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Educational attainment, Peru

Codes and Frequencies

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


      class Educpe:public Editor {

    Educpe(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::pe1993a:
            if (PE1993A_0427() == 999 && PE1993A_0443() >= 5)
                a = 100;




EDUCPE indicates the person's educational attainment in Peru in terms of the level of schooling completed.

Comparability — General

The variable is largely comparable across samples, but due to changes in the structure of the education system it includes additional categories for basic education in 1993. Between 1972 and 1982 Peru had a system with 9 grades, but before and after that period it consisted of 11 grades:

  • Between 1972 and 1982, basic education was organized into regular basic (daytime, preferably for children and teenagers) and trade school (nighttime, preferably for persons older than 15 years old). Both systems had the same number of grades, but regular basic had a 4-2-3 structure while trade school had a 2-3-4 structure.
  • After 1982, basic education has a 6-5 structure, with 6 years of primary and 5 years of secondary. The structure is similar in the period previous to 1972.

Technical/vocational education is also offered at the basic education level, but besides "trade school" no other distinctions are made in the censuses.

Tertiary education could be either university or non-university based. University education comprises universities and equivalent institutions (such as officer training schools for the police and the armed forces, seminary schools, and others). Non-university education includes teacher training schools, professional higher education schools, non-commissioned officer training for the police and armed forces, business administration superior schools, and superior technology institutes.

The age universe is slightly different across samples: it includes persons age 5 and older in 1993 and persons age 3 and older in 2007.


  • Peru 1993: Persons age 5+
  • Peru 2007: Persons age 3+


  • Peru: 1993, 2007