Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart
TRNWRK
Means of transportation to work or school

Codes and Frequencies



Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Description

TRNWRK identifies the primary or usual means of transportation the person took either to work or school.

In censuses in which a person could report multiple modes of transportation, TRNWRK reports only the first method reported.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Austria
Canada
Fiji
France
Germany
Indonesia
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Mexico
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Slovenia
Spain
Switzerland
Trinidad and Tobago
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay

Comparability — General

The samples differ in whether they record the means of transportation the person took to work -- Canada, Greece, Israel, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Slovenia, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay and 1999-2011 France -- or to work or school -- Austria, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Germany, Indonesia and 1968 France.

The variable also differs across samples in terms of its age universe; whether the question was phrased generally or for a specific reference period (either the previous day or the previous week); and in the classification of particular categories (such as motorcycles, bicycles, on foot, no transportation, subway, tram, and ferryboats), which were sometimes identified separately and sometimes classified under larger categories.

The Indonesia 2005 data only apply to persons who commute regularly outside of their regency or municipality.

Autos, trucks and vans were differentiated in a few samples, but are combined into a single category for TRNWRK.

Comparability — Austria [top]

For all samples, the data relates to daily transportation to work or school. If multiple means of transportation were used, the mode with the longest distance of commute was to be reported. Persons with changing job sites in 1971 did not have responses.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The census question asked how the person usually got to work. The census question is asked of people 15+ years old who travel for work within Canada, excluding those who work from home.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

The 2014 census asked the transportation mode used for main daily activity, which was not limited to workplace or school. Private boats are coded to "other private" and minibuses are coded to "other public". All detail is retained in the source variable.

Comparability — France [top]

The 1968 sample refers to transportation to work or school, while the 1999 sample refers only to work and the 2006 sample only refers to means of transportation without specifying if it is work or school. However, since the universe is for actively employed persons it is reasonable to assume it is to work. The categories and the universes also differ substantially across samples.

Comparability — Germany [top]

Both samples refer to transportation to work or school, but the available categories differ substantially.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The universe includes persons who routinely commute outside their municipality or regency of residence for work or school.

The question allows a response for going to work/school, and returning from work/school. If persons indicated different means for each trip, they are coded into the "combination of several means" category. The category of "shared private transport" includes methods that are used by a specific group (e.g. employee bus), for payment or not.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

There are slight differences in categories across time. The 1971 sample does not distinguish between driving alone or as a passenger and only the 1991, 1996, and 2011 samples identify students and employed persons who do not travel to work or school. The unharmonized source variables provide some additional detail, like type of bus or travel by van or lorry.

The universe changed slightly in 2011. In 1971 and 1981-1996, the question was asked of all students and employed persons. In 2011, the question was asked only of non-absent students and employed persons.

Comparability — Israel [top]

The categories are fairly consistent across samples, but there are some differences. The variable describes the primary means of transportation to work on most days of last week. It appears that walking is included with "none" in 1972.

Comparability — Italy [top]

The samples are comparable across years (2001 and 2011). The variable reports the means of transportation used to cover the longest stretch of the persons trip to their usual place of study or work.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The Mexico sample 2015 includes questions both for the usual mode of transportation to work and for the usual mode of transportation to school. Each of these questions allow for up to three responses about the mode of transportation used. TRNWRK uses only the first response for the usual mode of transportation to work, but additional information is available in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

The variable reports the main mode of transportation used to cover the longest stretch of the person's trip to their usual place of study or work.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

This variable is fairly comparable across time, with a few exceptions: persons who rode motorcycles and bicycles were identified separately in 1990-2010, but would probably have responded "other" in 1970 and 1980; those who took subway or elevated trained were identified separately in 1970 and 2000-2005, but not in other years; and those who took a ferry boat were identified separately in 1980-2010, but not in 1970.

The age universes are 14+ for the 1970 sample and 16+ for the 1980-2010 samples.

Comparability — Slovenia [top]

The census question asked how the person usually got to work. There was a separate question about how a person usually got to school, but that information is not incorporated into TRNWRK.

Comparability — Spain [top]

In both samples data record means of transport to work or school. The 2011 sample has an additional unharmonized source variable identifying a second mode of transport for people who used more than one.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

This variable is comparable across time. The unharmonized source variables have more detail about people who combined multiple modes of transportation.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

Trinidad and Tobago includes transportation options of "Maxi Taxis" which are considered "other public transportation" and "PH Taxis" which are classified as "hired transport."

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

The data are for journey to work in both censuses, plus journey to school for students in Scotland. Persons in car pools are included with "Auto (driver)" in 2001. The 2001 universe is capped at age 74.

Comparability — United States [top]

This variable describes the respondent's primary means of transportation to work on the most recent day they worked (1970), or over the course of the previous week (other samples). It is fairly comparable over time, with a few exceptions: persons who rode motorcycles and bicycles were identified separately in 1980-2015, but would probably have responded "other" in 1960 and 1970; those who took a ferry boat were identified separately in 1990-2015, but not previously; persons who did not respond are included in the NIU category in 1960 and allocated in other years.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The data indicate the means used for the most time on the trip to work. The "special transportation" category represents that paid by the employer. Only respondents in the second trimester of the 2006 sample were asked the work commute question.

Universe

  • Austria 1971: Persons age 6+ who commute to work or school daily
  • Austria 1981: Persons age 6+ who commute to work or school daily
  • Austria 1991: Persons age 6+ who commute to work or school daily
  • Austria 2001: Persons age 6+ who commute to work or school daily
  • Canada 2001: Persons age 15+ who last worked in 2000 or 2001 in Canada but not at home
  • Canada 2011: Persons age 15+ who last worked in 2010 or 2011 in Canada but not at home
  • Fiji 2014: Persons age 4+
  • France 1968: Persons age 6+ who were practicing professional activity or were going to school
  • France 1999: Persons age 15+ who worked
  • France 2006: Persons age 14+ who are employed
  • France 2011: Active employed persons
  • Germany 1970: Students or economically active persons
  • Germany 1987: Students and employed persons
  • Greece 1991: Persons who were born in or before 1980 and travelled to work
  • Indonesia 2005: Persons age 5+ who commute routinely outside the regency
  • Ireland 1971: Students and employed persons
  • Ireland 1981: Students and employed persons
  • Ireland 1986: Students and employed persons
  • Ireland 1991: Students and employed persons
  • Ireland 1996: Students and employed persons
  • Ireland 2011: Non-absent students and employed persons
  • Israel 1972: Persons age 14+ in the annual labor force
  • Israel 1983: Persons age 15+ in the annual labor force
  • Israel 1995: Persons age 15+ in the annual labor force
  • Italy 2001: Persons who went to their usual place of study or work on Wednesday of last week
  • Italy 2011: Persons who went to their usual place of study or work on Wednesday of last week
  • Mexico 2015: Persons age 12+ who are working and travel from the dwelling to the job
  • Portugal 2011: Persons who travelled to work or school
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 14+ who worked last week
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 16+ who worked last week
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 16+ who worked last week
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 16+ who worked last week
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 16+ who worked last week
  • Saint Lucia 1991: Persons age 15+ who are employed
  • Slovenia 2002: Persons who commuted to work
  • Spain 1981: Persons who were working or studying
  • Spain 2001: Persons age 16+ who travelled to work or school last week
  • Spain 2011: Persons age 16+ who travelled to work or school last week
  • Switzerland 1970: Persons age 15+ who are employed
  • Switzerland 1980: Persons age 15+ who are employed
  • Switzerland 1990: Persons age 15+ who are employed
  • Switzerland 2000: Persons age 15+ who are employed
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons age 15+ who worked or ever looked for work
  • United Kingdom 1991: Persons age 16+ who worked last week
  • United Kingdom 2001: Persons age 16 to 74 who worked last week
  • United States 1960: Persons age 14+ who worked during the previous week
  • United States 1970: Persons age 14+ who worked during the previous week
  • United States 1980: Persons age 16+ who worked during the previous week
  • United States 1990: Persons age 16+ who worked during the previous week
  • United States 2000: Persons age 16+ who worked during the previous week
  • United States 2005: Persons age 16+ who worked during the previous week
  • United States 2010: Persons age 16+ who worked during the previous week
  • United States 2015: Persons age 16+ who worked during the previous week
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons in the second sample trimester who are working

Availability

  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Canada: 2001, 2011
  • Fiji: 2014
  • France: 1968, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1970, 1987
  • Greece: 1991
  • Indonesia: 2005
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Mexico: 2015
  • Portugal: 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Saint Lucia: 1991
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • Spain: 1981, 2001, 2011
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 2000
  • United Kingdom: 1991, 2001
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 2006