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Main source of livelihood

Codes and Frequencies

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LIVEHOOD describes the main source of livelihood of the household. If there were multiple sources, one had to be chosen as the most important.

Comparability — Index


Comparability — General

The variable is conceptually comparable across samples. There are differences in category availability, especially for Indonesia, which only identifies agricultural and non-agricultural sources of livelihood.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

The source variables for both samples include more detail on the types of "employment income", based largely on the type of enterprise (i.e., industry). Rent and remittances are combined in 1991; comparison to 2001 statistics suggests remittances are predominant.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The census question in all years asks only whether agriculture was the primary means of livelihood. Households indicating non-agricultural activities were classified into "other", as no further specifics were provided.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

Apart from minor variations in categories, the three samples are largely comparable. An unharmonized source variable in the 1991 sample specifies the specific type of activity for the cottage industry.


  • Bangladesh 1991: All households
  • Bangladesh 2001: Permanent households
  • Indonesia 1976: All households
  • Indonesia 1985: All households
  • Indonesia 1995: All households
  • South Sudan 2008: All households
  • Sudan 2008: All households
  • Uganda 1991: Private households
  • Uganda 2002: Private households
  • Uganda 2014: All households


  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001
  • Indonesia: 1976, 1985, 1995
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002, 2014