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SCHOOL
School attendance

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

SCHOOL indicates whether or not the person attended school at the time of the census or within some specified period of time prior to the census.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Austria
Bangladesh
Belarus
Benin
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Fiji
France
Germany
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Laos
Lesotho
Liberia
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mexico
Mongolia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Pakistan
Palestine
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Romania
Russia
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovenia
South Africa
South Sudan
Spain
Sudan
Switzerland
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Uganda
Ukraine
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia

Comparability — General

The age of persons to whom the question applies varies across the samples. There is a general trend within countries over time to lower the age requirement for asking the attendance question. Some samples distinguish between those who never attended and those who had left school.

For most samples, school attendance was determined as of the time of the census; however, some censuses consider attendance any time in the previous year to be an affirmative response.

In all countries the nature of the inquiry on school attendance aims primarily at identifying those persons attending schools with a normal program of study leading ultimately to a succession of grades or levels. There are differences, however, in the inclusion of correspondence courses, adult literacy classes, and similar non-traditional studies.

In some samples, school attendance is derived from the employment (activity) status variable. People who did both could only respond one way or the other, generally privileging employment status, depending on the particular census instructions. Only samples where children were asked the employment status question are included in SCHOOL.

Canada and Israel have a much higher age universe than other countries.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

Each sample distinguishes between persons attending at the time of the census and those who ever attended school in the past. Only officially recognized institutions with formal levels of instruction were to be counted.

The universe for 1970 and 1980 is persons age 5 and older; in 1991, 2001, and 2010 it is persons age 3 and older.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

Both the 2001 and 2011 censuses identify persons studying at the time of the census in virtually any type of school or correspondence program. In 2001 the question was asked of persons age 7 and older; in 2011 the question was asked of persons age 6 and older.

Comparability — Austria [top]

The 2011 source variable includes a category for "unclassified children age 7 to 14". These cases are coded as unknown in SCHOOL.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

The 2011 census instructed that only persons in regular courses were to be counted, not persons in brief specialized or correspondence courses. The earlier censuses did not define attendance.

The age universe for the question changes significantly between censuses. The universe for 1991 is persons between 5 and 35 years; in 2001 persons between 5 and 29 years; and 2011 is all persons.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

The census question asks about school attendance at the time of the census, including pre-school, primary, vocational, secondary, and higher education, in full-time or part-time educational institutions.

Comparability — Benin [top]

The variable is broadly comparable over time. The universe changes slightly across samples.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The age universe for the question changes between censuses. All censuses asked whether the person was currently attending school. The 1992 sample distinguishes between persons who were attending and those who never attended school.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

The census question referred only to formal education, including officially registered private schools. Responses distinguished between persons who never attended school and those who attended only in the past.

The universe changed across samples: school attendance is reported by present residents aged 5 years or more in 1981, persons aged 5 years or more in 1991, and persons aged 2 years or more in 2001-2011.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

In all years, school attendance includes all persons in regular schools having a progressive yearly curriculum. All persons registered for school were to be counted, even if they were temporarily absent from school at the time of the census. Persons in adult literacy courses, high school preparatory courses, or primary classes in households were also considered attending in all years.

In 1960 and 1970, persons in kindergarten were explicitly not considered attending school. Beginning in 1980, pre-school counted as attendance.

In 2000, the question was addressed to all persons for the first time, rather than being restricted to persons age five and older. Children in day-care (creche) in 2000 and 2010 were to be considered attending school, as were persons involved in distance education in 2010. The 2000 and 2010 censuses distinguished between persons who never attended school versus those who attended only in the past.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The census does not specify what types of education qualify as school attendance.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The question in all samples refers specifically to full-time education in a formal institution. Attendance is determined at the time of enumeration.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

The 1976 census specifically included correspondence courses and excluded job training. The 2005 census did not include such definitions. The universe for 1976 is persons age 4 years and older; in 2005 is persons age 3 years and older.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The question was asked of all people in 1971 and only of persons age 15 and older in later censuses. For samples prior to 2011, the unharmonized source variables distinguish between part-time and full-time attendance.

The 1971-2011 samples ask about attendance in the previous nine months -- the last school year.

Comparability — Chile [top]

In all years, the census instructions indicated only regular schooling was to be considered. 1982 defined this to include kindergarten, but not nursery school, preschool, correspondence courses, or purely work training courses.

1960 is a sample of individuals, not households. Only persons who were heads of households get a response for most household variables.

In 1982 the question distinguishes between current and past attendance.

Comparability — China [top]

The census question asks about school attendance at the time of the census (to primary/elementary or a higher level).

Comparability — Colombia [top]

In 1973 and 1993 the question applied to persons five years and older. 1985 had no age universe, but a 5-year age limit has been imposed to make the sample comparable to the previous Colombian datasets (i.e., persons under age 5 are coded "not in universe"). In 2005 persons age 3 years and older were asked the question. In each year, the question specifically refers to a person's enrollment status at the time of the census.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The 1963 to 2000 censuses stipulated that only regular schooling was to be considered. Training courses or an "open system" of education were not counted as school attendance. In 2011, the question was asked of all individuals. Children age five and younger attending day care centers, preschools and nursery schools are coded as "No" in SCHOOL. The 2011 source variable also includes a category for adult day centers. These cases are coded as "No" in SCHOOL. See the unharmonized source variable for more detail.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The 1960 and 1970 censuses only identify whether the person is currently attending or not, while the 1981, 2002, and 2010 censuses distinguish persons who never attended school from those who attended school in the past.

School attendance includes primary, secondary, and university, but treatment of other education options may differ across samples. School types explicitly include literacy centers in 1960 and correspondence courses in 1981. Additionally, the 1981 census asked about attendance in a vocational, technical, or commercial educational institution, which is considered schooling even though the question was directed to an older age universe (persons age 10 or more.) Preschool or pre-primary is included in school attendance in 1981, 2002, and 2010. In 2010, daycare and vocational/technical education options such as schools for secretaries, fashion, beauty, mechanics, radio and television, as well as other extra-curricular courses are excluded.

The universe for 1960, 1970, and 1981 is persons age 5 and older; in 2002 and 2010 it is persons age 3 and older.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

Enrollment in a literacy center counts as school attendance in all samples; correspondence courses and job training classes do not count.

The age universe for the question changes from six and older for 1962-1990 to four and older in 2001 and to five and older in 2010.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The question refers to current school enrollment in basic education.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

The samples are fully comparable and reference attendance at a school in the regular school system, not professional or training courses.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The samples are largely consistent over time. Respondents attending pre-school and informal or non-regular programs, including literacy training, are not considered to be attending school. These groups are identified separately in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

The 1976 census offered no definition of schooling. The 1986 census specified full-time primary or secondary establishments (and presumably included tertiary). The 1996 specified kindergarten was to be included. The 2007 and 2014 censuses specify formal educational institutions. Part-time schooling in 2007 and 2014 is coded as not attending, in order to maintain consistency with earlier censuses. The source variables identify these cases.

The 1996-2014 censuses distinguish between persons who never attended school versus those who attended only in the past.

Comparability — France [top]

The age universe differs markedly between the French samples. The schooling questions record the person's student status at the time of the census and refer to the current school year. The instructions of what should be considered as schooling for this purpose differ in the level of detail and might treat differently some forms of education across samples.

In 1982, information on school attendance was derived from separate questions for 2-14 year-olds and older persons.

Comparability — Germany [top]

The census question refers to current school enrollment in all samples. The universe for Germany 1970 census includes only persons age 5 and older, but it includes all persons in 1981-1987.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The question asked whether persons were attending school full-time -- four or more hours per day -- at the time of the census. Adult literacy, strictly religious learning, and certain kinds of training were excluded. In 1984, the question was asked of persons age 5 and older and nursery schools were explicitly excluded from full-time education. In 2000 and 2010, the universe was expanded to include persons age 3 and older. In these samples, children attending nursery schools were considered to be attending school.

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

The 1964 data include instruction in the home. All later years specify attendance means instruction in a school or regular educational establishment. The data are otherwise comparable across samples. The 2002 sample distinguishes between persons attending public versus private institutions. See the source variable.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The 1983 census asked about current school attendance involving regular studies.

In 1996, school attendance is derived from the economic activity status question. Children age 6 to 18 who attended school full-time were to be reported as "in school" regardless of whether they also performed some economic activity.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

The 1982 census specified that only education in the normal school system was to be considered, not special education outside the system or job training in a workplace. The 2003 census specifically included technical and professional training centers and literacy centers.

The age universe for the question changes from six and older for 1982 to five years and older in 2003.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

The variable is broadly comparable over time. The universe changes slightly across samples. The unknown category includes those persons who did not answer the question about school attendance, even when they reported any educational attainment.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The data for 1970 to 1990 are derived from the question on economic activity; in 2001, it comes from the question on daily travel to school; in 2011, it is directly ascertained through a census question which asked the type of education that the person is currently attending (from nursery through university.) In all years, except for 2011, persons who were economically active in the week before the census would not be recorded as attending school.

Comparability — India [top]

All samples identify persons currently attending a regular school leading to a degree or certificate, or enrolled in a correspondence course leading to same.

The 1999, 2004, and 2009 censuses separately identify people who never attended school.

The universe for this question varies significantly among censuses. In the 1983 to 1993 censuses, the question was asked of all persons. For the 1999 census, the question was asked of persons age 30 or below. In the 2004 and 2009 census, the question was asked of persons aged 29 or younger.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The universe changes significantly from all persons in samples prior to and including 1980 to persons age 5+ from 1985 to 2010. The question refers to attendance in the formal school system at the primary level or above -- kindergarten is not counted.

The 1976 data contain cases when the respondent indicated not attending school but providing no specifics on previous attendance.

Comparability — Iran [top]

The census question considers anyone who is in school at the time of enumeration, including students in theological schools, in literacy schools, and those studying abroad. The enumeration instructions consider students those on leave and persons accepted in higher education who were registered at the institution.

In 2006, persons studying at community colleges or certificate programs (such as computers, foreign languages, painting, sewing, or others) are considered students. In 2011, individuals taking courses in technical and vocational training and those taking unofficial courses (such as computer science, language, painting, etc.) are not registered as attending school.

Comparability — Israel [top]

Both samples indicate whether a person was currently attending or had ever attended school. Kindergarten and courses lasting less than one year were to be excluded.

Comparability — Italy [top]

The 2001 census asked whether the respondent was enrolled in primary school, secondary school, university, or a vocational training/updating course.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The universe differs slightly between 1982-1991 and 2001.

The levels of education considered for school attendance are comparable across Jamaica censuses and they cover pre-primary, primary, secondary, tertiary, and special education. The question instructions assume that an individual is not attending if he/she is less than 3 years old for Jamaica 1982 census, less than 4 or more than 50 years old for Jamaica 1991, and less than 4 years old for Jamaica 2001. Also, persons on holidays from school are regarded as attending school unless they completed the last term and are not enrolled in other program.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The universe changes significantly from all persons in the 1979 sample, to persons age 6+ in 1989, to persons age 5+ in 1999, to persons age 3+ in 2009.

The 1979 census did not define the type of education that would qualify. Later censuses require that attendance is in reference to full-time education in formal educational institutions. The 1989 census explicitly included primary, secondary and tertiary. In 1999, pre-primary was to be included. The 2009 census expanded the definition of schooling to include attendance at virtually any educational establishment, formal or informal.

All censuses stated that attendance means "persons attending school this year."

Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]

The age universe for the question changes from six and older for 1999 to all persons in 2009. Attendance includes regular schools as well as persons taking courses for vocational or professional improvement.

Comparability — Laos [top]

Attendance means full-time instruction at a formal educational institution, even if temporarily absent from school at the time of the census.

Comparability — Lesotho [top]

The universe changes slightly across samples.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The 1974 census only indicates whether the person is currently attending or not, while in 2008 persons who never attended school are separately identified from those who attended school in the past.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The universe for Malawi 1987 and 1998 censuses is persons age 5 and older. In Malawi 2008 census, information about school attendance was collected from non-visitors age 3 and older.

In the Malawi 2008 census the question records whether a person was currently attending, while in the earlier samples it only indicates if the person attended in the month when data was collected. The Malawi 1987 and 1998 samples consider primary, secondary, distant education centers, and university, while they exclude teacher's training, technical colleges, short courses, and adult literacy schools. The Malawi 2008 census explicitly indicates that pre-school should be also considered as school attendance.

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

All censuses asked whether persons were attending school at the time of the census. Only formal education primary-to-tertiary was included. The 1971 census specifically excluded kindergarten.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 1998 census only indicates whether the person is currently attending school, while in 2009 persons who never attended school are separately identified from those who attended school in the past.

The census question in 1998 refers to current attendance in a regular school, part or full time, during the day or night, while non-regular schools are also considered in 2009.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The universe gets progressively younger, from 6+ for 1970, to 5+ for 1990-2005, to 3+ for 2010-2015. The question refers to status at the time of the census.

The 1995-2015 censuses explicitly excluded persons taking adult literacy classes or trade/craft courses (sewing, electricity, etc.) from school attendance.

Comparability — Mongolia [top]

Schooling includes night school and correspondence instruction. Foreign-language courses and occupational courses to receive a certificate were not included.

Comparability — Nepal [top]

Attendance means going to a formal school, including students who are temporarily absent.

The universe differs significantly across samples. The 2001 census question applies only to persons between 6 and 25 years old who have not passed grade 10. The 2011 question was asked of persons age 5 or older.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

The universe changes slightly from persons age 6+ for the 1971 census to 5+ for 1995 and 2005. The samples are otherwise comparable, indicating current enrollment in the formal school system.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

Attendance refers to a formal school in 2006-2009. The universe for 2006-2009 is all persons; in 2010 it is persons age 5 and older.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

The census question in 1973 refers to attendance to an educational institution, either private or administered by the Government, for attaining regular education, including specialized (i.e. arts, commerce, and sciences) and Madrassas. The question distinguishes between those who left school and those who never attended. Formal job training counts as schooling, but apprenticeships are excluded as are studies not arranged as progressive levels.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The universe for Palestine 1997 and 2007 censuses includes persons age 5 and older, but in 2007 it excludes those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967. Both census samples identify current enrollment.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The age universe for the question changes between censuses. The universe for 1960 is persons 7+ not in indigenous groups; in 1990 is persons 5+; and 1980, 2000 and 2010 is persons 4+.

The censuses asked about enrollment in school at the time of enumeration. All samples have a broad definition of schooling, including preschool, vocational schools outside the normal system of education, schools for the mentally deficient, and literacy education.

Comparability — Papua New Guinea [top]

The universe changes across samples. In 1980, it is not possible to distinguish between "never attended" and "attended in the past".

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

All samples indicate whether the person is currently attending an institution of regular schooling. The universe changes from persons age 7 and older in 1962-1982 to persons age 5 and older in 1992 and 2002.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The census question in 1990, 2000, and 2010 asked whether the person attended school at anytime in the reference year.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The census question considers anyone who is in school at the time of enumeration. The 'no' category includes those persons who have never attended any school, as well as those who are attending vocational courses (such as driving, sewing, or computer classes.)

Comparability — Portugal [top]

All samples (1981-2011) indicate whether a person was currently attending or had ever attended school. In all years currently attending was to mean regular attendance, not simply enrollment.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The age universe is persons age 3 or older in all samples (1990-2010), except for 1980 when all persons were considered. The question refers to attendance to regular school or college, either public or private. The reference time period is any time during the last two months for all samples, except for the 2005 and 2010 censuses when it refers to any time during the last three months.

Comparability — Romania [top]

The universe changes across samples. In 1977 it is all persons, and in 1992, 2002, and 2011 it is persons age 6 and older.

Comparability — Russia [top]

The 2002 census includes students going part-time to an educational institution or learning by correspondence, if it is comprehensive or vocational training. There is no mention of part-time schooling in the 2010 census.

The universe changes significantly across samples. In 2002, the question applies only to persons aged 6 years or older, while in 2010 the question was asked only of persons aged from 6 to 50 years old.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

Rwanda 2002 does not have a specific variable regarding current school attendance (only if the person ever attended school), but the question on "employment status" records people who were students as their primary activity in the previous month. Thus, a person who worked and went to school would not be recorded as attending school. Rwanda 2012 has a specific question about school attendance. The universe changes across samples.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

Both censuses asked the question of all persons. The question refers to current school attendance, whether full or part time, including educational levels from nursery school to university.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

School attendance for both samples is derived from nearly identical questions on employment status. The census questions asked for the person's main activity in the previous 12 months. Persons who worked continuously for at least three months as well as being a student should have been considered working and would not count as attending school.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

The question refers to attendance at any educational establishment where formal instruction is given on a full-time basis.

Comparability — Slovenia [top]

Attendance includes vocational and professional retraining.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

Preschool and day care were not counted as enrollment. The 1996 census explicitly included correspondence courses, and 2001 included adult education centers. In 2007 and 2011, the question specified that part-time or full-time attendance, distance learning and home schooling qualified as attendance.

The universe varies across samples.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

The question refers to attendance at a formal educational institution on a full-time basis, excluding adult or short-term vocational training education.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The Spanish samples determine school attendance relative to the moment or the week of the census. In 2011, the question was only asked of persons age 15 and younger, which is a marked change from previous samples. Respondents attending day care are included in the "Yes" category in 2011.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

The question refers to attendance at a formal educational institution on a full-time basis, excluding adult or short-term vocational training education.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

The census question refers to ongoing education, including mandatory school, middle school, preparatory trade or profession school, apprenticeship, high school, teacher training school, advance technical and professional training, trade or professional school, college, and university.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The data are comparable between samples. In all censuses, the question distinguished among those attending school, those who completed school, those who never attended, and those who had left school.

In 1988 and 2002 the questions were asked of persons aged 5 years or older and in 2012 the census question was asked of persons aged 4 years or older.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

The age universe is persons between 5 and 30 years old in all samples, except for 1970 when persons between 5 and 29 years old were considered. The question refers to school attendance during the last three months, including the regular education system, vocational education, and university level.

In all censuses, studying short courses in a general education program in which no regular subjects are offered is not considered as school attendance; for example, hair dressing, dress making or tailoring, radio repairing, and similar activities.

Comparability — Togo [top]

The data indicate current attendance at an educational establishment.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

In 1970, the information is derived from the question on type of non-vocational school or university currently attended, while the 1980-2011censuses have questions that directly ask whether the person is currently attending or not school.

The enumeration instructions in 1990 and 2000 indicate that adult or continuing classes should be considered as attending school. The 2011 census explicitly includes distance learning.

The universe is all persons in all censuses except in 2011, which includes only persons in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

Both samples ask whether the person attended school within the current calendar year. In 1991, the question was asked of all persons, and in 2002 only of persons age 5 and older.

Comparability — Ukraine [top]

Persons who study at day or nighttime, doing correspondence courses, on-the-job training, or any course with a duration of 12 months or more are considered to be attending school. The definition includes general, vocational, higher, and other types of education. Persons age 6 years old in preschool (from a separate question) are also considered to be attending school.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

The census identifies people who were full-time students at the time of the census.

Comparability — United States [top]

The age universe for the question changes among the U.S. samples.

For 2005-2015, a person was considered as having attended school if she or he attended school at any time in the previous three months to the census.

For 1960-2000, a person who attended school at any time from February 1 to the census day (April) was counted as having attended school.

1960: any kindergarten or elementary school, and any schooling leading toward a high school diploma or college degree. Nursery school, business or trade school, and adult education classes were not to be counted.

1970: any educational nursery school (not simply custodial child care), kindergarten, elementary school, and any schooling leading toward a high school diploma or college degree.

1980-2005: any nursery school, kindergarten, elementary school, and any schooling leading toward a high school diploma or college degree. (Other types of schooling counted only if a regular elementary school, high school, or college would have accepted it for credit.)

2010-2015: home schooling is included among the types of school identified.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The universe differs across samples. The samples are otherwise comparable, indicating current enrollment in the formal school system. The 1963 sample excludes correspondence, technical (such as piano, cooking, sewing, and similar), and improvement courses. The 1996 data contains a significant unknown category. The 2011 data come from two separate questions regarding current attendance of persons age 3 or younger and past or current attendance of persons age 4 or older.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

In 1971, affirmative responses required attending at least half of classes the month before census day.

The 1971 census limited affirmative responses to attendance at accredited institutions, including technical and industrial schools, but excluding commercial schools. Correspondence courses were not to be counted unless they related directly to elementary, secondary, or normal education.

The 1981 and 1990, the census language was simplified to require simply being a student in preschool, primary, intermediate, or superior school. A person need only be enrolled for school, not actually attending at census time. In 2001, the language of the question changed slightly again to ask if the person currently attended a formally accredited educational establishment

The age universe for the question changes from five and older in 1971-1981 to three and older in 1990-2001.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

The variable is broadly comparable between censuses, with all years noting whether a person had ever attended school in the past.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

In the 1990 and 2000 censuses, vocational and teacher training are considered as schooling but not apprenticeships; the source variables for these samples distinguish between current and past part-time and full-time attendance. Correspondence courses are regarded as attending school.

In 1990 and 2000, the question was asked of all persons age 5 and older. In 2010, the question was asked of present household members and visitors age 5 and older. The 1990 and 2000 enumeration instructions indicate that this question should have been asked only of present household members and visitors, but school attendance is reported for almost all absent household members; they are included in the universe.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Argentina 1980: Persons age 5+
  • Argentina 1991: Persons age 3+
  • Argentina 2001: Persons age 3+
  • Argentina 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Armenia 2001: Persons age 7+
  • Armenia 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Austria 1971: All persons
  • Austria 1981: All persons
  • Austria 1991: All persons
  • Austria 2001: All persons
  • Austria 2011: All persons
  • Bangladesh 1991: Persons age 5 to 35
  • Bangladesh 2001: Persons age 5 to 29
  • Bangladesh 2011: All persons
  • Belarus 1999: Persons age 6-60
  • Belarus 2009: Persons age 6-60
  • Benin 1992: Persons age 3+ in private households
  • Benin 2002: Residents age 3+
  • Benin 2013: Persons age 3+
  • Bolivia 1976: Persons age 5+
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons age 6+
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons age 4+
  • Botswana 1981: Present residents age 5+
  • Botswana 1991: Persons age 5+
  • Botswana 2001: Persons age 2+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Botswana 2011: Persons age 2+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Brazil 1960: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 1980: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 1991: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 2000: All persons
  • Brazil 2010: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 2006: Persons age 3+
  • Cambodia 1998: All persons
  • Cambodia 2004: All persons
  • Cambodia 2008: All persons
  • Cambodia 2013: Present persons
  • Cameroon 1976: Persons age 4+
  • Cameroon 2005: Persons age 3+
  • Canada 1971: All persons
  • Canada 1981: Persons age 15+, not in prison
  • Canada 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Chile 1960: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 1982: Persons age 5+
  • China 2000: Persons age 6+
  • Colombia 1973: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 1985: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 1993: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 2005: Persons age 3+
  • Costa Rica 1963: Persons age 7+
  • Costa Rica 1973: Persons age 5+
  • Costa Rica 1984: Persons age 6+
  • Costa Rica 2000: Persons age 6+
  • Costa Rica 2011: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1960: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Persons age 5+
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Persons age 3+
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Ecuador 1962: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 1974: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 1982: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 1990: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 2001: Persons age 4+
  • Ecuador 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Egypt 2006: Persons age 6 to 18
  • El Salvador 1992: Persons age 5+
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons age 5+
  • Ethiopia 1984: Household residents age 5+
  • Ethiopia 1994: Household residents age 5+
  • Ethiopia 2007: Long form respondents age 5+
  • Fiji 1976: All persons
  • Fiji 1986: All persons
  • Fiji 1996: All persons
  • Fiji 2007: All persons
  • Fiji 2014: All persons
  • France 1968: Persons age 6+
  • France 1982: Persons age 2+
  • France 1999: All persons
  • France 2006: All persons
  • France 2011: All persons
  • Germany 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Germany 1981: All persons
  • Germany 1987: All persons
  • Ghana 1984: Persons age 5+
  • Ghana 2000: Persons age 3+
  • Ghana 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Guatemala 1964: Persons age 7+
  • Guatemala 1973: Persons age 7+
  • Guatemala 1981: Persons age 7+
  • Guatemala 1994: Persons age 7+
  • Guatemala 2002: Persons age 7+
  • Guinea 1983: Persons age 6+
  • Guinea 1996: Persons age 6+
  • Haiti 1982: Persons age 6+
  • Haiti 2003: Persons age 5+
  • Honduras 1961: Persons age 5+
  • Honduras 1974: Persons age 6+
  • Honduras 1988: Persons age 5+
  • Honduras 2001: Persons age 5+
  • Hungary 1970: All persons
  • Hungary 1980: All persons
  • Hungary 1990: All persons
  • Hungary 2001: All persons
  • Hungary 2011: All persons
  • India 1983: All persons
  • India 1987: All persons
  • India 1993: All persons
  • India 1999: Persons age 30 or younger
  • India 2004: Persons age 29 or younger
  • India 2009: Persons age 29 or younger
  • Indonesia 1971: All persons
  • Indonesia 1976: All persons
  • Indonesia 1980: All persons
  • Indonesia 1985: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 2010: Persons age 5+ in regular enumeration areas
  • Iran 2006: Persons age 6+
  • Iran 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Israel 1983: Persons age 15+
  • Israel 1995: Persons age 15+
  • Italy 2001: Persons age 6+
  • Italy 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons in private households or selected collective households
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons in private households or selected collective households
  • Jamaica 2001: Persons age 4+
  • Jordan 2004: Persons age 5+
  • Kenya 1979: All persons
  • Kenya 1989: Persons age 6+
  • Kenya 1999: Persons age 5+
  • Kenya 2009: Persons age 3+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Persons age 5+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: All persons
  • Laos 2005: Persons age 6+
  • Lesotho 1996: Persons age 5+
  • Lesotho 2006: Persons age 2+
  • Liberia 1974: Persons age 5+
  • Liberia 2008: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 1987: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 1998: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 2008: Non-visitors age 3+
  • Malaysia 1970: All persons
  • Malaysia 1980: All persons
  • Malaysia 1991: All persons
  • Malaysia 2000: All persons
  • Mali 1998: Persons age 6+
  • Mali 2009: Persons age 3+
  • Mexico 1970: Persons age 6+
  • Mexico 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Mexico 2015: Persons age 3+
  • Mongolia 2000: Persons age 7 to 29
  • Mozambique 1997: Household residents age 5+
  • Mozambique 2007: Household residents age 5+
  • Nepal 2001: Persons age 6-25 who have not passed grade 10
  • Nepal 2011: Persons age 5+
  • Nicaragua 1971: Persons age 6+
  • Nicaragua 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Nigeria 2006: All persons
  • Nigeria 2007: All persons
  • Nigeria 2008: All persons
  • Nigeria 2009: All persons
  • Nigeria 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Pakistan 1973: Persons age 5+
  • Palestine 1997: Persons age 5+
  • Palestine 2007: Persons age 5+ except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: Person age 7+ not in indigenous groups
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 4+
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 4+
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 4+
  • Papua New Guinea 1980: Persons age 5 to 25
  • Papua New Guinea 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Papua New Guinea 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Paraguay 1962: Persons age 7+
  • Paraguay 1972: Persons age 7+
  • Paraguay 1982: Persons age 7+
  • Paraguay 1992: Persons age 5+
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Peru 1993: Persons age 5+
  • Peru 2007: Persons age 3+
  • Philippines 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Philippines 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Philippines 2010: Persons age 5 to 24
  • Poland 2011: Persons age 13+
  • Portugal 1981: All persons
  • Portugal 1991: All persons
  • Portugal 2001: All persons
  • Portugal 2011: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 3+
  • Puerto Rico 1980: All persons
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 3+
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 3+
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 3+
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Romania 1977: All persons
  • Romania 1992: Persons born before 1986
  • Romania 2002: Persons born before September 1996
  • Romania 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Russia 2002: Persons age 6+
  • Russia 2010: Persons age 6 to 50
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors age 6+
  • Rwanda 2012: Persons age 3+
  • Saint Lucia 1980: All persons
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All persons
  • Senegal 1988: Persons age 6+
  • Senegal 2002: Persons age 6+
  • Sierra Leone 2004: Persons age 6+
  • Slovenia 2002: All persons
  • South Africa 1996: Persons age 5+
  • South Africa 2001: All persons
  • South Africa 2007: Persons not residing in institutions
  • South Africa 2011: Persons 5+ in private households
  • South Sudan 2008: Persons age 6+
  • Spain 1981: All persons
  • Spain 1991: All persons
  • Spain 2001: Residents
  • Spain 2011: Persons age 15 or younger
  • Sudan 2008: Persons age 6+
  • Switzerland 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Tanzania 1988: Persons age 5+
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons age 4+
  • Thailand 1970: Persons age 5 to 29
  • Thailand 1980: Persons age 5 to 30
  • Thailand 1990: Persons age 5 to 30
  • Thailand 2000: Persons age 5 to 30
  • Togo 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1970: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago
  • Uganda 1991: All persons
  • Uganda 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Ukraine 2001: Persons age 6+
  • United Kingdom 2001: All persons
  • United States 1960: Persons age 5+
  • United States 1970: Persons age 3+
  • United States 1980: All persons
  • United States 1990: Persons age 3+
  • United States 2000: Persons age 3+
  • United States 2005: Persons age 3+
  • United States 2010: Persons age 3+
  • United States 2015: Persons age 3+
  • Uruguay 1963: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1975: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1996: Persons age 3+
  • Uruguay 2006: All persons
  • Uruguay 2011: All persons
  • Venezuela 1971: Persons age 5+
  • Venezuela 1981: Persons age 5+
  • Venezuela 1990: Persons age 3+
  • Venezuela 2001: Persons age 3+
  • Vietnam 1989: Persons age 5+
  • Vietnam 1999: Persons age 5+
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 2010: Present members and visitors age 5+

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2004, 2008, 2013
  • Cameroon: 1976, 2005
  • Canada: 1852, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982
  • China: 2000
  • Colombia: 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Fiji: 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007, 2014
  • France: 1968, 1982, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1970, 1981, 1987
  • Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
  • Guatemala: 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994, 2002
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1982, 2003
  • Honduras: 1961, 1974, 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Laos: 2005
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 2000
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Nepal: 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Poland: 2011
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Russia: 2002, 2010
  • Rwanda: 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Togo: 2010
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • United Kingdom: 2001
  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880b, 1900, 1910, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010