Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart
Educational attainment, France

Codes and Frequencies

Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Explore how IPUMS created this variable


EDUCFR reports the general, technical, and professional degrees attained by the respondent in France.

Comparability — General

While this variable is generally comparable across years, some censuses included degrees that other years did not. Beginning in 1982, type of university diploma is reported. This detail is not available in earlier samples. The 1999 sample adds further information, distinguishing vocational training certificate (CAP) from professional training certificate (BEP), and General Baccalaureate (BAC) from its technical counterparts. The 2006 and 2011 samples identify persons who attended primary, middle, or secondary school without earning a diploma.

The universe expands slightly from persons age 17+ through 1990 to age 15+ in 1999 and age 14+ in 2006 and 2011. Also, the "none declared" category encompasses those without schooling/diploma(s) as well as those who did not answer the question, depending on the year -- this may explain some variation between years. See the instructions by census year for further detail.

The list below spells out the abbreviations and how these categories were interpreted for purposes of the IPUMS integrated education variable EDATTAIN.


CEP = Certificat d'edudes Primaires

Middle school:

BECP = Brevet d'Etudes du Premier Cycle


CAP = Certificat d'aptitudes professionnelles
BEP = Brevet d'etudes professionnelles
BP = Brevet professionnelles
BT = Brevet de technicien
BEA = Brevet d'enseignement agricole
BEC = Brevet d'enseignement commercial
BEI = Brevet d'enseignement industriel
BAC = Baccaluareat


BAC+ = More than Baccaluareat
University diploma, 1st cycle = Undergraduate degree
University diploma, 2nd cycle = Graduate degree


  • France 1962: Persons age 17+
  • France 1968: Persons age 17+
  • France 1975: Persons age 17+
  • France 1982: Persons age 17+
  • France 1990: Persons age 17+
  • France 1999: Persons age 15+
  • France 2006: Persons age 14+
  • France 2011: Persons age 14+


  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011