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Codes and Frequencies

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HEAT indicates the type of heating in the dwelling: individual or collective central heating, non-central heating, or none.

Comparability — Index

United Kingdom

Comparability — General

The variable is fairly consistent across countries, but there are differences in terminology and technologies. Some samples did not distinguish between individual central heating for the dwelling and collective central heating for the building or block.

More importantly, some samples ask only for the availability of central heating to the household without specifying the presence of other heating methods. In most cases, households without central heating in these samples had some other kind of heating -- especially in colder climates -- but some may have had no heating at all. These cases are coded as "no central heating, heating unknown."

Comparability — Armenia [top]

The category "other heating, not central" includes gas furnace, electric heater, wood furnace, animal dung furnace and other.

Comparability — Austria [top]

Collective central heating includes block and building heating, which were distinguished in all samples. Individual central heating includes responses for electric heating and gas convectors in 1991-2001. See the unharmonized source variables for the full detail.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

In 1999, data are constructed from separate responses for central heating, stove heating, and individual installations. The 2009 sample does not distinguish collective central heating from other categories. The universe has changed over time.

Comparability — France [top]

The variable is comparable across samples with slight differences in the wording of responses -- see the original enumeration forms for detail. For samples from 1968-1982, integrated responses of "heating, but not central" captures some households with various dwelling-specific installations, but the census instructions imply that all households have some form of heating. The 2006 and 2011 samples asked separate questions pertaining to heating depending upon whether household were located overseas departments or mainland France. Questions pertaining to mainland France ask about central heating. Questions pertaining to overseas departments ask only whether a household has "heating." Household with heating in overseas departments are categorized as "heating, unspecified."

Comparability — Germany [top]

All samples distinguish between "teleheating," a district-wide central heating system (in 1987 as "remote/block heating") and central (building-specific) or floor (dwelling-specific) heating, where rooms are heated by a central air heater via a duct system. Teleheating is classified as collective central heating, whereas central or floor heating is classified as individual central heating. A separate question in 1971 addresses whether the building of the household is connected to teleheating.

The 1981 (East Germany) sample allows for multiple responses; households which have both central and non-central heating are counted as having central heating. The 1987 (West Germany) sample specifies that "remote/block heating" (collective central heating) should always be marked if used.

There are slight differences in universes and in wording of non-central heating responses. Otherwise, samples are generally comparable.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The 2011 sample does not allow identifying individual central heating. In previous Hungary samples, the census question distinguished between central boilers for one or for several dwellings.

Comparability — Iran [top]

The question asks for the existence of a central heating system, which includes packaged heating.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The 1981, 2002 and 2006 samples only ask for the existence of a central heating system and are comparable. The 1991 and 2011 samples ask for the principal method of heating; this detail is preserved in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Italy [top]

This variable was created from separate questions pertaining to the type of heating available in the dwelling.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The variable indicates the availability of central heating to the household.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The variable indicates the method used for heating the dwelling. The unharmonized source variable specifies the type of fuel used. The universe changed slightly over time.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

The variable indicates the main type of heating available in the dwelling. Non-central heating includes mobile and fixed devices, open fireplaces, and heat recuperators.

Comparability — Romania [top]

There is no response for not heating in the 1992 and 2002 samples. The unharmonized variable specifies the fuel used in the cases of 1992 and 2002 samples.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The variable is comparable across samples with slight differences in the wording of responses -- see the original enumeration forms for detail. In 1991 the question was asked of all dwellings except lodging. In 2001 and 2011 the question was asked of non-collective dwellings.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

The variable is comparable across samples with a slight alteration in the universe between 1980 and 1990. Individual central heating includes both heading for a single floor and for a building. That distinction is retained in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

Central heating that affected only some rooms is combined with other central heating in 1991. See the unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The census question asks about the type of heating, if any, used for heating rooms. The 2006 sample was a survey and therefore only enumerates a subset of the population.


  • Armenia 2011: All households
  • Austria 1981: Private household, except single rooms without kitchen
  • Austria 1991: Private household, except single rooms without kitchen
  • Austria 2001: Private household, except single rooms without kitchen
  • Belarus 1999: All households
  • Belarus 2009: Residential non-collective houses or apartments
  • Canada 1971: Private households
  • Canada 1981: Private households
  • France 1968: Non-collective dwellings
  • France 1975: Non-collective dwellings
  • France 1982: Non-collective dwellings
  • France 1990: Non-collective dwellings
  • France 2006: Households in ordinary dwellings
  • France 2011: Households in ordinary dwellings
  • Germany 1971: Private dwellings
  • Germany 1981: Occupied households
  • Germany 1987: Private dwellings
  • Greece 1991: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 2001: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 2011: All households
  • Hungary 1980: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 1990: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 2001: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 2011: Occupied private households, seasonal and non-residential housing units
  • Iran 2006: All households
  • Ireland 1981: Private households in permanent dwellings
  • Ireland 2002: Private households
  • Ireland 2006: Private households
  • Ireland 2011: Private households
  • Israel 1972: Dwellings that filled household questionnaire
  • Israel 1983: Regular households
  • Italy 2011: Private households
  • Palestine 2007: All households except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Poland 1988: Dwelling only
  • Poland 2002: Private dwellings excluding rooms not being dwellings
  • Portugal 2001: Private households in dwelling of usual reisdence
  • Portugal 2011: Private households in dwelling of usual reisdence
  • Romania 1992: All households
  • Romania 2002: All households
  • Romania 2011: All households
  • Spain 1991: All dwellings except lodging
  • Spain 2001: Non-collective dwellings
  • Spain 2011: Non-collective dwellings
  • Switzerland 1970: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 1980: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 1990: Occupied buildings except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 2000: Occupied buildings except emergency shelters
  • United Kingdom 1991: All households
  • United Kingdom 2001: Private households
  • Uruguay 1985: Occupied private dwellings with dwellers present
  • Uruguay 1996: Occupied private dwellings
  • Uruguay 2006: Households in the first trimester


  • Armenia: 2011
  • Austria: 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Canada: 1971, 1981
  • France: 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1971, 1981, 1987
  • Greece: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Hungary: 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • Iran: 2006
  • Ireland: 1981, 1991, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983
  • Italy: 2011
  • Palestine: 2007
  • Poland: 1988, 2002
  • Portugal: 2001, 2011
  • Romania: 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Spain: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • United Kingdom: 1991, 2001
  • Uruguay: 1985, 1996, 2006