Questionnaire Text

Questionnaire form view entire document:  text  image

12. Occupation
What work does [the respondent] do and for whom and where does [the respondent] do it?
[For all persons]


Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

46. Column 12: What work does this person do? And for whom and where does he do it? This is perhaps the most difficult part of the Schedule and the answer which you record for these questions should give an exact description of the work each person is engaged upon at the time of the Census. The instructions given in paragraphs 47 to 64 are designed to help you give accurate descriptions of the work which each person in your Area may do. For this reason, they are divided into several different sections according to the various types of agriculture which are practiced in the Colony, and some of the various occupations which may be found in township and urban areas. Your Supervisor will tell you which of these sections relate particularly to your area and you should use these as a guide for the simplest and most concise way of describing a person's occupation.

Agricultural Occupations
47. In Fijian Village: A Fijian, living in his village and sharing in the communal life of the
village at the time of the enumeration, should be described as "Villager" with a further qualification according to whether or not he produces some particular crop or commodity for sale. Depending on which produce he sells, he may, therefore, be described in the following terms:

(a) Villager, with no cash crop.
(b) Villager, cuts copra for sale.
(c) Villager, grows sugarcane for sale.
(d) Villager, grows bananas for sale.
(e) Villager, grows rice for sale.
(f) Villager, grows vegetables for sale.
(g) Villager, raises cattle for sale.

In a description such as (f), there is no need to specify which vegetables are being grown; the
word "vegetables" can be used to cover dalo, kumalas, yams, tapioca, potatoes, yaqona, tobacco, etc. Similarly, if a man raises cattle or pigs or goats, either for sale of the animals for meat or for the sale of their milk, cream or ghee, a description such as (g) will suffice.
48. Apart from Fijian Villagers, the majority of people engaged in agriculture (including Fijian "galala") cultivate one of the two main crops of the Colony -- coconuts and sugarcane and one or other of these will constitute their principal crop or activity. In addition to these, there will be some persons whose principal activity is growing bananas or shipping bananas; some whose principal crop will be rice or other grain crops, and some will grow various types of vegetables and fruits for sale. Some may be engaged principally in raising cattle or pigs or goats, others in dairy farming. In many cases you will find that people engage in more than one of these various activities, but in describing the work done by a man engaged in agriculture, you should pick out first his principal crop or activity, the one to which he devotes the greater part of his time and which he considers is the more important to him as a source of income. If his principal crop is either coconuts or sugar-cane, you should then ask whether he cultivates any other crop or produce which he sells and which he ranks as next in importance to his principal crop. Such will constitute his subsidiary crop.
49. Coconuts as Principal Crop: On a coconut plantation or estate there will usually be an owner or a lessee or a manager, one (or more) overseer or foreman, book-keeper, timekeeper or weight-checker, together with wage-earning labourers and piece-workers. For each of these people, the answer to the question "for whom and where do they work?" is "on copra estate" and some descriptive terms for the work each may do have been suggested above. If you cannot specify exactly what work the wage-earning labourers do - such as "vate attendant on copra estate" or "kiln attendant on copra estate" - they should be described as "worker on copra estate".
50. If there is some subsidiary crop cultivated on a coconut plantation or estate, or if cattle or pigs or goats are raised, either for sale of the animals for meat or for the sale of their milk, cream or ghee, you should indicate such facts in your description by adding "with bananas" or "with rice" or "with vegetables" or "with cattle", etc., after the words "on copra estate".
51. Sugar-Cane as Principal Crop: A sugar-cane farm or estate is usually owned or leased by one person, who may employ other members of his family, or persons not related to him, to help him cultivate the land. The term "cane farmer" should be used only for the person who owns or leases the land on which sugar-cane is grown; other persons working on such a cane farm should be described as "worker on cane farm" (even if the land is owned or leased by a father or older brother) unless there is some specific description such as "foreman" or "overseer" or "cane-cutter" (provided he is not a registered cane grower) for the work which they are doing at the time of the Census.
52. When some subsidiary crop or produce is cultivated on a cane farm or estate, you should indicate this by adding the words "with rice'" or "with vegetables" or "with cattle", etc., after your initial description.
53. All Other Principal Crops: For persons engaged in all other forms of cultivation, where neither coconuts nor sugar-cane constitutes the principal crop, the answer to the question "for whom and where does he work?" should show clearly which is the principal crop or commodity produced from the land, whether it be bananas or pineapples or other fruits, rice or maize or vegetables such as dalo, tapioca, yams, kumalas, tobacco, yaqona, etc. etc. A description such as "rice farmer" or "banana grower" should be used only for persons who own or lease the land on which these crops are grown. Failing any more specific description of their work, persons employed to assist in the cultivation or harvesting of such crops should be described as "workers on rice farm" or "worker on banana plantation", etc. etc.
54. Dairy Farming: The answer to the second part of Question 12 for all people engaged in dairying is "on dairy farm" , and you should state whether each person concerned is the owner or manager or foreman or overseer or book-keeper or herdsman or dairy-hand, etc. etc. Failing any more specific description for a person in paid employment on a dairy farm, he may be described as "worker on dairy farm". If a dairy farm is run in conjunction with a butter factory, you should distinguish between workers in each of these; "in butter factory" being the place of work for all people employed in the butter factory as distinct from those working on the dairy farm.
55. Cattle, Stock and Poultry Raising: Apart from persons working on dairy farms, there may be some who are engaged principally in the raising of cattle, or horses or pigs or goats or poultry, either as the owners or managers of herds or estates or farms, or as paid employees, tending the animals. In your description of their work, you should indicate which animals are their principal concern by stating whether their place of work is "on cattle farm" (or "on cattle estate"), "on pig farm", "on poultry farm", etc. etc.
56. Forestry and Sawmilling: Persons engaged in logging or felling trees, or in cutting firewood, may be described simply as "logger of trees" or "feller of trees" or "fire-wood cutter" respectively. People who haul the logs from the forest to the sawmill may be described as "hauler of logs", or, depending on whether bullocks or tractors are used for hauling, as "bullock-driver hauling logs" or "tractor-driver hauling logs'.
57. If a man works at a sawmill, you should state whether he is the owner or manager or foreman or overseer or book-keeper or sawyer or benchman or other paid worker at the sawmill, "at sawmill" being the answer to the question "for whom and where does he work?"
58. Mining and Quarrying: The place of work for people engaged in mining will be either "in gold mine" or "in manganese mine", and whichever is applicable should be added to your description of the work each person does. A person employed in quarrying, either for road metal or for building stone, should be shown simply as "quarry-man".
Occupations in Townships and Urban Areas
59. Industrial and Commercial occupations. For persons engaged in either making or repairing or selling goods, you should state their particular trade or occupation and the name of the shop or factory or company which employs them, adding where necessary the nature of its business. This is the general rule to be followed for people in all business or commercial organizations or offices.
60. Just before the Census, persons working for the South Pacific Sugar Mills Limited, either on their estates or in their mills or on their railways, will be given a card showing their name, and their "occupational classification" which will consist of a number and a descriptive term for the work they do. When you are recording such a person on a schedule, you should copy the "occupational classification" directly from the card, adding the initials "S.P.S.M. Ltd" after it.
61. Government Departments: For persons working in the various departments of Government you should record their exact title or position and the name of the department or branch of the administration in which they are working.
62. It is only necessary for occupations to be given for people aged 15 years or over. Where children are attending school, this should be stated in this column. If a child is too young to attend school, you should draw a line diagonally across this Column to indicate this. If someone aged 15 years or over is still going to school, write "student".
63. Some women aged 15 years or over may have jobs, such as clerks, and will, therefore, be described as explained above. Most women, however, look after their homes and children and their occupation should be given as "home duties". A similar description should be given to any daughters of the household who do not attend school and whose only occupation is to assist their mother in these household duties.
64. General: Since it is not possible to detail all the classes of work which you may encounter in your Area, the following are some general rules for your guidance, particularly in those instances which have not been specifically mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs.
(a) It is important to answer both parts of Question 12, so as to provide an adequate description of the work which each person does.
(b) Except for a man who owns or leases land for cultivation, the work which you record for each person should be the work they are engaged upon at the time of the Census.
(c) If a person is doing more than one job, you should record the one to which he devotes the greater part of his day, the only exceptions to this being those agricultural occupations mentioned in paragraphs 48 to 52.
(d) Persons who have retired from some occupation or profession, either because of age or illness, should be described as "Retired". Anyone who has suffered a serious injury (such as losing an arm or leg) and cannot work, should be recorded as, "Incapacitated through injury"
(e) If a person is doing no particular work at the time of the Census and is neither retired from some occupation or profession, nor a pensioner, nor an inmate of an institution, you should record him as "unemployed". (This may apply to some Fijians who are living away from their villages and to other persons who perform casual work from time to time but are not actually so engaged at the time of the enumeration.)
(f) Amongst women, the term "Home Duties" should be used only for those who look after their homes and children, or for daughters or elderly female relatives who may assist them. A servant living in (or away from) a private household should be described as "Domestic Servant". For all other women in paid employment the rules (a) to (e) above apply.