Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
LANGMX indicates the indigenous language, if any, spoken by the person.
Comparability — General
LANGMX is not fully comparable, because the number of identified languages changes over time. The first two digits place the language in its family group according to the 2000 Census classification.
The 1990 categorization is very similar to that for 2000, but it includes some additional languages within the groups. The 2010 and 2015 codes were different, but similar in content and detail to the 1990 and 2000 samples. The 1970 census identifies many fewer languages, and does not include representative languages from every group.
There are minor universe changes across samples.
The variable SPEAKIND indicates whether the person speaks Spanish as well as an indigenous language.
- Mexico 1970: Speakers of an indigenous language
- Mexico 1990: Persons age 5+ who speak an indigenous language
- Mexico 2000: Persons age 5+ who speak an indigenous language
- Mexico 2010: Speakers of an indigenous language
- Mexico 2015: Speakers of an indigenous language
- Mexico: 1970, 1990, 2000, 2010, 2015