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EMPSTAT
Activity status (employment status)

Codes and Frequencies




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Description

EMPSTAT indicates whether or not the respondent was part of the labor force -- working or seeking work -- over a specified period of time. Depending on the sample, EMPSTAT can also convey further information.

The first digit of EMPSTAT is fully comparable, and classifies the population into three groups: employed, unemployed, and inactive. The combination of employed and unemployed yields the total labor force. The second and third digits of EMPSTAT preserve additional information available for some countries and census years but not for others.

Employment status is sometimes referred to in other sources as "activity status".

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Austria
Bangladesh
Belarus
Benin
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Fiji
France
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guinea
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Jordan
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Lesotho
Liberia
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mexico
Mongolia
Morocco
Netherlands
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Pakistan
Palestine
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Romania
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovenia
South Africa
South Sudan
Spain
Sudan
Switzerland
Tanzania
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Comparability — General

In general, where EMPSTAT is concerned, users should pay particular attention to the enumerator instructions and forms.

The age of persons to whom the question applies varies across the samples. South Africa 2001 is particularly unusual in its exclusion of elderly persons. The number of categories distinguished among the inactive population also varies widely among samples.

Reference period

The reference period for the employment status question varies across censuses. For most samples, employment status was reported with respect to the day of the census or within a specified week prior to the census. In a few samples the period can be as month or as long as a year -- amounting to "usual employment status" over this period. Short reference periods can have an impact on seasonal labor measures, depending on when the census was taken. The variations among samples with respect to reference period are summarized below:

1) Current (at time of census):
Austria 1971-2011
Chile 1960
China 1982-1990
Colombia 1964
Ecuador 1962
Egypt 1986-1996
France 1962-2011
Germany 1970, 1987
Greece 1981
Hungary 2011
Ireland 1971, 1981-2011
Kyrgyz Republic 1999-2009
Morocco 1982-2004
Panama 1960
Paraguay 1962
Romania 1992
Slovenia 2002
South Africa 1996
Switzerland 1970-2000
Ukraine 2001
Uruguay 1963
Venezuela 1990
2) Reference week (typically the week prior to the census):
Argentina 1970-2010
Armenia 2001-2011
Bangladesh 2001-2011
Belarus 1999-2009
Bolivia 1976-2001
Botswana 2001
Brazil 1960-1970, 2000-2010
Burkina Faso 1985-2006
Cameroon 1976-2005
Canada 1971-2011
Chile 1970-2002
Colombia 1973-2005
Costa Rica 1974-2010
Cuba 2002
Dominican Republic 1970-2010
Ecuador 1974-2010
Egypt 2006
El Salvador 1992-2007
Fiji 1976-2007
Ghana 1984-2010
Greece 1971, 1991-2011
Guinea 1983-1996
Honduras 1961-2001
Hungary 1970-2001
India 1983-2004
Indonesia 1971-1995, 2010
Iran 2006-2011
Iraq 1997
Israel 1972, 1995
Italy 2001- 2011
Jamaica 1982-2001
Jordan 2004
Kenya 1989-2009
Lesotho 1996-2006
Malawi 1987-2008
Malaysia 1970-2000
Mexico 1970-2000, 2010-2015
Mongolia 2000
Mozambique 1997-2007
Netherlands 2001-2011
Nicaragua 1971-2005
Nigeria 2006-2010
Pakistan 1973
Palestine 1997-2007
Panama 1970-2010
Peru 1993-2007
Paraguay 1972-2002
Papua New Guinea 1980-2011
Philippines 1990
Poland 2002
Portugal 1981-2011
Puerto Rico 1990-2010
Romania 2002-2011
Rwanda 1991, 2012
Saint Lucia 1980-1991
Spain 1981-2011
South Africa 2001-2011
Sudan 2008
South Sudan 2008
Tanzania 2002-2012
Trinidad and Tobago 1970-2011
Turkey 1985-2000
Uganda 1991-2002
United Kingdom 1991-2001
United States 1960-2015
Uruguay 1975-2011
Venezuela 1971-1981
Vietnam 2009
Zambia 1990-2010
3) Last month:
Bangladesh 1991
Benin 1979
Botswana 1991
Costa Rica 1963
Haiti 2003
Mali 1987-2009
Rwanda 2002
Sierra Leone 2004
4) Last year:
Botswana 2011
Brazil 1980-1991
Cambodia 1998-2008
Haiti 1982
India 2009
Liberia 2008
Nepal 2001
Senegal 1988-2002
Vietnam 1989-1999
Zimbabwe 2012
5) Undefined or other:
Benin 1992-2013 (3 months)
Dominican Republic 1960
Ethiopia 2007 (2 months)
Haiti 1971 (6 months)
Tanzania 1988
Employed
The employed population generally consists of persons working for pay for an employer, self-employed persons, unpaid (usually family) workers engaged in the production of economic goods, and persons who have a job but were temporarily absent for some reason. The details for each sample can be examined in the enumeration text for the census.
Unemployed
The unemployed population is particularly difficult to define consistently across countries. We have attempted to apply UN and ILO standards in defining the unemployed as persons who were out of work and actively seeking a job.

Some countries have relatively small paid-labor sectors and irregular labor markets, making unemployment comparisons difficult. In particular, discouraged workers who were not seeking employment are not handled consistently across samples. Some developing countries identify persons not working or seeking work because no work was available. We code these cases as a category within unemployed, relaxing the standards that apply in more developed labor markets. The instructions for some other censuses also explicitly include such discouraged workers with the rest of the unemployed. We have tried to note such instances in the country comparability discussions.

Users should also be particularly careful when interpreting the data for Cambodia and Vietnam, which determine employment status relative to the reference year. The unemployed responses for these samples are given unique detailed codes to highlight their difference. Nepal and Senegal also have unclear or long time frames for unemployment status.

Among the unemployed, some samples distinguish between persons with past work experience (experienced unemployed) and persons seeking work for the first time (new workers).

Comparability — Argentina [top]

The 1970 census asks what the person did during "the greater part of the week", specifically during "four normal work days". This definition may under-report labor force participation in comparison to later years. The 1980 sample asks simply what the person did last week, and the work responses are listed first on the form. The 1991 and 2001 samples are more specific, since they consider any economic activity performed in the previous week as work.

The 2010 census asked whether each person had worked at least one hour in the week prior to the census. Persons who reported doing informal work in the last week were considered as "at work." Persons who did not report having work in the last week were asked whether they had looked for work in the past 4 weeks; if so, they were considered unemployed rather than inactive.

The 1970 and 1980 samples distinguish experienced workers from new workers, defined as persons seeking work for the first time.

The 2001 sample includes more detail in the unharmonized source variable, differentiating between persons who are both retired and in school and among different kinds of unemployed persons.

The age universe for the question rose from age 10 or older in the 1970 sample, to age 14 or older in subsequent years.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

Employed persons are those who worked one hour or more during the reference week. Unemployed persons are those who were actively seeking a job at the time of the census.

Comparability — Austria [top]

Austria follows non-standard and changing practices in the identification of employment status. In the 1971 sample, persons are considered inactive if they worked fewer than 14 hours in an average week. In the 1981 sample, persons are considered inactive if they worked fewer than 13 hours in an average week. In the 1991 sample, persons are considered inactive if they worked fewer than 12 hours in an average week.

In the 2001 and 2011 samples, one hour of work per week categorizes a person as "Employed". This is the modern international standard definition. Persons working fewer than 12 hours -- also known as the "Marginally employed" -- are identified as a subcategory of the "Employed" category in 2001, but not in 2011. This category can be used to make the Austrian samples fairly consistent from 1971 to 2001. The 2001 sample also separates children younger than 15 who are not in school, who are classified as "Too young to work". This group is combined into the "In school" group in previous years.

In the 1971 to 2001 samples, the "Dependent" category only includes persons age 15 or older.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

The reference period was the previous month in 1991 and the previous week in 2001 and 2011. In 1991, the person's status is based on what they did "most of the time" in the previous month. In 2001, it was the status in which they spent the most time. In 2011, employment was defined as working at least one hour in the past week. In all cases, unemployment is defined as looking for work.

In 1991 and 2011, the question was asked of persons age 7+, whereas in 2001 it was asked of persons age 5+.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

The 2009 sample listed more response categories than 1999.

Comparability — Benin [top]

The period of reference was one month in 1979 and 3 months in later years. The age universe differs between 1979-1992 and 2002-2013.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The definition of "At work" changed between the 1976 and 1992-2001 samples. The 1976 sample records what the person did for the "Greatest part of their time" in the previous week week. The later samples consider as work even one hour of paid or unpaid economic labor during the previous week. In addition, the 1976 sample did not define unemployment. The later censuses state that the person must be seeking work.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

The universe of the 1991 sample is all persons 12 years or older. The 2001 and 2011 sample universes include persons 12 years or more with the exception of institutionalized non-residents.

The reference period changes across samples: it is the previous month in 1991, the previous week in 2001, and the previous year in 2011.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

Employment status is expressed relative to a reference week for the 1960-1970 and 2000-2010 census samples, but refers to the last 12 months in 1980 and 1991.

The classification of employment status is fairly consistent. The 2000 and 2010 samples do not differentiate among different types of non-work activities. The 1970 and 1991 samples are the only ones to distinguish the experienced unemployed from new workers seeking their first job.

The categorization of unemployment is the principal comparability issue for Brazil. In the 1960 sample, there was no stated definition of unemployment in the census instructions. Therefore, it is not certain whether unemployed persons were actually seeking work. In the 1970 sample, persons with an "Unemployed" response were also seeking work, which was a separate question in that year. Starting with the 1980 sample, "Unemployment" status requires looking for work.

The reference period for unemployment also changed. Unemployment is determined relative to the reference week in the 1960-1980 samples. The 1991-2010 samples also used a reference week, but use a longer reference period for the unemployment category within the employment status question. In the 1991 sample, persons are considered unemployed if they do not work in the reference week and sought work within the previous two months. In the 2000 and 2010 samples, persons are considered unemployed if they sought work in the month prior to the census.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The universe varies across samples, both by age and whether it includes all persons or only residents of the household. There are some differences in response categories across samples.

For all samples, the reference period is the previous week. The 1985 and 1996 censuses simply asked whether the person had worked in the last 7 days, while in the 2006 questionnaire it is explicitly stated that the person has to have worked during 3 out of the last 7 days to be considered economically active. In all samples, unemployed persons are those actively looking for a job.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The samples are comparable. "Unemployed" persons are those who were seeking work for six or more months in the previous year. "Employed" persons may be paid or unpaid, and include seasonal workers and those who were on leave during the year.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

The reference period for all samples is the previous week. The 1976 instructions indicated any work in the reference week constituted employment. The 1987 census stipulated that the person's status was based on what they did most of the time during the week. In 2005 any work in the last week qualifies as employed.

In all samples, unemployed persons are those actively looking for work.

The universe varies slightly across samples.

Comparability — Canada [top]

In all samples, any paid or unpaid work in the prior week work categorizes a person as "Employed". The 1971-1981 samples explicitly identify armed forces.

Comparability — Chile [top]

The 1960 sample has only one category for both disabled and imprisoned persons. Other censuses do not report the number of persons in prison.

The reference period in the 1960 sample is the census day. In all other samples it is the previous week.

In the 1982 sample, the definition of "Unemployed" does not explicitly require that the person be seeking work. This is not the case in the 1960 sample.

The universe statement changes between samples. The 1960 sample includes persons age 12 or older. The 1982 sample includes persons age 15 or older.

Comparability — China [top]

"Employed" persons are defined as those who derive an income for their labor. This includes persons with temporary jobs who worked at least 16 days in the previous month.

In both samples, "Unemployed" persons include those "awaiting government job". In the 1990 sample, the "Unemployed category" includes "urban unemployed" as well.

Persons working at home whose production is their major means of upkeep are recorded as having an occupation and industry, and not as "Doing housework".

Comparability — Colombia [top]

In the 1964 sample, the reference period for the employment status question is at the time of the census. In later years, the reference period applies to the previous week.

In the 1964 sample, experienced workers and new workers are not distinguished. Unemployed persons who are not looking for work are classified as "Inactive" and given a distinct code among discouraged workers.

The universe statement changes between samples. The 1964 sample includes persons age 12 or older. The 1973 sample includes persons age 10 or older. The 2005 sample includes persons age 5 or older.

In the 1993 sample, the employment status question refers to the principal activity performed. Therefore, this variable underreports the secondary economic activity carried out by students, housewives, family-workers, semi-retired persons, and others. The 2005 sample is not explicit on this point.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The 1963 sample has two categories for "Institutionalized/hospitalized" persons and "Permanently disabled" persons.

The reference period for the 1963 sample is unusual. The "Employed" category includes persons who worked six days or more in the previous month. Instead, "Unemployed" includes persons capable of working who worked for fewer than six days in the previous month.

The 1973 sample explicitly includes in the "Unemployed" category those persons who did not look for work because they did not think they could find it.

The 2011 sample utilized two source variables to create the integrated EMPSTATvariable, one with basic work information, and another that distinguished between types of unemployment or inactivity.

Comparability — Cuba [top]

The reference period is the week prior to the census. Persons are considered to be "Working" if they worked at least 8 hours during the previous week, even if it was unpaid. "Unemployed" persons are those seeking work.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

For 1960, the reference period is January 1st to August 7th, 1960. For 1970, the reference period is January 1st to January 9th, 1970. For 1981, 2002, and 2010, the reference period is the seven days prior to the census.

In 1960, "Unemployed" is not a response category. Unemployed persons are likely included in the "Other" category for this sample.

The universe varies over time. In 1960, the question was asked of all persons. In 1970, 1981 and 2010, the question was asked of persons age 10 and older. In 2002, the question was asked of persons age 15 and older.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

The reference period in the 1962 sample was at the time of the census. In the other samples, the reference period is the week prior to the census.

In the 1962 sample, there is no requirement that a person be seeking work to be considered unemployed. The other samples include "Seeking work" in the definition of unemployment.

The universe statement dropped: from age 12 or older in the 1962-1982 samples, to age 8 or older in the 1990 sample, to age 5 or older in the 2001 and 2010 samples.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

There was no specified time period for this question in the 1986 and 1996 samples, but it implies employment status at the time of the census. Instead, the 2006 sample explicitly asks for activities performed during the previous week. The samples are otherwise generally comparable, with slight differences in the wording of categories. Employed persons include unpaid workers. Unemployed persons are those actively seeking work.

In all samples, the category "Retired" indicates persons younger than 65 who are retired. Instead, the category "Elderly" indicates persons age 65 or older who are retired. In the 2006 sample, the "Inactive, other reasons" category includes non-student, non-working males ages 6 to 15, and those who choose not to work. In the 1996 sample, the category only includes the latter classification.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

Both samples include persons age 10 or older in the universe statement.

The categories differ between samples. In 1992, there is a unique category for those who did not seek work because they did not believe that work was available. They were coded into the active labor force, in the "No work available" subcategory. In 2007, there is a unique category for those who are "Marginally employed". This includes persons who indicate not working during the previous week, but who specify that they perform "Other" economic activities (detail available in the unharmonized source variables), such as selling items, washing clothes, making tortillas, assisting in agricultural work, etc.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The reference period for employment activity for the 2007 sample is "most of the last two months." The "inactive, other reasons" category includes beggars.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

The reference period in all Fiji samples is the week prior to the census. The age universe differs across samples.

"At work" includes people who were active at all in the week preceding the census, whether the work was for pay or subsistence. People who had a job but did not attend work for some reason that week (e.g. sick or on leave) are included in this category.

Comparability — France [top]

The universe statement changes slightly across samples. It includes persons age 16 or older in the 1975 sample, persons age 15 or older in the 1999 sample, persons age 14 or older in the remaining sample.

In all samples, the reference period was employment status at the time of the census.

The question itself has not undergone changes, but the extent of detail in the responses varies across samples.

The 1962 sample does not identify retirees, but the later French samples do.

The 1999 and 2006 samples distinguish the unemployed who are new workers from the unemployed who are experienced workers.

The 2011 sample does not distinguish between unemployed persons with previous work experience and unemployed persons who were seeking their first job.

Comparability — Germany [top]

The 1987 instructions specify that "services performed on an honorary basis" (unpaid) should not be considered economic activities. Other yes/no variables in both samples offer more detail on specific activities (e.g. house work, student, etc.), but do not correspond with employment answers. See the unharmonized variables for more detail.

The unemployed population in 1970 seems implausibly low.

The reference period is undefined, but implicitly suggests it is set at the time of the census.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

For all samples, the reference period is the seven days prior to the census. Employment includes paid or unpaid work for at least one hour in the week prior to the census. Unemployed persons are those actively seeking work.

The age universe differs slightly between samples.

The 1984 sample distinguishes between disabled persons and persons unable to work due to prison, institution or industrial schools.

Comparability — Greece [top]

The reference period differs across samples. In the 1981 sample, it is at the time of the census. In 1971, 1991, 2001, and 2011, the reference period is the previous week.

The "Experienced unemployed" and "Persons seeking their first job" are separated in the 1971, 2001 and 2011 samples, but not in other years.

Starting in 1981, military conscripts were explicitly identified.

Pensioners are distinguished in 1991, 2001 and 2011, but not in the 1971 and 1981 samples.

The 1971-2001 samples had a universe of persons greater than 10 years old. The universe is all persons in 2011.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

Both samples report employment status in reference to the week before the census. In the 1983 sample, the "Unemployed" category includes persons who want work. In the 1996 sample, the "Unemployed" category includes persons who were seeking work in the reference week.

The universe statement includes persons age 10 or older in the 1983 sample, and persons age 6 or older in the 1996 sample.

The 1996 sample distinguishes experienced unemployed workers from unemployed workers seeking their first job.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

The reference period differs notably across samples. In 1971, the reference period is the last 6 months; in 1982 the last year; and in 2003 the previous month.

Status in 1971 was based on what the person did for the majority of the time in the past 6 months. Unemployed persons were looking for work for the majority of the period.
Employed persons in 1982 are those who worked at any time in the previous 12 months. Unemployed are those currently looking for work. The specific amount of work over the past month required to qualify as employed in 2003 is not documented. Unemployed persons were actively seeking work.

The age universe differs across samples.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

The reference period was the past year in 1961 and the previous week in 1974-2001. The age universe differs between 1961-1988 and 2001. Category detail also differs across years, with some samples identifying persons with jobs and not at work and new workers.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

New and experienced unemployed persons are identified separately in the 1990 sample, but are combined in a single category in the 2001 and 2011.

For similar but not completely comparable information between the 1970 and 1980 samples, see the LABORHU variable. There are also more categories for all samples in that variable.

Persons who depend on either non-retirement/pensioned social aid (institutional) or other private persons are classified as "Dependents".

Comparability — India [top]

With the exception of the 2009 sample which references the past year, all the other India samples report the employment status in the reference week.

For the 1983-2004 samples, "Unemployed" includes separate categories for persons seeking work and those who were not seeking but were available for work. The latter category is given a distinct code within the larger "Unemployment" grouping. In 2009, the unemployed category combines these two cases.

Beggars and prostitutes are classified as "Inactive" in all years, but they can be identified separately in the unharmonized source variables.

The universe is consistent across samples. For consistency's sake with later years, persons younger than 5 are not included in the universe statement of the 1983 sample. Some of those children had activity responses, which are retained in the unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

All samples refer to status during a reference week, but there are differences in the specific categories identified. The most important differences pertain to the treatment of the unemployed. The 1976 sample has a category for persons who "Thought no work was available" and who are considered here as unemployed. Later samples identify the conceptually similar "Inactive unemployed", which has varied wording across years.
For the 1980, 1990, and 1995 samples, the category indicates those who "Gave up trying" to seek work. In the 1985 sample, the wording was "Willing to work". In the 1995 sample, the wording was "Want to receive a new job". In the 2010 sample, the wording was "Available for work". In all samples, only those who did not specify a primary activity (e.g. "Working", "Student", "Housekeeping") were coded into this category.

The 2000 and 2005 samples only have data on whether the person was working or not working, without distinguishing between unemployment categories, and therefore are not integrated in this variable.

Comparability — Iran [top]

Although the reference period for working is the previous week, the reference period for job-seeking is extended to the previous month.

Comparability — Iraq [top]

Employment means working for 15 hours, paid or unpaid, in the week prior to the census. "Unemployed" persons were those seeking work. There is an "At work" subcategory for housewives who hold part-time work.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The 1971 data are derived from a different census question, but should be comparable to later years. They only lack the distinction between "Experienced unemployed" and "New workers". The later samples are otherwise fully comparable with slight differences in the universe statements.

Persons temporarily absent from work and apprentices who also attend school are classified as "Employed". Full-time students also working are classified as "Students". Unpaid workers are still classified as "Employed".

Comparability — Israel [top]

Work for one hour in the reference week constitutes "Employment" in both samples.

The 1983 sample only contains data on the "annual labor force". See the LABORIL variable.

Comparability — Italy [top]

Employment status refers to the week prior to the census. "Unemployment" means actively seeking a job. In the 2001 sample, those who are waiting to start a job, students, retired, unemployed, or doing housework can also report working. In the 2011 sample, none of these categories reported working.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The samples are mostly comparable, apart from slight differences in response categories and universes. See the unharmonized variables for detail. Those who answered that they would want to work but are not seeking employment are classified as "Inactive unemployed".

The 1982 sample considers those on temporary leave as "At work," whereas the subsequent samples separate these groups. The 2001 sample considers persons farming, buying, or selling, or doing and odd job/hustling as "At work". These responses can be isolated in the unharmonized variables.

Comparability — Jordan [top]

Employment status refers to the reference week prior to the census. "Unemployment" means actively seeking a job in the previous 4 weeks.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The universe statement varies considerably across samples. In the 1989 sample, the question applied to persons age 10 or older. In the 1999 and 2009 samples, the question applies to persons age 5 or older.

Kenya distinguishes persons working on family holdings from other active workers. The 1999 and 2009 samples distinguish between agricultural and non-agricultural holdings.

Persons who report having "No work" are coded as a category of "Unemployed". In the 1989 sample, "No work" means that the person did not have a paid employment (excluding a person's family holdings). In the 1999 and 2009 samples, this means that a person is not looking for work "Because he/she is discouraged, but would usually take up a job when offered one". These persons are given a distinct code for "No work available" so that researchers can identify them.

The 2009 sample had additional codes for interns or apprentices and volunteers, both of which were coded as "At work," and which can be separately identified using the source variable. The 2009 sample also distinguished persons who "should be available to take up a job" but had taken no action in the reference period; these persons were coded as "Inactive unemployed."

Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]

Employment status is inferred from the response to the occupation question and the question on unemployment. Both questions refer to the person's status at the moment of the census. Unemployed persons are those who did not claim an occupation and were actively seeking a job.

Comparability — Lesotho [top]

The reference period was the previous week in both years.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The reference period is the 12 months prior to the census.

The 1974 Liberia sample identifies employed but not unemployed persons, and thus is not included in this variable.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The 1987 and 1998 samples are comparable. The underlying data for 2008 differ, but they are also largely comparable with the earlier years.

The "Inactive unemployed" category includes persons who are "Available" for work but are not seeking work.

The universe statement changes from age 10 or older in the 1987 and 1998 samples to age 6 or older in the 2008 sample. Response categories in 2008 also differ from earlier samples. Responses to other questions that indicate working in any capacity (farming/rearing, production/services/selling, or house worker at other's house included) are classified into the "At work" category. Unharmonized variables should also be examined, as some responses indicate both "Non workers" and activities such as "farming/rearing".

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

In the 1970 sample, "Employed" persons include anyone with a regular job in the previous week, who helped in a family farm or business for three hours or more, or who sold homemade goods.

In later samples, "Employed" means working for at least one hour in the previous week, paid or unpaid.

The 1980-2000 samples have a large subcategory of unemployed persons called "Inactive unemployed". This category is similar to the "No work available" category in other developing countries. In both cases, many of these persons might be considered discouraged workers or extremely passive job seekers. They include persons who were not seeking work last week because: they thought no suitable work was available; illness or bad weather; they were waiting for a job to start or to hear from an application; or they had no qualifications. The "Inactive unemployed" subgroup is included with other "Unemployed" in the 1970 sample.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 1998 and 2009 samples differentiate between unemployed persons who are experienced workers and unemployed persons who are new workers. These samples also include details about the economic activities of economically inactive persons.

The reference period in all samples is the month prior to the census. For the 1987 and 1998 samples, the reference period for agricultural workers is the year prior to the census. Unemployed persons are those actively seeking work.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The universe and reference period are fully comparable across samples.

The 1970 sample does not provide detail on the inactive population except for "House workers," while the later samples have numerous subcategories.

In the 1990 sample, the employment status question refers to a person's principal activity. Therefore, this variable under-reports the secondary economic activity of students, housewives, family-workers, the semi-retired persons, and others.

The 1995 census asked about any economic activity performed in the week prior to the census.

The 2000, 2010, and 2015, samples seek to overcome deficiencies in reporting work status for people whose primary activity was not work (students, housewives, retirees, etc.), but who in fact were working according to international definitions. A second question, introduced for the first time in 2000, seeks to capture this secondary economic activity. For strict comparability with earlier Mexican samples, this recovered activity (coded as "At work") should be categorized as "Inactive". For the 2000-2015 samples, users can identify these cases using the corresponding unharmonized source variables.

The 2005 sample does not include a question on employment status.

Comparability — Mongolia [top]

The question refers to the person's employment status during the week prior to the census. Persons who worked for at least one day or were temporarily absent from work were to be recorded as "Employed". Unemployment includes persons actively seeking work, as well as discouraged workers who claimed no work was available. The latter category receives a detailed code within the larger unemployment grouping.

The 1989 sample does not report employment status.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The data are comparable across samples. Only persons age 15 or older can be classified as "Unemployed". Instead, persons younger than 15 who are not working and not in school are classified as "Too young to work". There may be responses from persons age 7 or older in the "Employed" category.

Comparability — Netherlands [top]

The question considers persons working or seeking work last week. The 1960 and 1971 samples are not included in EMPSTAT because they did not identify unemployed persons. Persons in the labor force can be derived from the variable CLASSWK.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

There are fewer categories in the 1971 sample, since some details are only available in the source variables of the 1995 and 2005 samples. Specifically, the 2005 sample includes a category for "Casual/informal" work, while the 1995 and 2005 samples have responses for persons waiting for an employer's answer or waiting for a job to start. In both samples, the unharmonized data distinguish persons waiting for agricultural employment, which are combined into the "Have job, not at work in reference period".

The universe statement is comparable across samples.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

The 2006-2009 samples have consistent response categories. In these samples, individuals who reported an apprenticeship as their main activity are included in the "At work" category. The 2010 sample has more categories of inactivity.

The universe is inconsistent over time. In 2006 and 2007, the question was asked of all persons. In 2008 and 2009, the question was asked of persons age 10 and older. In 2010, the question was asked of persons age 5 and older.

The reference period is consistent across all samples.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

"Employed" persons include persons who worked last week for pay or wages, or worked 15 hours or more as an unpaid family helper. Persons whose work was suspended for fewer than 30 days or who have a job but have not yet started are coded in the "Employed, but not working in the reference period" category.

"Unemployed" persons include persons who were able to work and looking for work.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The 1997 sample reports more detail in the non-employed categories. The age universe differs between samples.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The 1960 sample asks about employment status on the day of the census. The 1970-2010 samples use the previous week as the reference period. For all samples, any amount of paid or unpaid work qualifies as employment.

Unemployed persons in 1960 are those seeking work. Persons who did not think they had a chance of getting a job were included with "Other unemployed" in 1970. The 1980-2010 samples have a specific category for "Impossible to find work", and this is coded as a subcategory of "Unemployed" for consistency with other developing countries that share this concept.

Comparability — Papua New Guinea [top]

The census question referred to the economic activity of persons during the week before the census. The universe is age 10 and older in all years. Category detail among inactive persons differs across years.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The 1962 sample does not distinguish between employed persons who were working during the reference period and employed persons who had a job but did not work during reference period. The 1972 sample does not distinguish retired persons from persons living off investments; these groups are identified separately in all other samples. The 1992 sample includes a category for military service and excludes a category for disabled.

The 2002 sample integrated variable was created by combining six source variables: worked last week, on leave from job, helped person with work, looked for work, experienced worker, and reason for not seeking work. See unharmonized source variables for more detail.

Comparability — Peru [top]

Both samples refer to work performed in the previous week. In the 1993 sample, persons were required to work at least 15 hours during the previous week to be considered "Employed". In the 2007 sample, the requirement was one hour of paid work or 15 hours of unpaid work in a family enterprise. "Unemployed" persons are those seeking work.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The reference period is the previous week in 1990.

Comparability — Poland [top]

In 2002, persons who were classified as economically inactive yet farming on one's own farm or plot of land (with no agriculture production or in subsistence farming) were considered "inactive."

Comparability — Portugal [top]

All samples consider labor force participation as one hour of paid work or 15 hours of unpaid work.

The universe statement for the question increases from age 12 or older for the 1981-1991 samples, to age 15 or older in the 2001 sample.

The 2011 sample includes a category for persons at work on a family holding, working at least 15 hours per week. This sample also omits a category for military service.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The variable is available only for the 1990-2005 samples, and it is fully comparable across samples. The reference period is the "previous week". Unpaid family workers must work at least 15 hours for the family business or farm to qualify as "Employed". Persons with a job but temporarily not at work are considered "Employed". "Unemployed" persons are those actively seeking work.

The 2010 sample does not include a category for "Armed forces, not at work in reference period."

Comparability — Romania [top]

The reference period changes: from at the time of the census in 1992 to the previous week in 2002 and 2011.

The 1977 sample did not ask a compatible employment status question.

The universe is all persons for 1992 and 2002 and persons 15 years or older in 2011.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The reference period is the previous week in 1991 and 2012 and the previous month in 2002. The universe of respondents also differs across samples.

The 2002 sample has a category for "No work", which we interpret as "No work available". This is a subcategory for "Unemployed". The treatment of this category has a large impact on comparability between the samples.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

The reference period in both samples is the previous week. Unemployed persons are those seeking work. However, the 1991 sample has an additional category for persons who desire and are available for work. These persons are coded into the "Unemployed" category.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

In both samples, the question asks about the respondent's usual activity in the previous 12 months. Persons who worked continuously for at least three months for pay were considered "Working". Unemployed persons are those actively seeking work who did not work continuously for at least three months during the past year.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

The data refer to work in the previous month.

Comparability — Slovenia [top]

The question refers to the respondent's employment status at the moment of the census. "Unemployment" means having registered with the Employment Service. The category "In school" includes students and children not in school.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

All samples use the "expanded" employment status definition, which considers unemployed those people who would accept a job but were not actively seeking work. These extra unemployed are coded into the "No work available" category. Their inclusion in the labor market significantly increases the reported unemployment rates. If one wishes to use the official employment status definition, one must recode this category to "Inactive".

The reference period changed from "At the time of the census" in 1996 to a reference week in the 2001-2011 samples.

The 2001 sample identifies seasonal workers who did not work during the reference week. These are coded to a subcategory of "Inactive".

The variable's universe statement changes between samples. In the 1996 sample, only persons age 15 or older who live in private households were asked the question. In the 2001-2011 samples, persons age 15 or older were asked the question but, during data processing, the statistical office changed the universe to include only persons aged 15 to 65 in 2001 and 2007, and only persons aged 15 to 64 in 2011.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

The reference period is the week preceding the census. Unemployed persons are actively seeking work.

Comparability — Spain [top]

Data are largely comparable, with some category availability differences.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

The reference period is the week preceding the census. Unemployed persons are actively seeking work.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

All samples report employment status at the time of the census. "Employed" persons work for one or more hours per week, and apprenticeships are included. "Unemployed" persons are actively seeking work.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

There is no specified time frame in the 1988 sample. It asks only about the kind of work "Usually done" by the respondent. The 2002 and 2012 samples specify the reference period as the week before the census. "Unpaid seasonal" work and "Non-seasonal" work qualify as employment.

The 2002 sample identifies persons who are available for work but not actively seeking work. They are coded into the "Inactive unemployed" subcategory.

The 1988 sample identifies separately persons who are unable to work from those retired and the elderly; in 2002 and 2012, these two categories are combined and classified simply as "unable to work."

The universe statement is age 10 or older in the 1988 sample and age 5 or older in 2002 and 2012.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The reference period for all samples is the previous week.

The response categories are very similar across sample years. The 1970 sample only identifies (unemployed) persons looking for work, while the 1980-2011 samples distinguish between new and experienced unemployed workers. In 2000 and 2011, persons not looking for work because they were discouraged or awaiting results from a job application were classified as "inactive unemployed."

The 1970 to 2000 samples provide employment status for persons age 15 or older, while the 2011 sample restricts this universe to persons 15 years or older who are living in private households in Trinidad and Tobago.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

The data and response categories are generally consistent and comparable across samples. The only difference is the 2000 sample, which adds a category for persons who found a job but are waiting to start. They are identified in the source variable.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

In both samples, the question asks about the main activity performed the previous week. The universe statement for the question dropped from age 10 or older in 1991 to age 5 or older in 2002.

Comparability — Ukraine [top]

Employment status is inferred from a question asking for the individual's main source of livelihood. Individuals who identified self-employment, work for an individual, or work for a private or family farm or enterprise as the main source of livelihood are coded as "Employed." Individuals who identified unemployment benefits as the main source of livelihood are coded as "Unemployed."

The reference period is implicitly at the time of the census.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

"Employed" persons worked any period of time paid or unpaid in the week prior to the census. "Unemployed" persons are those actively seeking a job or waiting to begin a new job.

The universe statement changes considerably between samples. Persons age 74 or older are not included in the 2001 sample, but report employment information in the 1991 sample.

Comparability — United States [top]

In the 1960 and 1970 samples, the universe consisted of persons age 14 or older. In the 1980-2015 samples, the universe includes persons age 16 or older.

All samples have the "previous week" as the reference period. This period would not have been the same for all respondents, since the census was taken over a period of time.

Unpaid family workers must have worked 15 hours or more for the family business or farm to qualify as "Employed". Persons with a job but temporarily not at work are considered "Employed".

"Unemployed" persons in all samples are those who do not currently have a job, are looking for a job, and have not yet found one. In the 1960 sample, instructions stipulate that the person must be looking for work within the past 60 days. Later censuses shorten this period to within the past 28 days (four weeks). They further stipulate that the person must be available to take a job during the reference week.

"Inactive persons" (not in labor force) comprise persons old enough to be included in the universe, but who do not fit in any of the definitions of "Employed" or "Unemployed". In other words, a person is not in the labor force if s/he does not operate any farm or business; does not have a job; does not work for pay; is not an unpaid family worker; and is not looking for or is available for work.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

In the 1963 sample, the reference period is the day of the census. In all other samples, the reference period is extended to the week prior to the census.

The universe statement changes across samples: from persons age 8 or older in the 1963 sample, to persons age 12 or older in the 1975-1996 samples, to persons age 14 or older in the 2006 sample, and back to persons 12 or older in the 2011 sample.

The samples differ slightly in the availability of some response categories.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The 1971, 1981 and 2001 samples used a reference period of the prior week. The 1990 sample determined employment status at the time of the census.

Unemployed persons are those actively looking for work.

The age universe for this question decreases over time.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

There are significant differences between the 2009 data and the earlier samples. The reference period for employment status is the previous year in 1989 and 1999 ("Usual activity"). The long reference period complicates the interpretation of the work status responses, particularly for unemployment. This makes comparisons with most other countries difficult.

In the 2009 sample, the reference period is the previous week pertaining to employment, but the previous month for job-seeking (unemployment). Those who are not working due to "bad weather" or "off-season" are classified as "Intermittent workers".

The available employment status information differs greatly between the 1989 and 1999 samples, and the year-long reference period complicates the interpretation. In the 1989 census, there are three categories for the employed population: "Persons who worked 6 months or more last year", "Persons who have been working at a permanent job fewer than 6 months", and "Persons who have been working at a temporary job fewer than 6 months". However, in the 1999 sample, only persons who had been working 6 months or more were considered employed. To make the categorization compatible, we coded persons working for fewer than 6 months in the 1989 sample as "Unemployed".

In 1989, the "Unemployed, not specified" category includes persons who seek work and worked fewer than one month last years. In 1999, "Unemployed" includes those with no job for most of the year but who said they have a "Demand for work".

Comparability — Zambia [top]

For all samples, persons who were available for work but not seeking work were coded as inactive. The reference period is the week prior to the census and is consistent across all samples. For main employment status during the year prior to the census, see unharmonized source variables.

The 1990 and 2000 enumeration instructions indicate that this question should have been asked only of present household members and visitors, but employment status is reported for almost all absent household members; they are included in the universe.

Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]

The reference period is the last year.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Persons age 10+
  • Argentina 1980: Persons age 14+
  • Argentina 1991: Persons age 14+
  • Argentina 2001: Persons age 14+
  • Argentina 2010: Persons age 14+
  • Armenia 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Armenia 2011: Persons age 15-75
  • Austria 1971: All persons
  • Austria 1981: All persons
  • Austria 1991: All persons
  • Austria 2001: All persons
  • Austria 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Bangladesh 1991: Persons age 7+
  • Bangladesh 2001: Persons age 5+
  • Bangladesh 2011: Persons age 7+
  • Belarus 1999: Persons age 15+
  • Belarus 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Benin 1992: Persons age 10+ from private households
  • Benin 2002: Residents age 6+
  • Benin 2013: Residents age 6+
  • Bolivia 1976: Persons age 7+
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons age 7+
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons age 7+
  • Botswana 1991: Persons age 12+
  • Botswana 2001: Persons age 12+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Botswana 2011: Persons age 12+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Brazil 1960: Persons age 10+
  • Brazil 1970: Persons age 10+
  • Brazil 1980: Persons age 10+
  • Brazil 1991: Persons age 10+
  • Brazil 2000: Persons age 10+
  • Brazil 2010: Persons age 10+
  • Burkina Faso 1985: Household residents age 10+
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Household residents age 6+
  • Burkina Faso 2006: Persons age 5+
  • Cambodia 1998: All persons
  • Cambodia 2008: All persons
  • Cameroon 1976: Persons age 4+
  • Cameroon 1987: Persons age 6+ from private households
  • Cameroon 2005: Household residents age 6+
  • Canada 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Chile 1960: Persons age 12+
  • Chile 1970: Persons age 12+
  • Chile 1982: Persons age 15+
  • Chile 1992: Persons age 14+
  • Chile 2002: Persons age 15+
  • China 1982: Persons age 15+
  • China 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Colombia 1964: Persons age 12+
  • Colombia 1973: Persons age 10+
  • Colombia 1985: Persons age 10+
  • Colombia 1993: Persons age 10+
  • Colombia 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Costa Rica 1963: Persons age 12+
  • Costa Rica 1973: Persons age 12+
  • Costa Rica 1984: Persons age 12+
  • Costa Rica 2000: Persons age 12+
  • Costa Rica 2011: Persons age 12+
  • Cuba 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Dominican Republic 1960: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1970: Persons age 10+
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Persons age 10+
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Persons age 10+
  • Ecuador 1962: Persons age 12+
  • Ecuador 1974: Persons age 12+
  • Ecuador 1982: Persons age 12+
  • Ecuador 1990: Persons age 8+
  • Ecuador 2001: Persons age 5+
  • Ecuador 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Egypt 1986: Persons age 6+
  • Egypt 1996: Persons age 6+
  • Egypt 2006: Persons age 6+
  • El Salvador 1992: Persons age 10+
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons age 10+
  • Ethiopia 2007: Long form respondents age 10+
  • Fiji 1976: Persons age 14+
  • Fiji 1986: Persons age 15+
  • Fiji 1996: Persons age 15+
  • Fiji 2007: Persons age 10+
  • France 1962: Persons age 14+
  • France 1968: Persons age 14+
  • France 1975: Persons age 16+
  • France 1982: Persons age 14+
  • France 1990: Persons age 14+
  • France 1999: Persons age 15+
  • France 2006: Persons age 14+
  • France 2011: Persons age 14+
  • Germany 1970: All persons
  • Germany 1987: All persons
  • Ghana 1984: Persons age 10+
  • Ghana 2000: Persons age 7+
  • Ghana 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Greece 1971: Persons age 10+
  • Greece 1981: Persons age 10+
  • Greece 1991: Persons age 10+
  • Greece 2001: Persons age 10+
  • Greece 2011: All persons
  • Guinea 1983: Persons age 10+
  • Guinea 1996: Residents age 6+
  • Haiti 1971: Persons age 5+
  • Haiti 1982: Persons age 10+
  • Haiti 2003: Persons age 10+
  • Honduras 1961: Persons age 10+
  • Honduras 1974: Persons age 10+
  • Honduras 1988: Persons age 10+
  • Honduras 2001: Persons age 7+
  • Hungary 1990: All persons
  • Hungary 2001: All persons
  • Hungary 2011: All persons
  • India 1983: Persons age 5+
  • India 1987: Persons age 5+
  • India 1993: Persons age 5+
  • India 1999: Persons age 5+
  • India 2004: Persons age 5+
  • India 2009: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 1971: Persons age 10+
  • Indonesia 1976: Persons age 10+
  • Indonesia 1980: Persons age 10+
  • Indonesia 1985: Persons age 10+
  • Indonesia 1990: Persons age 10+
  • Indonesia 1995: Persons age 10+
  • Indonesia 2010: Persons age 10+ in permanent households in regular and remote enumeration areas
  • Iran 2006: Persons age 10+
  • Iran 2011: Persons age 10+
  • Iraq 1997: Persons age 6+
  • Ireland 1971: Persons age 14+
  • Ireland 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1986: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1996: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 2002: Non-absent persons age 15+
  • Ireland 2006: Non-absent persons age 15+
  • Ireland 2011: Non-absent persons age 15+
  • Israel 1972: Persons age 14+
  • Israel 1995: Persons age 15+
  • Italy 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Italy 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons age 14+ in private households or select institutions
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons age 14+ in private households or select institutions
  • Jamaica 2001: Persons age 14+
  • Jordan 2004: Persons age 15+
  • Kenya 1989: Persons age 10+
  • Kenya 1999: Persons age 5+
  • Kenya 2009: Persons age 5+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Persons age 16+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Liberia 2008: Persons age 6+
  • Malawi 1987: Persons age 10+
  • Malawi 1998: Persons age 10+
  • Malawi 2008: Persons age 6+
  • Malaysia 1970: Persons age 10+
  • Malaysia 1980: Persons age 10+
  • Malaysia 1991: Persons age 10+
  • Malaysia 2000: Persons age 10+
  • Mali 1987: Persons age 6+
  • Mali 1998: Persons age 6+
  • Mali 2009: Persons age 6+
  • Mexico 1970: Persons age 12+
  • Mexico 1990: Persons age 12+
  • Mexico 1995: Persons age 12+
  • Mexico 2000: Persons age 12+
  • Mexico 2010: Persons age 12+
  • Mexico 2015: Persons age 12+
  • Mongolia 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Morocco 1982: All persons
  • Morocco 1994: All persons
  • Morocco 2004: All persons
  • Mozambique 1997: Household residents age 7+
  • Mozambique 2007: Household residents age 7+
  • Netherlands 2001: All persons
  • Netherlands 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Nicaragua 1971: Persons age 10+
  • Nicaragua 1995: Persons age 10+
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 10+
  • Nigeria 2006: All persons
  • Nigeria 2007: All persons
  • Nigeria 2008: Persons age 10+
  • Nigeria 2009: Persons age 10+
  • Nigeria 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Pakistan 1973: Persons age 10+
  • Palestine 1997: Persons age 10+
  • Palestine 2007: Persons age 7+ except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: Person age 10+ not in indigenous groups
  • Panama 1970: Person age 10+ not in indigenous groups
  • Panama 1980: Person age 10+ not in indigenous groups
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 10+ in private households
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 10+
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 10+
  • Paraguay 1962: Persons age 12+
  • Paraguay 1972: Persons age 12+
  • Paraguay 1982: Persons age 12+
  • Paraguay 1992: Persons age 10+
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons age 10+
  • Peru 1993: Persons age 6+
  • Peru 2007: Persons age 6+
  • Philippines 1990: Persons age 10+
  • Poland 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Portugal 1981: Persons age 12+
  • Portugal 1991: Persons age 12+
  • Portugal 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Portugal 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 16+
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 16+
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 16+
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 16+
  • Romania 1992: All persons
  • Romania 2002: All persons
  • Romania 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Rwanda 1991: Non-visitors age 10+
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors age 6+
  • Rwanda 2012: Persons age 5+
  • Saint Lucia 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Saint Lucia 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Senegal 1988: Persons age 6+
  • Senegal 2002: Persons age 6+
  • Sierra Leone 2004: Persons age 10+
  • Slovenia 2002: All persons
  • South Africa 1996: Persons age 15+ in private households
  • South Africa 2001: Persons age 15 to 65
  • South Africa 2007: Persons age 15 to 65 in private households
  • South Africa 2011: Persons age 15 to 64 in private households
  • South Sudan 2008: Persons age 10+
  • Spain 1981: All persons
  • Spain 1991: All persons
  • Spain 2001: Persons who reside in the household
  • Spain 2011: Persons age 16+
  • Sudan 2008: Persons age 10+
  • Switzerland 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Tanzania 1988: Persons age 10+
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons age 5+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1970: Persons aged 10+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: Persons aged 15+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: Persons aged 15+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons aged 15+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons aged 15+ in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago
  • Turkey 1985: Persons age 12+
  • Turkey 1990: Persons age 12+
  • Turkey 2000: Persons age 12+
  • Uganda 1991: Persons age 10+ and students
  • Uganda 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Ukraine 2001: All persons
  • United Kingdom 1991: Persons age 16+
  • United Kingdom 2001: Persons age 16-74 who are not non-resident students
  • United States 1960: Persons age 14+
  • United States 1970: Persons age 14+
  • United States 1980: Persons age 16+
  • United States 1990: Persons age 16+
  • United States 2000: Persons age 16+
  • United States 2005: Persons age 16+
  • United States 2010: Persons age 16+
  • United States 2015: Persons age 16+
  • Uruguay 1963: Persons age 8+
  • Uruguay 1975: Persons age 12+
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons age 12+
  • Uruguay 1996: Persons age 12+
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons age 14+
  • Uruguay 2011: Persons age 12+
  • Venezuela 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Venezuela 1981: Persons age 12+
  • Venezuela 1990: Persons age 12+
  • Venezuela 2001: Persons age 10+
  • Vietnam 1989: Persons age 13+
  • Vietnam 1999: Persons age 13+
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Zambia 1990: Persons age 12+
  • Zambia 2000: Persons age 12+
  • Zambia 2010: Present household members and visitors age 12+
  • Zimbabwe 2012: Persons age 10+

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2008
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • China: 1982, 1990
  • Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002
  • Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 2007
  • Fiji: 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1970, 1987
  • Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
  • Honduras: 1961, 1974, 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1990, 2001, 2011
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Netherlands: 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990
  • Poland: 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • United Kingdom: 1991, 2001
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1963, 1975, 1975, 1985, 1985, 1996, 1996, 2006, 2011, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012