezuela: 1990
  • Zambia: 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012