Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
MIG1_1_BW indicates the district of Botswana in which a person lived 1 year ago for all sample years.
Click on the Source Variables tab for information on place of residence for each sample year. Source variables may contain more geographic unit detail but are not suitable for cross-temporal comparison.
Comparability — General
Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time. Where officially-defined districts have populations under 20,000, they have been regionalized (combined) with neighboring districts.
Boundary changes and confidentiality issues:
- Sowa (also referred to as Sowa Town/Sowa Pan) was combined with Central Tutume in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
- The Central Kgalagadi Game Reserve (CKGR) was combined with Ghanzi (called Gansti in 1981) in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
- Orapa was combined with Central Boteti in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
- Delta (also called Ngamiland Delta and/or Okavango Delta) was combined with Ngamiland West in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
- Jwaneng was combined with Ngwaketse (includes Ngwaketse South, Southern, Ngwaketse West) in all sample years for confidentiality reasons.
- Kwaneng South and Kwaneng North have been combined into one "Kwaneng" unit after boundary changes.
The universe also changes over time. Although the age threshold for all years was 1+, the 1981 question was asked only of persons who were enumerated in their own household. In 2001 and 2011, institutionalized persons were not asked the question.
Province of residence five years ago is available in MIG1_5_BW.
- Botswana 1981: Present residents age 1+
- Botswana 1991: Persons age 1+
- Botswana 2001: Persons age 1+ except institutionalized non-residents
- Botswana 2011: Persons age 1+ except institutionalized non-residents
- Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011