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CLASSWK
Status in employment (class of worker)

Codes and Frequencies




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Description

CLASSWK refers to the status of an economically active person with respect to his or her employment -- that is, the type of explicit or implicit contract of employment with other persons or organizations that the person has in his/her job. In general, the variable indicates whether a person was self-employed, or worked for someone else, either for pay or as an unpaid family worker. CLASSWK is related to EMPSTAT, which is used to define the universe in many samples.

Class of worker is often referred to as "status in employment" in other sources.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Austria
Bangladesh
Belarus
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
Ethiopia
Fiji
France
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guinea
Haiti
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Kyrgyz Republic
Liberia
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mexico
Morocco
Netherlands
Nicaragua
Palestine
Panama
Peru
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Spain
Switzerland

Comparability — General

The first digit of CLASSWK is comparable across samples. The second and third digits preserve additional information available for some countries and years.

The universe of persons to whom the question applies varies across the samples in age as well as employment status. For most censuses, the question applied to employed persons. Some samples also include persons who worked in the past, but were unemployed at the time of the census. Samples from Ireland from 1981-2006 and the 1991 sample from Spain include employed, unemployed, and retired persons.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

The age universe differs between samples.

The classification of wage workers changes from one based on white and blue-collar (manual versus non-manual) in 1970 to one based on public versus private employment in later years.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

The census grouped all persons working in a farm household together. CLASSWK codes the first person with such a response as an own-account agricultural worker; subsequent persons are coded to "unpaid family worker."

Comparability — Austria [top]

The data are comparable. The 2001 sample separately identifies government workers.

The source data for Austria assigned class-of-worker information to non-workers based on who "supported" them. CLASSWK reports data only for economically active persons.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

The data are comparable across samples, with the only difference being the identification of servants in 2001.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

The 1999 sample includes additional categories that are grouped in "other" in 2009.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The universe is similar across samples but there are differences in category availability.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

Self-employed workers are separated into those with or without employees in 2001 and 2011, so it is possible to distinguish employers from those working on their own account. However, the 1991 sample does not identify whether the self-employed have employees or not, and these cases have been classified only as "working on own account."

The 2001 and 2011 samples differentiate between employees paid in kind and those paid in cash. Payment in kind may be made for an exchange of goods or services for work performed. Employees paid in kind were categorized under "other wage and salary" in CLASSWK.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

The available categories for Brazil change over time as different things were emphasized. The 1960 and 1970 censuses used similar classifications; 1980 added detail on sharecroppers and migrant workers with and without legal contracts; 1991 added distinctions for domestic workers and public sector workers and retained only a single migrant worker category; and 2000 differentiated types of unpaid work and dropped categories for sharecroppers, migrants and domestics. Some years distinguished between public and private sector employees. The 2000 and 2010 samples also distinguish between workers with and without legal contracts.

The treatment of sharecroppers presents a noteworthy inconsistency for Brazil. Sharecroppers are coded among self-employed workers in 1960 and 1970. In those years, sharecroppers with employees were combined with other "employers". In 1980, sharecroppers with employees are identified separately as a subgroup of employers. The remaining sharecroppers in 1980 are differentiated between those with autonomy (self-employed) and those without autonomy ("employees") in production or freedom to cede their contract (see the enumeration instructions). Both of these latter types of sharecroppers are coded in the IPUMS within the larger "self-employed" grouping in 1980 and 1991. The 2000 census did not distinguish sharecroppers from other types of workers. The 2000 census did introduce a separate category for subsistence workers producing for their own consumption. The 2010 census no longer included categories for sharecroppers or subsistence workers, and provided no information on how they should be categorized in the enumeration instructions.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

Categories for this variable are comparable across samples, but there are age differences in the universe of respondents.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The samples are fully comparable.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

The data are largely comparable across samples, but there are differences in the universe of respondents with respect to household type, age, and residential status.

The 1976 sample does not distinguish paid from unpaid apprentices, and they are coded to unpaid in this variable.

Comparability — Canada [top]

Unpaid family workers are combined with wage and salary workers in 1991-2001. The unharmonized source variables for all years distinguish between incorporated and unincorporated self-employed workers.

The universes are comparable across samples. The census question refers to those who worked in either the previous or current calendar year.

Comparability — Chile [top]

The universe differs across samples both in terms of minimum ages and with respect to employment status. The 1982 sample, which directed the question to all persons 15 and older, is the most different from other years.

The 1960-1982 samples identify white and blue collar wage-salary workers, who were combined in 1992-2002.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

The Colombian censuses do not pose problems in terms of universe comparability. The 1993 census combined white and blue collar employees, while in the two previous censuses they were separated.

The 2005 sample has a broader universe than the other sample years.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The codes are fully comparable across samples. Unemployed persons were asked the question in 1973 and 1984, but only employed persons were in the universe for 2000 and 2011.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The universe changes over time. In 1960, the question was asked of persons age 10 and older who were employed between January 1st and August 7th, 1960. In 1970, the question was asked of persons age 10 and older who were employed or unemployed the week prior to the census. In 1981-2010, the question was asked of persons age 10 and older who had ever worked. Respondents who had worked before but were not working during the week prior to the census reported their status in their last job.

The 1981 sample distinguishes between public sector, private sector, and domestic employees. The other samples do not make this distinction.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

The universe of persons for the question changes over time, with the minimum age for the question dropping from 12 in 1962-1974, to 8 in 1990, to age 5 in 2001 and 2010.

The samples offer differing categorization of wage-salary workers. The 2010 sample introduced a separate category of "partner"; this was combined with employers for the integrated variable. See the unharmonized source variable to recover this information.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The data are comparable. There is a substantial drop in reported self-employment in 2006 with respect to 1986 and 1996.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The age universes are similar across year 10+

Comparability — Fiji [top]

Response categories differ between samples as do the age universes. The 1976 response, "villager", is interpreted as subsistence worker.

The 1986 and 1996 data do not distinguish self-employed workers from day laborers; thus, those samples are not included in CLASSWK. See the relevant unharmonized variables for those samples to make other distinctions, such as identifying unpaid workers.

Comparability — France [top]

There are no major problems of comparability in terms of universe and category availability, although 1999 differs somewhat. The 2006 sample has more detail on temporary employment than previous samples; 2011 offers a basic classification.

The "public companies" includes Social Security workers. Government workers in 1999 were classified somewhat differently than earlier samples, but have been put into the earlier categories as best as possible to maintain consistency. The full original detail is available in the unharmonized source variable.

The age universe differs slightly across samples. All samples exclude soldiers (non-civilians) except for 1999, when soldiers are mostly classified into the civil servant category.

Comparability — Germany [top]

The universe includes persons currently employed but is slightly modified with regards to exclusion of students and apprentices across years.

The level of detail differs across samples.

The age universe differs slightly across samples. It includes persons age 15 and older in 1970 and 1987 samples, but persons age 14 and older in the intervening samples.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The universe varies across samples for young children.

Comparability — Greece [top]

The age universe changed in 2011, but all samples are targeting person who are economically active or seeking a job.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The age universe varies across samples. The 1996 sample offers more category detail.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

Response categories are largely comparable across Haiti samples, although the 2003 sample incudes a separate category for apprentices. The universes differ across samples with respect to age; the 1971 census included persons age 5+, while the later census included persons age 10+. All samples limit the universe to persons who worked during the reference period, but each sample has a substantially different reference period.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The 2001 and 2011 census had a response for working members of non-cooperative partnerships. This is coded among "own-account" workers in CLASSWK and results in a higher proportion in that category than in other samples. It is unclear where they would have been coded in earlier censuses.

The 2001 census reports a much smaller labor force than the earlier samples, with a larger NIU category.

Comparability — India [top]

The data are largely comparable across samples. In 1983, India classified a small set of workers as under an obligation to others (e.g., landlords or moneylenders) and therefore "not specifically compensated by prevalent wage or salary." These individuals are assigned to the "other" category in CLASSWK. It is not clear where they would have been classified in later samples. The original categories are available in the unharmonized source variable for 1983. The 1993 and later samples distinguish employers from other self-employed persons.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The universe is mostly consistent across samples, with the following differences: it includes the experienced unemployed for 1971, excludes those who had a job but did not work for 1976, and the minimum age is lowered to 5+ for 2000.

From the 1980 sample onward, the data separate own-account workers into persons with temporary or unpaid help and those without. For the 2005 and 2010 samples, the data also separate employees into regular wage-earners ("permanent job") and casual employees, defined as those that work for multiple employers for daily contracts/wages ("occasional/temporary job").

Comparability — Ireland [top]

Samples are fully comparable with the exception of 1971. In 1971, the question was asked to persons age 14 and older and excluded retired or unemployed persons, but in later years included persons age 15 and older who ever worked. Beginning in 2002, the census question excluded absent persons.

CLASSWK is not available for the 1979 sample.

Comparability — Israel [top]

The 1995 sample combines wage workers with the small co-operative category that exists in earlier years.

All Israeli samples identify Kibbutz members.

Comparability — Italy [top]

For both the 2001 and 2011 samples, the "employer" category is constructed using a separate variable on whether the person has employees.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

In all samples, the universe includes persons age 14 + who worked or had a job in the week prior to the census.

The "other" category includes foreign consultants resident and working in Jamaica, but whose class of worker is unknown.

Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]

The 1999 census provided more detailed response categories than the 2009 census, both in types of self-employment and in identifying unpaid workers. Some additional details in 1999 are available in the source variable for that sample.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The universe changes over time. In 1974, the question was asked of persons age 10 or older who worked in the past year. In 2008, the question was asked of persons age 6 and older who worked in the past year.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

For all Malawi samples, class of worker is consistently interpreted as position in employment the week preceding the census.

In 1987 and 1998 samples, class of worker is obtained from a question on the person's activity the week preceding the census. The universe in 2008 differs markedly from earlier years due to the presence of a new question on class of worker. In 2008, people working of family farm or business are coded as "own account, agriculture" for comparability with earlier samples.

The question excludes visitors and includes persons age 6+ in 2008, but includes all persons age 10+ in earlier years.

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

The samples are comparable over time.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The samples differ in their categorization of employees. Apprentices are a single category in 1987 and 2009, but are differentiated into paid and unpaid workers in 1998. The 1987 apprentices are coded as unpaid apprentices, where the majority of apprentices are in 1998. The 2009 enumeration instructions specify that the apprentice category refers only to unpaid apprentices.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The universe for CLASSWK varies considerably among the Mexican samples. The 1960 census did not specify a population to be enumerated; rather, any person whose situation did not match with any categories presented was assumed to be not working and/or inexperienced unemployed and not in the universe. In 1970 the question was asked of all persons age 12 and older who worked at least one month during 1969, regardless of whether they had a job at the time of the census. This is an important difference from the 1990 and 2000 censuses, which applied the question to persons employed at the time of census, and from the 2010 and 2015 census which applied to all economically active persons.

Census documentation specifies that the unpaid workers are family workers from 1960-1990, but explicitly includes non-family members from 1995-2015. The 2010 and 2015 census includes a response for paid "assistants/helpers" -- the definition of these cases is unclear and has been grouped with "white or blue collar" employees.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The universes are nearly identical, with the exception in 1982 when persons who had worked any day in the previous 42 days were included; later samples only consider current workers.

The 2004 sample distinguishes public from private salaried employees. All samples preserve data on the location of self-employment (separate premises, at home, or traveling) in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Netherlands [top]

Samples are comparable across years. Unpaid family workers are combined with wage and salary workers in all years.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

The 1995 and 2005 samples distinguish two types of employees -- day laborers and regular employees -- and also include a category for production cooperative members. The 1971 and 1995 census documentation specifies that the unpaid workers are members of the family, whereas in 2005 it explicitly notes that they may be related or unrelated.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

In both censuses, the question was asked of persons who worked the week preceding the census or who were experienced and unemployed. In 2007, persons in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967 were excluded.

The age universe changes from persons age 10+ in 1997 to persons age 7+ in 2007.

Comparability — Panama [top]

Universes are fully comparable across samples, but the available categories differ, especially among types of wage and salary workers.

Comparability — Peru [top]

The data are fully comparable between samples apart from a slight difference in universes.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The 2002 sample distinguishes between employers and own-account workers, but only the latter are included in 1978 and 1988. Own account workers in agriculture (farmers) are not separately identified in 2002. For this sample, the proportion of persons who are members of cooperatives drops significantly, given it only refers to those in agricultural productive cooperatives.

The category for wage or salary workers includes those employed in socialized and non-socialized economies in 1978-1988, and both part-time and full-time paid employees in 2002. In all Poland samples, a commission worker refers to a person obtaining payment from a commission according to the amount of goods sold or services provided; these cases are also classified as "wage or salary worker".

In 1978 and 1988, a "cottage worker" refers to an individual who processes raw materials and transforms them into a ready-made product in their own houses. These workers are categorized as "blue collar (manual)". Cottage workers differ from own-account workers because it is unknown whether such workers sell the goods on their own or send them back to the company hiring them.

The 1978 and 1988 source data assigned status in employment also to non-workers based on who "supported" them, but CLASSWK reports data only for economically active persons.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

The age universe changes from 12+ in 1981-1991 to 15+ in 2001- 2011. The data are otherwise comparable.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The data are fully comparable between samples apart from a minor age universe difference in 1970 and the addition of non-profit work as a category starting in 1990.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The universe differs with each census. The 1991 sample includes retired persons in the universe making its NIU category notably smaller than the other samples. In 2011 the question was asked of person's age 16+ that were employed or worked previously.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

The data are comparable across samples apart from the differentiation of employers from other self-employed workers in 2000. Apprentices are coded as paid workers in Switzerland.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Argentina 1980: Persons age 14+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Argentina 1991: Persons age 14+ who had a job last week
  • Argentina 2001: Persons age 14+ who had a job last week
  • Armenia 2001: Persons age 15+ who had a job
  • Armenia 2011: Persons age 15+ who had a job
  • Austria 1971: Persons age 15+ who were economically active
  • Austria 1981: Persons age 15+ who were economically active
  • Austria 1991: Persons age 15+ who were economically active
  • Austria 2001: Persons age 15+ who were economically active
  • Austria 2011: Persons who were economically active
  • Bangladesh 1991: Persons who were employed
  • Bangladesh 2001: Persons who were employed
  • Belarus 1999: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Belarus 2009: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Benin 1979: Persons age 10+ in ordinary households who were employed or unemployed
  • Benin 1992: Persons age 10+ from a private household who are employed or unemployed
  • Benin 2002: Employed residents age 6+
  • Benin 2013: Resident persons age 6+ years who are employed or unemployed
  • Bolivia 1976: Persons age 7+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons age 7+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons age 7+ who worked last week
  • Botswana 1991: Persons age 12+ who were working
  • Botswana 2001: Persons age 12+ working during the past 7 days except institutionalized non-residents
  • Botswana 2011: Persons age 12+ working during the past 7 days except institutionalized non-residents
  • Brazil 1960: Persons age 10+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Brazil 1970: Persons age 10+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Brazil 1980: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Brazil 1991: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Brazil 2000: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Brazil 2010: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Burkina Faso 1985: Residents of the household age 10+ in the labor force
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Resdents of the household age 6+ in the labor force
  • Burkina Faso 2006: Persons age 5+ in the labor force
  • Cambodia 1998: Persons who were working or had worked
  • Cambodia 2008: Persons who were working or had worked
  • Cameroon 1976: Persons age 4+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Cameroon 1987: Persons age 6+ in private households who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Cameroon 2005: Residents of the household age 6+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Canada 1971: Persons age 15+ who worked this or the previous calendar year
  • Canada 1981: Persons age 15+ who worked this or the previous calendar year
  • Canada 1991: Persons age 15+ who worked this or the previous calendar year
  • Canada 2001: Persons age 15+ who worked this or the previous calendar year
  • Canada 2011: Persons age 15+ who worked this or the previous calendar year
  • Chile 1960: Persons age 12+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Chile 1970: Persons age 12+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Chile 1982: Persons age 15+ in the labor force
  • Chile 1992: Persons age 14+, who were employed or seeking work
  • Chile 2002: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Colombia 1964: Persons in the labor force
  • Colombia 1973: Persons age 10+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Colombia 1985: Persons age 10+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Colombia 1993: Persons age 10+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Colombia 2005: Persons age 5+ who were ever employed
  • Costa Rica 1973: Persons age 12+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Costa Rica 1984: Persons age 12+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Costa Rica 2000: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Costa Rica 2011: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Dominican Republic 1960: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Dominican Republic 1970: Persons age 10+ who were employed or unemployed
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Persons 10+ who ever worked
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Persons 10+ who ever worked
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Persons 10+ who ever worked
  • Ecuador 1962: Persons age 12+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Ecuador 1974: Persons age 12+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Ecuador 1982: Persons age 12+ who were employed or seeking work
  • Ecuador 1990: Persons age 8+ who were employed or unemployed
  • Ecuador 2001: Persons age 5+ in the labor force
  • Ecuador 2010: Persons age 5+ in the labor force
  • Egypt 1986: Persons age 6+ who were employed
  • Egypt 1996: Persons age 6+ who were employed
  • Egypt 2006: Persons age 6+ who were employed
  • El Salvador 1992: Persons age 10+ who were economically active
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons age 10+ who were economically active or experienced unemployed
  • Ethiopia 1984: Household residents age 10+ who were economically active
  • Ethiopia 1994: Persons age 10+ who were working or experienced unemployed
  • Ethiopia 2007: Long-form respondents age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Fiji 1976: Persons age 14+ in the labor force
  • Fiji 2007: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • France 1962: Civilians age 14+ who were employed
  • France 1968: Civilians age 14+ who were employed
  • France 1975: Civilians age 16+ who were employed
  • France 1982: Civilians age 14+ who were employed
  • France 1990: Civilians age 14+ who were employed
  • France 1999: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • France 2006: Civilians age 14+ who were employed
  • France 2011: Persons who were economically active
  • Germany 1970: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Germany 1971: Persons age 14+ who were economically active
  • Germany 1981: Persons age 14+ who were economically active
  • Germany 1987: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Ghana 1984: Persons age 10+ who worked
  • Ghana 2000: Persons age 7+ who were economically active
  • Ghana 2010: Persons age 5+ who were economically active
  • Greece 1971: Persons born before 1961 who were working or seeking a job
  • Greece 1981: Persons born before 1971 who were working or seeking a job
  • Greece 1991: Persons born before 1981 who were working or seeking a job
  • Greece 2001: Persons born before 1991 who were working or seeking a job
  • Greece 2011: Persons who worked or were seeking work last week
  • Guinea 1983: Persons age 10+ who were employed or unemployed
  • Guinea 1996: Residents age 6+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Haiti 1971: Persons age 5+ who worked in the past 6 months
  • Haiti 1982: Persons age 10+ who worked in the past year
  • Haiti 2003: Persons age 10+ who worked last month
  • Honduras 1961: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Honduras 1974: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Honduras 1988: Persons age 10+ who had a job or who were experienced unemployed
  • Honduras 2001: Persons age 7+ who are in labor force except the first time job seekers
  • Hungary 1970: Persons age 14+ who were employed
  • Hungary 1980: Persons who were economically active or who worked more than 90 days in agriculture in 1979
  • Hungary 1990: Persons who were economically active or earners from childcare fees or allowances
  • Hungary 2001: Employed persons
  • Hungary 2011: Persons 15+ who ever worked
  • India 1983: Persons who worked last week
  • India 1987: Persons who worked last week
  • India 1993: Persons who worked last week
  • India 1999: Persons who worked last week
  • India 2004: Persons who worked last week
  • India 2009: Persons age 5+ who worked
  • Indonesia 1971: Persons age 10+ who worked or experienced unemployed
  • Indonesia 1976: Persons age 10+ who worked
  • Indonesia 1980: Persons age 10+ who worked or were employed
  • Indonesia 1985: Persons age 10+ who worked or were employed
  • Indonesia 1990: Persons age 10+ who worked or were employed
  • Indonesia 1995: Persons age 10+ who worked or were employed
  • Indonesia 2000: Persons age 5+ who worked
  • Indonesia 2005: Persons age 10+ who worked or were employed
  • Indonesia 2010: Persons age 10+ who worked or were employed from permanent households in regular or remote enumeration areas
  • Iran 2006: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Iran 2011: Persons age 10+ who worked, were unpaid workers or temporarily absent from work in the past 7 days
  • Iraq 1997: Persons age 6+ working full or part time
  • Ireland 1971: Persons age 14+ who were employed
  • Ireland 1981: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 1986: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 1991: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 1996: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 2002: Non-absent persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 2006: Non-absent persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 2011: Non-absent persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Israel 1972: Persons age 14+ in the annual labor force
  • Israel 1983: Persons age 15+ in the annual labor force
  • Israel 1995: Persons age 15+ in the annual labor force
  • Italy 2001: Persons age 15+ who worked
  • Italy 2011: Persons age 15+ who worked
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons age 14+ who had a job last week
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons age 14+ who had a job last week
  • Jamaica 2001: Persons age 14+ who had a job last week
  • Jordan 2004: Persons age 15+ who worked
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Employed persons
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Persons age 12+ with income from employment
  • Lesotho 1996: Persons age 10+ who engaged in economic activities in the last week
  • Lesotho 2006: Persons age 10+ who engaged in economic activities in the last week
  • Liberia 1974: Persons age 10+ who worked in the past year
  • Liberia 2008: Persons age 6+ who worked in the past year
  • Malawi 1987: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Malawi 1998: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Malawi 2008: Persons age 6+ who worked last week, excluding visitors
  • Malaysia 1970: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Malaysia 1980: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Malaysia 1991: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Malaysia 2000: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Mali 1987: Persons age 6+ who worked
  • Mali 1998: Persons age 6+ who worked
  • Mali 2009: Persons age 6+ who were economically active
  • Mexico 1960: Persons who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Mexico 1970: Persons age 12+ who worked at least one month during the last year
  • Mexico 1990: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Mexico 1995: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Mexico 2000: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Mexico 2010: Economically active persons
  • Mexico 2015: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Mongolia 2000: Persons age 15+ who worked during the past week
  • Morocco 1982: Employed persons, experienced unemployed, or persons who worked in previous 42 days
  • Morocco 1994: Employed persons or experienced unemployed
  • Morocco 2004: Employed persons or experienced unemployed
  • Netherlands 1960: Economically active persons
  • Netherlands 1971: Economically active persons
  • Netherlands 2001: Employed persons
  • Netherlands 2011: Employed persons
  • Nicaragua 1971: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Nicaragua 1995: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 10+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Nigeria 2006: Persons age 10+ who were economically active
  • Nigeria 2007: Persons age 10+ who were economically active
  • Nigeria 2008: Persons age 10+ who were economically active
  • Nigeria 2009: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Pakistan 1973: Persons age 10+ who worked last week
  • Palestine 1997: Persons age 10+ working or experienced unemployed
  • Palestine 2007: Persons age 7+ who were employed or experienced unemployed, except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: Non-indigenous persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Panama 1970: Persons age 10+ in labor force who worked in the past
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 10+ in labor force who worked in the past
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 10+ in labor force who worked in the past
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 10+ in labor force who worked in the past
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 10+ in labor force who worked in the past
  • Papua New Guinea 1980: Persons age 10+
  • Papua New Guinea 2000: Persons age 10+
  • Paraguay 1962: Persons age 12+ who were employed or unemployed
  • Paraguay 1972: Persons age 12+ who were employed or unemployed
  • Paraguay 1982: Persons age 12+ who were employed or unemployed
  • Paraguay 1992: Persons age 10+ who were employed or unemployed
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons age 10+ who worked in the last week
  • Peru 1993: Persons age 6+ with work or experienced and seeking work
  • Peru 2007: Persons age 6+ who worked last week
  • Philippines 1995: Persons age 5+ who were economically active
  • Philippines 2000: Persons age 10+ who were working
  • Philippines 2010: Persons age 15+ in gainful employment in the past 12 months
  • Poland 1978: Present persons who are economically active
  • Poland 1988: Present persons who are economically active
  • Poland 2002: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Portugal 1981: Persons age 12+ who were employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 1991: Persons age 12+ who were employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 2001: Persons age 15+ who were employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 2011: Persons age 15+ who were economically active
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 14+ who worked in the past 10 years
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 16+ who worked in the past 5 years
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 16+ who worked in the past 5 years
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 16+ who worked in the past 5 years
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 16+ who worked in the past 5 years
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 16+ who worked in the past 5 years
  • Romania 1992: Persons who were employed, or were seeking work not for the first time
  • Romania 2002: Persons who had at least one job
  • Romania 2011: Persons who were employed, or were seeking work not for the first time
  • Rwanda 1991: Non-visitors age 10+ who were employed or unemployed
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors age 6+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Rwanda 2012: Persons age 5+ who are working or seeking work
  • Saint Lucia 1991: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Senegal 1988: Persons age 6+ employed or seeking work
  • Senegal 2002: Persons age 6+ who were employed
  • South Africa 1996: Persons age 15+ employed, living in a private household
  • South Africa 2001: Persons age 10+ employed or economically active
  • South Africa 2007: Persons age 15-74 employed, living in a private household
  • South Sudan 2008: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Spain 1981: Persons who were working or had worked
  • Spain 1991: Persons who were employed, unemployed but worked before, or were retired
  • Spain 2001: Persons age 16+ who were working or studying last week
  • Spain 2011: Persons age 16+ who were employed or worked previously
  • Sudan 2008: Persons age 10+ in the labor force
  • Switzerland 1970: Employed persons
  • Switzerland 1980: Employed persons
  • Switzerland 1990: Employed persons
  • Switzerland 2000: Employed persons
  • Tanzania 1988: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons age 10+ who were employed
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons age 5+ who were economically active in the last week
  • Thailand 1970: Persons age 11+ who worked
  • Thailand 1980: Persons age 11+ who worked
  • Thailand 1990: Persons age 13+ who worked
  • Thailand 2000: Persons age 13+ who worked
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1970: Persons age 10+ who ever worked
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: Persons age 15+ who had a job or are seeking work
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: Persons age 15+ who had a job or are seeking work
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons age 15+ who had a job or are seeking work
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons age 15+ in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago who were working, ever looked for work, or were an old age pensioner
  • Turkey 1985: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Turkey 1990: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Turkey 2000: Persons age 12+ who were employed
  • Uganda 1991: Persons age 10+ who were working
  • Uganda 2002: Persons age 5+ who were working
  • United Kingdom 1991: Persons age 16+ who were employed
  • United Kingdom 2001: Persons age 16-74 who were employed, excluding non-resident students
  • United States 1960: Persons age 14+ who have worked in the past 10 years
  • United States 1970: Persons age 14+ who have worked in the past 10 years
  • United States 1980: Persons age 16+ who have worked in the past 5 years
  • United States 1990: Persons age 16+ who have worked in the past 5 years
  • United States 2000: Persons age 16+ who have worked in the past 5 years
  • United States 2005: Persons age 16+ who have worked in the past 5 years
  • United States 2010: Persons age 16+ who have worked in the past 5 years
  • United States 2015: Persons age 16+ who have worked in the past 5 years
  • Uruguay 1963: Persons age 8+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Uruguay 1975: Persons age 12+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons age 12+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Uruguay 1996: Persons age 12+ who were employed or experienced unemployed
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons age 14+ who were employed
  • Venezuela 1971: Persons not institutionalized or disabled for work, that have worked for pay before
  • Venezuela 1981: Persons age 12+ who worked in the past year
  • Venezuela 1990: Persons age 12+ who worked or sought work
  • Venezuela 2001: Persons age 10+ who worked or sought work
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 15+ with a job
  • Zambia 1990: Persons age 12+ who were employed in the past year
  • Zambia 2000: Persons age 12+ who were employed in the past year
  • Zambia 2010: Present household members and visitors age 12+ who were employed in the past year

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2008
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Canada: 1891, 1911, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Fiji: 1976, 2007
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1970, 1971, 1981, 1987
  • Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
  • Honduras: 1961, 1974, 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Netherlands: 1960, 1971, 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1995, 2000, 2010
  • Poland: 1978, 1988, 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911, 1991, 2001
  • United States: 1910, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1963, 1975, 1975, 1985, 1985, 1996, 1996, 2006
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010