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DISABLED
Disability status

Codes and Frequencies



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      class Disabled:public Editor {

public:
    Disabled(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::br2000a:
        {
            if ((BR2000A_0433() == 5 || BR2000A_0433() == 9) && (BR2000A_0425() == 1 || BR2000A_0427() <= 2 || BR2000A_0429() <= 2 || BR2000A_0431() <= 2))
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::pe1993a:
        {
            if (PE1993A_0401() == 1 || PE1993A_0405() == 1 || PE1993A_0415() == 1 || PE1993A_0416() == 1 || PE1993A_0417() == 1 || PE1993A_0422() == 1 || PE1993A_0432() == 1 || PE1993A_0435() == 1 || PE1993A_0438() == 1)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::sv2007a:
        {
            if ((SV2007A_0409() == 2 || SV2007A_0409() == 8) && (SV2007A_0410() == 1 || SV2007A_0411() == 1 || SV2007A_0412() == 1 || SV2007A_0413() == 1 || SV2007A_0414() == 1 || SV2007A_0415() == 1 || SV2007A_0416() == 1))
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::id2010a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (ID2010A_0411() == 3 || ID2010A_0412() == 3 || ID2010A_0413() == 3 || ID2010A_0414() == 3 || ID2010A_0415() == 3)
                a = 1;
            if (ID2010A_0411() == 9)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy2006a:
        {
            if ((UY2006A_0811() == 2 || UY2006A_0811() == 8) && (UY2006A_0812() == 1 || UY2006A_0813() == 1 || UY2006A_0814() == 1 || UY2006A_0815() == 1 || UY2006A_0816() == 1 || UY2006A_0817() == 1))
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::br2010a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (BR2010A_0409() <= 2 || BR2010A_0410() <= 2 || BR2010A_0411() <= 2 || BR2010A_0412() == 1)
                a = 1;
            if (BR2010A_0409() == 9 || BR2010A_0410() == 9 || BR2010A_0411() == 9 || BR2010A_0412() == 9)
                a = 9;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::do2010a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (DO2010A_0411() == 1 || DO2010A_0412() == 1 || DO2010A_0413() == 1 || DO2010A_0414() == 1 || DO2010A_0415() == 1 || DO2010A_0416() == 1 || DO2010A_0417() == 1 || DO2010A_0418() == 1 || DO2010A_0419() == 1 || DO2010A_0420() == 1 || DO2010A_0421() == 1 || DO2010A_0422() == 1)
                a = 1;
            if (DO2010A_0411() == 9 || DO2010A_0412() == 9 || DO2010A_0413() == 9 || DO2010A_0414() == 9 || DO2010A_0415() == 9 || DO2010A_0416() == 9 || DO2010A_0417() == 9 || DO2010A_0418() == 9 || DO2010A_0419() == 9 || DO2010A_0420() == 9 || DO2010A_0421() == 9 || DO2010A_0422() == 9)
                a = 9;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::zm1990a:
        {
            if (ZM1990A_0405() == 1 || ZM1990A_0406() == 1 || ZM1990A_0407() == 1 || ZM1990A_0408() == 1)
                a = 1;
            if (ZM1990A_0405() == 2 && ZM1990A_0406() == 2 && ZM1990A_0407() == 2 && ZM1990A_0408() == 2)
                a = 2;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::us2000a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (US2000A_0580() == 2 || US2000A_0582() == 2 || US2000A_0583() == 2)
                a = 1;
            if (US2000A_0580() == 0)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::us2005a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (US2005A_0557() == 2 || US2005A_0559() == 2 || US2005A_0583() == 2)
                a = 1;
            if (US2005A_0557() == 0)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::us2010a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (US2010A_0533() == 2 || US2010A_0534() == 2 || US2010A_0535() == 2)
                a = 1;
            if (US2010A_0535() == 0)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::pr2000a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (PR2000A_0543() == 2 || PR2000A_0544() == 2 || PR2000A_0545() == 2)
                a = 1;
            if (PR2000A_0543() == 9)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::pr2005a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (PR2005A_0540() == 2 || PR2005A_0541() == 2 || PR2005A_0542() == 2)
                a = 1;
            if (PR2005A_0540() == 0)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::ss2008a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (SS2008A_0417() == 1 || SS2008A_0418() == 1 || SS2008A_0419() == 1 || SS2008A_0420() == 1 || SS2008A_0421() == 1 || SS2008A_0422() == 1 || SS2008A_0423() == 1 || SS2008A_0424() == 1 || SS2008A_0425() == 1 || SS2008A_0426() == 1 || SS2008A_0427() == 1)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::sd2008a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (SD2008A_0417() == 1 || SD2008A_0418() == 1 || SD2008A_0419() == 1 || SD2008A_0420() == 1 || SD2008A_0421() == 1 || SD2008A_0422() == 1 || SD2008A_0423() == 1 || SD2008A_0424() == 1 || SD2008A_0425() == 1 || SD2008A_0426() == 1 || SD2008A_0427() == 1)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy2011a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (UY2011A_0469() == 9 || UY2011A_0470() == 9 || UY2011A_0471() == 9 || UY2011A_0472() == 9)
                a = 9;
            if (UY2011A_0469() == 3 || UY2011A_0469() == 4 || UY2011A_0470() == 3 || UY2011A_0470() == 4 || UY2011A_0471() == 3 || UY2011A_0471() == 4 || UY2011A_0472() == 3 || UY2011A_0472() == 4)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::vn2009a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (VN2009A_0424() == 8 || VN2009A_0425() == 8 || VN2009A_0426() == 8 || VN2009A_0427() == 8)
                a = 9;
            if (VN2009A_0424() == 3 || VN2009A_0424() == 4 || VN2009A_0425() == 3 || VN2009A_0425() == 4 || VN2009A_0426() == 3 || VN2009A_0426() == 4 || VN2009A_0427() == 3 || VN2009A_0427() == 4)
                a = 1;
            if (VN2009A_0424() == 9)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::pr2010a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (PR2010A_0527() == 2 || PR2010A_0528() == 2 || PR2010A_0529() == 2)
                a = 1;
            if (PR2010A_0527() == 0)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::za2011a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (ZA2011A_0424() >= 5 && ZA2011A_0424() <= 8 || ZA2011A_0425() >= 5 && ZA2011A_0425() <= 8 || ZA2011A_0426() >= 5 && ZA2011A_0426() <= 8 || ZA2011A_0427() >= 5 && ZA2011A_0427() <= 8 || ZA2011A_0428() >= 5 && ZA2011A_0428() <= 8 || ZA2011A_0429() >= 5 && ZA2011A_0429() <= 8)
                a = 9;
            if (ZA2011A_0424() >= 3 && ZA2011A_0424() <= 4 || ZA2011A_0425() >= 3 && ZA2011A_0425() <= 4 || ZA2011A_0426() >= 3 && ZA2011A_0426() <= 4 || ZA2011A_0427() >= 3 && ZA2011A_0427() <= 4 || ZA2011A_0428() >= 3 && ZA2011A_0428() <= 4 || ZA2011A_0429() >= 3 && ZA2011A_0429() <= 4)
                a = 1;
            if (ZA2011A_0424() == 9)
                a = 0;
            if (ZA2011A_0401() >= 0 && ZA2011A_0401() <= 4)
                a = 0;
		}
        break;
		case dataset_id::bw2001a:
        {
            if (BW2001A_0448() == 1 || BW2001A_0449() == 1 || BW2001A_0450() == 1 || BW2001A_0451() == 1 || BW2001A_0452() == 1 || BW2001A_0453() == 1 || BW2001A_0454() == 1 || BW2001A_0455() == 1 || BW2001A_0456() == 1 || BW2001A_0457() == 1 || BW2001A_0458() == 1 || BW2001A_0459() == 1 || BW2001A_0460() == 1 || BW2001A_0461() == 1 || BW2001A_0462() == 1 || BW2001A_0463() == 1 || BW2001A_0464() == 1)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::bw2011a:
        {
            if (BW2011A_0423() == 1 & BW2011A_0423() == 2 || BW2011A_0424() == 1 & BW2011A_0424() == 2 || BW2011A_0425() == 1 & BW2011A_0425() == 2 || BW2011A_0426() == 1 & BW2011A_0426() == 2 || BW2011A_0427() == 1 & BW2011A_0427() == 2 || BW2011A_0428() == 1 || BW2011A_0429() == 1 || BW2011A_0430() == 1 || BW2011A_0431() == 1 & BW2011A_0431() == 2 || BW2011A_0432() == 1 & BW2011A_0432() == 2)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::tz2012a:
        {
            if (TZ2012A_0405() >= 3 || TZ2012A_0406() >= 3 || TZ2012A_0407() >= 3 || TZ2012A_0408() >= 3 || TZ2012A_0409() >= 3 && TZ2012A_0409() <= 4 || TZ2012A_0410() == 1)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::rw2012a:
        {
            if ((RW2012A_0414() >= 1 && RW2012A_0414() <=6) ||
			(RW2012A_0416() == 2 && RW2012A_0416() <=6) ||
			(RW2012A_0418() == 2 && RW2012A_0418() <=6) ||
			(RW2012A_0420() == 2 && RW2012A_0420() <=6) ||
			(RW2012A_0422() == 2 && RW2012A_0422() <=6))
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
		case dataset_id::us2015a:
        {
			a = 2;
			if (US2015A_0519() == 2 || US2015A_0520() == 2 || US2015A_0521() == 2)
                a = 1;
            if (US2015A_0520() == 0)
                a = 0;
        }
		break;
		case dataset_id::zw2012a:
        {
			if (ZW2012A_0417() == 1 || ZW2012A_0418() == 1 || ZW2012A_0419() == 1 ||
			    ZW2012A_0420() == 1 || ZW2012A_0421() == 1 || ZW2012A_0422() == 1 ||
				ZW2012A_0423() == 1 || ZW2012A_0424() == 1 || ZW2012A_0425() == 1 ||
				ZW2012A_0426() == 1 || ZW2012A_0427() == 1)
                a = 1;
			if (ZW2012A_0417() == 2 && ZW2012A_0418() == 2 && ZW2012A_0419() == 2 &&
			    ZW2012A_0420() == 2 && ZW2012A_0421() == 2 && ZW2012A_0422() == 2 &&
				ZW2012A_0423() == 2 && ZW2012A_0424() == 2 && ZW2012A_0425() == 2 &&
				ZW2012A_0426() == 2 && ZW2012A_0427() == 2)
                a = 2;
        }
		break;
		case dataset_id::bj2013a:
        {
			if ((BJ2013A_0414() >= 1 && BJ2013A_0414() <= 12) ||
			(BJ2013A_0415() >= 1 && BJ2013A_0415() <= 12))
                a = 1;
        }
		break;
		case dataset_id::tg2010a:
        {
			a = 1;
            if (TG2010A_0420() == 0 && TG2010A_0421() == 0)
                a = 2;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::il2008a:
        {
            if (IL2008A_0435() == 2 || IL2008A_0436() == 2 || IL2008A_0437() == 2 || IL2008A_0438() == 2 || IL2008A_0439() == 2 || IL2008A_0440() == 2)
				a = 1;
			if (IL2008A_0435() == 8 && IL2008A_0436() == 8 && IL2008A_0437() == 8 && IL2008A_0438() == 8 && IL2008A_0440() == 8)
				a = 9;
			if (IL2008A_0435() == 9 && IL2008A_0436() == 9 && IL2008A_0437() == 9 && IL2008A_0438() == 9 && IL2008A_0439() == 9 && IL2008A_0440() == 9)
				a = 0;
		}
        break;
        case dataset_id::mm2014a:
        {
            a = 2;
			if  ((MM2014A_0405() == 3 || MM2014A_0405() == 4) || 
			(MM2014A_0406() == 3 || MM2014A_0406() == 4) || 
			(MM2014A_0407() == 3 || MM2014A_0407() == 4) || 
			(MM2014A_0408() == 3 || MM2014A_0408() == 4)) 
				a = 1;
		}
        break;
        case dataset_id::sn2013a:
        {
            if ((SN2013A_0446() == 2 || SN2013A_0446() ==3) || 
			(SN2013A_0447() == 2 || SN2013A_0447() == 3) || 
			(SN2013A_0448() == 2 || SN2013A_0448() == 3) || 
			(SN2013A_0449() == 2 || SN2013A_0449() == 3) || 
			(SN2013A_0450() == 2 || SN2013A_0450() == 3) || 
			(SN2013A_0451() == 2 || SN2013A_0451() == 3))
				a = 1;
			if (SN2013A_0446() == 9 && SN2013A_0447() == 9 && SN2013A_0448() == 9  && SN2013A_0449() == 9 && SN2013A_0450() == 9 && SN2013A_0451() == 9)
				a = 0;
		}
        break;
		case dataset_id::za2016a:
        {
			if ((ZA2016A_0431() == 3 || ZA2016A_0431() == 4) ||
			(ZA2016A_0432() == 3 || ZA2016A_0432() == 4) ||
			(ZA2016A_0433() == 3 || ZA2016A_0433() == 4) || 
			(ZA2016A_0434() == 3 || ZA2016A_0434() == 4) ||
			(ZA2016A_0435() == 3 || ZA2016A_0435() == 4) || 
			(ZA2016A_0436() == 3 || ZA2016A_0436() == 4)) 
				a = 1;
			if ((ZA2016A_0431() == 5 || ZA2016A_0431() == 8) &&        
			(ZA2016A_0432() == 5 || ZA2016A_0432() == 8) &&        
			(ZA2016A_0433() == 5 || ZA2016A_0433() == 8) &&        
			(ZA2016A_0434() == 5 || ZA2016A_0434() == 8) &&
			(ZA2016A_0435() == 5 || ZA2016A_0435() == 8) &&       
			(ZA2016A_0436() == 5 || ZA2016A_0436() == 8)) 
				a = 9;
			if (ZA2016A_0431() == 9 && ZA2016A_0432() == 9 && ZA2016A_0433() == 9 && ZA2016A_0434() == 9 && ZA2016A_0435() == 9 && ZA2016A_0436() == 9)
				a = 0;
		}
        break;
		}


        setData(a);
    }
};

    

Description

DISABLED indicates whether the person reported a disability of any kind.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Bangladesh
Benin
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Fiji
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Haiti
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Jamaica
Jordan
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritius
Mexico
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Nepal
Pakistan
Palestine
Panama
Paraguay
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
Sierra Leone
South Africa
South Sudan
Sudan
Suriname
Tanzania
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
Uganda
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Comparability — General

Most samples explicitly state that only permanent conditions were to be considered disabilities, and this requirement seems implicit in the remainder. Many samples report multiple possible disabling conditions, which DISABLED aggregates into a single summary variable.

The census disability questions differ between countries in terms of wording of instructions and categories on questionnaires. And there are likely cultural interpretations of disability that cause differences in response rates as well. Users should examine the enumeration text of the original question(s) to determine the extent of comparability. Some samples include categories for chronic diseases or conditions (e.g., having one eye or epilepsy), that are not widely considered disabilities, but DISABLED stays true to each sample's definition, and does not try to parse out those specific categories. See the unharmonized source variables for the original categories.

The percentage of persons reporting a disability differs widely across samples from less than one percent to more than ten percent. Some censuses required a low, functional threshold for defining disability -- "difficulty" performing various tasks -- sometimes based on the "Washington Group" recommendations. Question wording produced especially high disability levels -- above 10% -- in Dominican Republic 2010, Ireland, Puerto Rico, and the United States.

Where samples provide several degrees of difficulty, DISABLED applies the threshold of "significant" or "severe" difficulty to define disability. The samples that supplied such degrees are Brazil 2000-2010, Indonesia 2010, Myanmar 2014, Poland 2011, South Africa 2011-2016, Trinidad and Tobago 2011, Uruguay 2011, and Vietnam 2009. For Indonesia 2010, "total" inability is the threshold applied (the other option, "some", yields very high rates).

Similar, but not comparable, information on disability is available for many samples in the variable DISEMP. In the context of DISEMP, disability was one choice among many response categories for the economic activity question. It basically reports disability as an explanation for why the person was not working.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

In the 2011 sample, a person is considered disabled if she is, by birth or other cause, physically unable, completely/partly handicapped, or mentally retarded. This includes physical and mental disabilities as well as difficulty speaking, seeing, or listening.

Comparability — Benin [top]

The 2002 census inquired only about persons "having an infirmity" of one of the specified types on the questionnaire. The 2013 census had more explicit language about ability to engage in normal physical or social activities.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

Botswana 1991, 2001 and 2011 defined disability as having incapacities as a result of physical or mental deficiencies such as body abnormalities, defects, and impairments. These defects and impairments might occur from birth or may be brought about by disease, injury, or just old age.

In all Botswana samples, disabled persons include those reporting defects or partial impairment in seeing, hearing, or speaking. The 2001 sample also comprises epilepsy.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

Disability in 2000 and 2010 is constructed from a number of different questions reported individually in separate IPUMS variables.

In 2000, a person is coded "disabled" if they reported the loss of use of a limb, hand, or foot; had a mental disability; or if they reported a "significant permanent difficulty" seeing, hearing, or walking.

In 2010, a person is coded "disabled" if they reported significant difficulty seeing, hearing or walking or if they reported having a permanent mental or intellectual disability.

See DISEMP for 1970 and 1980 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The 1985 sample universe includes only residents of the household while the 1996 and 2006 samples provide the type of disability for all persons. The samples do not distinguish between temporary and permanent disabilities but do refer to physical and mental limitations.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

Disability is defined as having a permanent disability in one or more of the following: seeing, speech, hearing, movement, and/or mental. This is irrespective of whether the person was born with the disability or developed it since birth. The stated threshold for disability is rather low, and can include what might be termed "limitations" (for example, vision loss in one eye).

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

The 2005 sample refers to limitations and health problems which prevent a person from fulfilling completely or partially, a task that could normally be done by a person of similar age, sex, and cultural factors. This includes limitations in sight, hearing, speaking, albinism, leprosy, physical disabilities, and mental disabilities.

Comparability — Chile [top]

The censuses did not mention permanent disability, though that was likely implied.

See DISEMP for 1982 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

Both the 1993 and 2005 samples identify persons with a permanent limitation. The 2005 sample specifies the inability to feed, bath, or dress oneself as a disability, and several times as many persons report a limitation in 2005.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The 2000 census instructions aimed to identify persons with a permanent limitation "making it hard to fulfill daily activities in an independent manner". In 2011 census the included disabilities are: difficulty seeing even with use of glasses, difficulty hearing, difficulty speaking, difficulty walking or climbing stairs, difficulty using arms or hands, intellectual difficulty and mental difficulty (bipolar, schizophrenic, other).

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The data identify persons with a limitation. The 1981 and 2002 samples identify limitations in sight, hearing, speaking, physical disabilities, and mental disabilities. The 2002 sample specifies physical disabilities due to missing or limited mobility in either arms or legs. The instructions for each sample did not specify that the impairment must be permanent, but that may have been implied.

In the 2010 sample reports much higher disability levels than earlier years. Most of the difference is due to a change in the wording of the question for vision disability, which was changed from being blind in one or both eyes in 2002 to having "permanent difficulty" seeing with glasses in 2010.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

The census question sought to identify a "permanent difficulty doing an activity considered normal".

See DISEMP for 1990 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

Both the 1986 and 1996 censuses data do not define disability but specified a number of conditions to choose from. The 2006 sample defined disability as having a "physical, sensual, or mental problem for 6 months or more that disable him/her of living his/her life independently in a normal way".

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

The universe changes from all persons in the 1992 sample, to persons in private occupied dwellings in the 2007 sample.

The census questions are comparable. Both samples refer to permanent limitations in seeing, hearing, speaking, using arms or legs, and to mental disabilities, while only the latter includes difficulties for daily activities (bathing, getting dressed, or eating) and other permanent limitations not listed.

See DISEMP for 1992-2007 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

In 1984 and 1994 the censuses have detailed information about the disability status, while in 2007 the census has a question asking if the person has any disability. In 1984 and 1994 the questions were asked to resident household members, while in 2007 the question was asked to all persons.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

The 1996 sample refers to limitations and health problems lasting 6 months or more (permanent). This includes limitations in sight, hearing, physical and mental disabilities as well as limitations due to old age.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The 2010 sample identifies limitations in sight, hearing or speech, physical disabilities, emotional disabilities and mental disabilities. Persons with disabilities are defined as those who are unable to or are restricted in the performance of specific tasks or activities due to loss of function of any part of the body as a result of impairment or malformation. A disability can be partial or total, sensory or physical and an individual may suffer from one or more disabilities. A person is considered disabled if, despite the use of assistive devices or a supportive environment (such as eye glasses and hearing aids), the limitation or restriction cannot be improved.

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

Both censuses aimed to identify both physical and mental disabilities. The 1981 census instructions indicated that temporary impairment qualified as a disability. The 1994 did not mention temporary impairment but defined disability in terms of "difficulty" with common physical or mental activities.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The census asked about a major disability, physical or mental, that limits normal activities. The instructions did not specify that the impairment must be permanent, but that may have been implied.

See DISEMP for 1983 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

The 2003 sample not only identifies persons having any disability, but also the type of disability: limitations in sight, hearing, speaking, using upper limbs/lower limbs, and mental disabilities.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The 1980 sample considers blind and deaf/mute persons, and also physical or mental disabilities. The 2010 sample refers to difficulties seeing, hearing, walking, remembering, concentrating, or communicating, and taking care of oneself. Only persons with severe difficulties are considered to be disabled in 2010, while the unharmonized source variables preserve information on persons "slightly" disabled.

See DISEMP for 1971-1995 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Iran [top]

Disability is defined as having blindness, deafness, speech and voice disorder, hand or leg impairment or amputation, torso impairment, and/or mental disorder. These terms are defined in detail in the census instructions.

Comparability — Iraq [top]

The census instructions specified a number of physical and mental disabilities, including the loss of one eye.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

Disability rates are high in all Irish samples. The interpretation of disability is broad in the 2002, 2006, 2011 and 2016 censuses. It includes blindness, deafness, a severe vision or hearing impairment, or a condition that limits "basic physical activities such as walking, climbing stairs, reaching, lifting or carrying". It also includes "difficulties", which are asked of age group subsets: learning, remembering, or concentrating; dressing, bathing, or getting around inside the home; going outside the home alone to shop or visit a doctor for surgery; working at a job or business. In 2016, the intellectual, emotional and psychological disabilities along with chronic illnesses are included.

For 1981-1996, see DISEMP.

Comparability — Israel [top]

In 2008, the census question asked for the self-reported level of difficulty in seeing, hearing, walking inside the house/climbing up and down the stairs, remembering or concentrating, dressing or bathing, and in everyday functioning. A person is classified as disabled if they respond as having significant difficulty in any of the six items.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The samples are comparable. Disability is defined as any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity considered normal for a human being. This variable excludes any disability that does not limit the person's activities.

See DISEMP for 1982 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Jordan [top]

The census question identifies if the person suffered from a physical or mental handicap.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

In 2009, respondents were asked for their specific type of disability, if any. They were to report up to three disabilities.

Comparability — Lesotho [top]

The census offered no definition of disability, only the categories printed on the form.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The 2008 sample identifies limitations in sight, hearing, speaking, physical disabilities, and mental disabilities. Although no instructions are available, permanent impairments may have been implied.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

Disability is defined as "a physical or mental handicap which inhibits an individual's ability to work or participate in normal activities".

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

The 1980 census specified "physical" handicaps only, but the 2000 census included mental handicaps. Both censuses considered very weak vision a disability.

See DISEMP for 1991 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 1987 and 1998 samples did not specify whether the disability is permanent although this may have been implied. In contrast, the 2009 sample specifies that disabilities are permanent and not related to temporary illnesses. These samples define disability as conditions that contribute to ill health of the individual, slow economic activity and lower productivity, or prevent production effort altogether.

Many people in the 1987 sample have a disability or handicap that is not specified.

Comparability — Mauritius [top]

The 1990-2011 samples include mental and physical disabilities, with slight variations in the wording of the questions.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The census questions are comparable. The 2000 and 2010 samples refer to limitations moving/walking, hearing, speaking, seeing, and mental/learning disabilities. The 2000 sample includes also difficulties using arms/hands and allows for other physical/mental limitations not listed, while 2010 considers difficulties in daily life activities as well (bathing, getting dressed, or eating). The 2000 sample indicates that the question refers to long term or permanent disabilities (expected to last six months or more), which is not explicitly mentioned in the 2010 sample.

See DISEMP for 1990-2000, 2010 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The 2004 and 2014 samples overall refer to moving, visual, hearing, speaking, and mental disabilities, in addition to chronic diseases.

See DISEMP for 1982-2004 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

In 1997 the censuses have detailed information about the disability status (mental disability, physical disability or both), while in 2007 the census has a question asking if the person has any disability.

Comparability — Myanmar [top]

In 2014, the census questions ask about the self-reported level of difficulty in seeing even with glasses, hearing, walking, and remembering. A person is classified as disabled if they respond as having a lot of difficulty or are unable to do at all in any of these items.

Comparability — Nepal [top]

The instructions are not explicit on the point, but seem to imply the recording only of permanent disabilities. The 2011 census instructions suggest a lower threshold of impairment than 2001 to qualify as a disability.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

DISABLED is not available for the 1981 and 1998 samples. In the 1973 sample, disability is defined as a physical or organ impairment present from birth or that became non-functional over time due to accident or illness. It is not clear if temporary loss of function of an organ is considered a disability.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

In the 1997 sample, it is not clear whether or not temporary disabilities were recorded.

Comparability — Panama [top]

All samples include mental and physical impediments, including "visual weakness" that cannot be corrected. The universe for 1980 is limited to persons age 40 and younger.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

Samples have differing details of question wording, but all include both physical and mental disability. The 1962 sample is not included because the only disabilities it recorded were hearing and seeing. The 1972 census did not ask about disability.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The census question in each sample aimed to report any impairment affecting the performance of normal activities.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The Poland 1978, 2002 and 2011 samples defined disability in terms of a long lasting limitation (i.e. longer than 6 months) in performing main activities relevant to his or her age (such as learning at school, professional activities, running a household and self-services). The limitation was distinguished by levels: complete, serious, or moderate disability.

The 2002 and 2011 samples include related information regarding holding a disability certificate, which was not used to determine disability status, for further comparability with data from Poland 1978. In 2011, persons declaring that they have no impaired ability to perform everyday tasks were considered not to be disabled. In 2011, there are also a large number of people who are classified as unknown; these people include people who refused to answer if they have a disability certification or refusing to answer the degree of the disability.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

Only permanent disabilities were to be recorded.

See DISEMP for 1981-1991 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

Disability rates are very high in the Puerto Rican samples. Disability constitutes significant hearing or sight loss, physical limitation including reaching and lifting, and difficulty learning, remembering or concentrating.

The Puerto Rican samples have other variables indicating limitations in self-care or ability to run errands alone. Those are not incorporated into DISABLED, but are available as unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

For the 2002 sample, the question was titled "major disability or handicap", but there was no explicit mention of permanence. Persons with multiple handicaps were to enter the most severe one. For the 2012 sample, the instruction specifies a definition of handicaps as those that cause a person to fail in performing activities that other persons have no problems to do.

For the 2002 sample, the question was directed at non-visitors, while for the 2012 sample, the question was directed to all persons.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

Disability is defined as "long-standing illness, disability or infirmity". It is not clear whether illness and infirmity that does not impair daily or economic functioning is included as disability.

See DISEMP for 1980 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

Disability in the 1988 sample is defined as spasms (for disability of the limbs), blindness, history of or current leprosy, mental illness or other disability not specified. Disability in the 2002 sample is defined as condition that limits persons' daily activities.

It is not clear whether temporary limitation of person's daily activities in the 2002 sample or a transient condition that does not affect daily activities in the 1988 sample are interpreted as a disability.

The 2013 sample enumerates the following disabilities: difficulty seeing, difficulty hearing, difficulty communicating, difficulty walking or climbing stairs, difficulty remembering or concentrating and difficulty with self-care such as washing, dressing or feeding. A person is considered disabled if they answered "many difficulties" or "is not capable at all" to any of the previous items.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

Disability is selected from a long list of types which can be found in the enumeration text.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 1996 sample indicated that a positive response was to describe a "serious sight, hearing, physical, or mental disability".

The 2001 sample further defined disabilities as something that "prevents his/her full participation in life activities".

The 2007 sample describes a disability as "a serious sight, hearing, physical, communication, intellectual, emotional or mental disability that has lasted for 6 months or more". The 2007 sample includes a further question asking whether the disability seriously prevented the person from full participation in activities.

The 2011 and 2016 samples enumerate the following disabilities: difficulty seeing, difficulty hearing, difficulty communicating, difficulty walking or climbing stairs, difficulty remembering or concentrating and difficulty with self-care such as washing, dressing or feeding. A person is considered disabled if he/she answered "a lot of difficulty" or "cannot do at all" to any of the previous questions.

The 1996-2007 samples have information for persons of all ages, while in 2011-2016 only for persons age 5+. The 2011 sample asked this question of all persons, but the census documentation recommended including only persons age 5+ in the analysis of disability. Thus, DISABLED has responses restricted to persons age 5+ in the variable universe. The original responses for persons under this age are available in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

The census question asks if the person has any difficulty in moving, seeing, hearing, speaking, or learning.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

The census question asks if the person has any difficulty in moving, seeing, hearing, speaking, or learning. Disability is classified as having difficulty in any of the aforementioned areas.

Comparability — Suriname [top]

The question asks about mental and physical disabilities that have been persisting for at least six months, including those related to seeing, hearing, walking, remembering, personal care, lifting/reaching/carrying, and communicating.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The 2002 and 2012 samples defined disability as having a physical handicap, blindness, muteness, deafness, albinism, a mental handicap, or multiple handicaps. The census questions do not refer to the duration of the condition or impairment of daily or economic functioning as factors in interpreting disability.

In the Tanzania 2012 sample and for the census questions reporting the disability severity, only respondents indicating that they had "a lot of difficulty" or were "unable to do something" are considered to be disabled. The 2012 sample reports additional disabilities not included in 2002: cleft lip, befida, mental health, and psoriasis.

See DISEMP for 1988 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Togo [top]

The instructions seek to record any condition that slows the productive activity of the person. The 2010 census has separate source variables to record up to two handicaps for each respondent.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The 2000 and 2011 samples define disability as any restriction or lack of ability (resulting from an impairment) to perform activities in the manner or within the range considered to be normal for a human being. The disability was recorded if it's a long lasting disability, that is, during more than 6 months. Temporary conditions such as broken legs and other illness were excluded, even if these may have restricted a person's activities.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

The 1985 and 2000 samples refer to physical or mental disabilities, although only the latter requires persons having such condition for six months or more.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

The 1991 census defined disability in terms of the ability to lead a normal social and work life. The 2001 census changed the question to a condition that limited the kind or amount of activity a person could perform for at least six months. It is not evident whether the same definition is followed in 2014 as well.

Comparability — United States [top]

Disability rates are similarly high in all the U.S. samples. Disability in 2000-2005 constitutes significant hearing or sight loss, physical limitation including reaching and lifting, and difficulty learning, remembering or concentrating. In 2010, serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs replaced the former physical limitation question, but produced similar response rates.

The U.S. samples have other variables indicating limitations in self-care or ability to run errands alone. Those are not incorporated into DISABLED, but are available as unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The 2006 sample refers to permanent limitations in sight, hearing, walking, using arms/hands, speaking, and mental disabilities. Data is only available for persons interviewed in the third trimester of the household survey.

In 2011, a disability is defined as any limitation of activity and restriction in participation coming from a deficiency that permanently affects a person and his or her ability to become involved in daily life within his or her physical and social environment. The sample reported degrees of difficulty, with "much difficulty" used to define disability for the purposes of this variable. The source variable retains the full original information.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The census questions are comparable.

See DISEMP for 1971 and 1981 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

The census question asks for the self-reported level of difficulty (the level is preserved in the unharmonized data) in seeing even with glasses, hearing, walking, and remembering or paying attention. A person is classified as disabled if he/she responds as having significant difficulty in any of the four abilities. The source variables retain the full detail on the levels of difficulty in each activity.

See DISEMP for 1989 and 1999 disability data reported within the context of employment status.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

The 1990 sample identifies permanent limitations in sight, hearing, speaking, using arms/hands, as well as mental retardation. In 2000 and 2010, a disability is defined as a limitation in the kind or amount of activities that a person can do because of the ongoing difficulties due to a long term physical condition, mental condition or health problem. Short term disabilities due to temporary conditions such as broken legs and illness are excluded. In the 2000 sample it is specified that only disabilities lasting for more than six months should be included.

Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]

The 2012 census defines disability as a restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in a manner within the range considered normal for a person. For the purposes of this variable all the response categories from the original census qualify as disabilities: having difficulty moving, being totally blind or having difficulty seeing, having difficulty speaking, being deaf or having difficulty hearing, having chronic fits, having strange behavior or mental illness, having a lack of feeling in the hands or feet (leprosy) and albinism.

Universe

  • Bangladesh 2011: All persons
  • Benin 2002: All persons
  • Benin 2013: All persons
  • Botswana 1991: All persons
  • Botswana 2001: All persons
  • Botswana 2011: All persons
  • Brazil 1991: All persons
  • Brazil 2000: All persons
  • Brazil 2010: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 1985: Residents of the household
  • Burkina Faso 1996: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 2006: All persons
  • Cambodia 2008: All persons
  • Cambodia 2013: Present persons
  • Cameroon 2005: Residents of the household
  • Chile 1992: All persons
  • Chile 2002: All persons
  • Colombia 1993: All persons
  • Colombia 2005: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2000: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2011: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1981: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2002: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2010: All persons
  • Ecuador 2001: All persons
  • Ecuador 2010: All persons
  • Egypt 1986: All persons
  • Egypt 1996: All persons
  • Egypt 2006: All persons
  • El Salvador 1992: All persons
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons in private occupied dwellings
  • Ethiopia 1984: Residents of the household
  • Ethiopia 1994: Residents of the household
  • Ethiopia 2007: All persons
  • Fiji 1996: All persons
  • France 1962: All persons
  • Ghana 2010: All persons
  • Guatemala 1981: All persons
  • Guatemala 1994: All persons
  • Guinea 1996: Permanent and absent residents
  • Guinea 2014: All persons
  • Haiti 2003: All persons
  • Indonesia 1980: All persons
  • Indonesia 2010: Persons in regular enumeration areas
  • Iran 2006: All persons
  • Iraq 1997: All persons
  • Ireland 2002: Present persons
  • Ireland 2006: Present persons
  • Ireland 2011: Present persons
  • Ireland 2016: Present persons
  • Israel 2008: Persons age 5+
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons in private households or qualifying institutions
  • Jamaica 2001: All persons
  • Jordan 2004: All persons
  • Kenya 2009: All persons
  • Lesotho 2006: All persons
  • Liberia 2008: All persons
  • Malawi 2008: Non-visitors
  • Malaysia 1980: All persons
  • Malaysia 2000: All persons
  • Mali 1987: All persons
  • Mali 1998: All persons
  • Mali 2009: All persons
  • Mauritius 1990: All persons
  • Mauritius 2000: All persons
  • Mauritius 2011: All persons
  • Mexico 2000: All persons
  • Mexico 2010: All persons
  • Morocco 2004: All persons
  • Morocco 2014: All persons
  • Mozambique 1997: Residents of the household
  • Mozambique 2007: Residents of the household
  • Myanmar 2014: All persons
  • Nepal 2001: All persons
  • Nepal 2011: All persons
  • Pakistan 1973: All persons
  • Palestine 1997: Palestinian nationals
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 40 or less
  • Panama 1990: All persons
  • Panama 2000: All persons
  • Panama 2010: All persons
  • Paraguay 1962: All persons
  • Paraguay 1982: All persons
  • Paraguay 1992: All persons
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons with any disability
  • Peru 1993: All persons
  • Philippines 1990: All persons
  • Philippines 1995: All persons
  • Philippines 2000: All persons
  • Philippines 2010: All persons
  • Poland 1978: All persons
  • Poland 2002: All persons
  • Poland 2011: All persons
  • Portugal 2001: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors
  • Rwanda 2012: All persons
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All persons
  • Senegal 1988: All persons
  • Senegal 2002: All persons
  • Senegal 2013: Residents age 1+ in ordinary households
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All persons
  • South Africa 1996: Persons in private households
  • South Africa 2001: All persons
  • South Africa 2007: Persons in private households
  • South Africa 2011: Persons age 5+ in private households
  • South Africa 2016: Persons age 5+
  • South Sudan 2008: All persons
  • Sudan 2008: All persons
  • Suriname 2012: All persons
  • Tanzania 2002: All persons
  • Tanzania 2012: All persons
  • Thailand 1990: All persons
  • Togo 2010: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago
  • Turkey 1985: All persons
  • Turkey 2000: All persons
  • Uganda 1991: All persons
  • Uganda 2002: All persons
  • Uganda 2014: Persons age 2+
  • United States 2000: Persons age 5+
  • United States 2005: Persons age 5+
  • United States 2010: Persons age 5+
  • United States 2015: Persons age 5+
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons in third sample trimester
  • Uruguay 2011: All persons
  • Venezuela 1990: All persons
  • Venezuela 2001: All persons
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 5 or more
  • Zambia 1990: All persons
  • Zambia 2000: All persons
  • Zambia 2010: Present members and visitors
  • Zimbabwe 2012: All persons

Availability

  • Bangladesh: 2011
  • Benin: 2002, 2013
  • Botswana: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 2008, 2013
  • Cameroon: 2005
  • Canada: 1891, 1911
  • Chile: 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Fiji: 1996
  • France: 1962
  • Ghana: 2010
  • Guatemala: 1981, 1994
  • Guinea: 1996, 2014
  • Haiti: 2003
  • Iceland: 1901
  • Indonesia: 1980, 2010
  • Iran: 2006
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1911, 2002, 2006, 2011, 2016
  • Israel: 2008
  • Jamaica: 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 2009
  • Lesotho: 2006
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Malawi: 2008
  • Malaysia: 1980, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mauritius: 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Mexico: 2000, 2010
  • Morocco: 2004, 2014
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Myanmar: 2014
  • Nepal: 2001, 2011
  • Norway: 1865, 1875, 1900, 1910
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Palestine: 1997
  • Panama: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993
  • Philippines: 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
  • Poland: 1978, 2002, 2011
  • Portugal: 2001
  • Puerto Rico: 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Rwanda: 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002, 2013
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011, 2016
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Suriname: 2012
  • Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
  • Tanzania: 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1990
  • Togo: 2010
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002, 2014
  • United Kingdom: 1851a, 1851b, 1861a, 1861b, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911
  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880b, 1910, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012