Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
This variable indicates the primary material used in the construction of the dwelling, particularly the dwelling's exterior walls.
Comparability — Index
Trinidad and Tobago
Comparability — General
Generally, this variable is intended to describe the exterior walls, although not all censuses are explicit on this point. In some cases the census questions are framed more broadly to inquire about the predominant material of the building.
The variable is conceptually comparable across samples, but the categorization is not. The distinctions made at the variable's first digit are imperfect. In particular, the category containing masonry and other earthen materials serves as a catch-all for a variety of fabricated building types (usually everything other than structures built with wood, other plant matter, or miscellaneous scrap materials), and sometimes this category includes buildings made with mixed materials that include wood.
Very little effort has been made to harmonize the variable beyond the first digit; instead, the detailed codes more or less replicate the terminology of the original censuses. Users must examine the available categories for the samples they are interested in and combine them appropriately. Often the meaning of a category only becomes clear in the context of the other categories available in a given sample. See the unharmonized source variables for the original categories; see also the enumeration text for the censuses.
Comparability — Armenia [top]
The 2011 sample includes additional categories including a distinction of "monoliths" from "stone".
Comparability — Benin [top]
"Semi-hard" materials for the 1992, 2002, and 2013 samples were coded to "mixed materials". The 2013 sample groups all plant-based materials (wood, board, or bamboo) in one category, while the 1979, 1992, and 2002 samples distinguish between bamboo and other plant-based materials.
Comparability — Botswana [top]
The 1981 and 1991 samples are generally comparable with the 1991 sample distinguishing between different mud, reed, and pole type of materials.
The 2001 and 2011 samples are comparable with both samples including different categories for conventional bricks or blocks as well as stones. In earlier samples, there was no differentiation between these different categories.
Comparability — Brazil [top]
The data are comparable across samples. The Brazil 2010 distinguishes between coated and uncoated masonry and taipa, which were combined in the same category in previous samples.
Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]
The universe changes slightly across samples. There were additional categories in the 1981 sample that were not included in later samples.
Comparability — Ethiopia [top]
There are significant universe differences across samples. The universe is restricted to only long-form questionnaire respondents in 2007 and only urban households in 1984. The 1994 sample integrated variable includes two unharmonized variables, one for rural and one for urban households. The categories change slightly across sample years.
Comparability — Guatemala [top]
The data are largely comparable across samples. The more recent samples include more response categories than the earlier samples. In the 1981 sample, the "Bark, sticks, or cane" category also includes lepa.
Comparability — Haiti [top]
The Haiti 2003 sample includes more detailed categories than the 1971 sample, and few materials are directly comparable across samples.
Comparability — Honduras [top]
The 1961 census is a sample of individuals, not households. Information is only available for households consisting of a head.
Comparability — Iran [top]
The 2006 Iran sample does not collect information on wall materials. Instead, it collects information on the "construction materials," by which is intended the entire framework of the dwelling. In dwellings with multiple households, only the first household in the dwelling provided a response for construction materials.
Comparability — Jamaica [top]
The variable is comparable across Jamaican samples with one exception. "Stone" and "brick" are two separate categories in the 1982 and 1991 samples, while they form a single category in the 2001 sample.
Comparability — Kenya [top]
The data are comparable across samples. In 2009, the enumeration instructions indicate that "mud/dung" should be coded as "other".
Comparability — Malawi [top]
The 1987 and 2008 samples are generally comparable. In 1987, Malawi collected information about each of several dwellings occupied by a household. This variable integrates information about the wall material of the first dwelling. Wall materials were not recorded in the 1998 sample.
Comparability — Mexico [top]
The universes change between the different samples. The 1960 sample is a sample of individuals, not households and only heads of households have most household-level information. The 1970, 1995, and 2000 samples include all households. The universe of the 1990 sample is dwellings except for shelters while the universes for the 2010 and 2015 samples include dwellings built for habitation.
The categories between the samples are generally comparable with some slight differences in the mud or adobe and clay or clay-covered sticks categories. See source variables for more details.
Comparability — Morocco [top]
The category for "stone" specifies that the material be stone without any other material (cement or earth). Stone with cement/mortar is combined with brick or concrete in 1982 and 1994, but separately identified in 2014. The category for "mixed material" includes wood, iron sheets, branches, or reeds; all other materials would be classified in "other".
The universe in 1982 and 2014 is "all households", while it only includes "non-tent households" in 2014.
Comparability — Nepal [top]
The unharmonized source variable for 2011 distinguishes brick walls with mud mortar and brick walls with cement mortar.
Comparability — Nicaragua [top]
The censuses progressively add more categories. See the unharmonized source variables for labels and definitions. The 1971 census allows responses for adobe and taquezal (coded into "mud with wood/wattle") separately, whereas these two responses are combined in later censuses (coded into "wood and earth adobe").
Comparability — Panama [top]
The Panama 1960, 1980, and 1990 samples have a single category that combines other materials and dwellings without walls, while these are separate categories in the more recent samples. In the Panama 2010 sample the category "other materials" includes "material of inferior quality not included in previous categories".
Comparability — Paraguay [top]
The 1972-1982 samples include a category for Wattle that is not included in the later year samples. The 1992 and 2002 unharmonized samples include a category for "Stretched leather" which becomes "Other material" in the integrated variable.
Comparability — Romania [top]
There are differences in the universes between samples. The 1992 and 2011 samples are of all households while the 2002 sample excludes non-conventional housing units.
The categories between samples are generally comparable with the 2011 sample having more detailed response options for adobe and mixed or other materials. The 1992 and 2002 samples include adobe as part of a category that includes other materials such as clay and mud bricks. See source variables for more detail.
Comparability — Senegal [top]
The 2013 sample identifies additional walls materials with respect to 1988 and 2002.
The universe in 2013 is "ordinary households" while it is "all households" in 1988 and 2002.
Comparability — Tanzania [top]
The universes for the 2002 and the 2012 samples are private households and all households, respectively. These samples are generally comparable except that the 2012 sample has a distinct cloth and mixed material category. See the source variable,
Comparability — Thailand [top]
The universe for the 1970 sample is all urban and a sample of rural private households, while the universe in subsequent census years was all private households.
Comparability — Togo [top]
For the 2010 sample, the "Other plant-based materials" category in includes brushwood, woven mats, claies, leaves or bamboo.
Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]
The universes vary across samples. The universe for the 1970 and 1980 samples are all households. The universe for the 2000 sample is households that completed the interview, while it is private households in 2011.
There are differences in the categories across samples. The 1970 and 1980 samples are more comparable.
Comparability — Uganda [top]
The universe in 2014 is "all households" while it is "private households" in 1991 and 2002.
Comparability — Uruguay [top]
The data are generally comparable across samples. The masonry category is split into finished and unfinished blocks for the 2006 and 2011 samples.
Comparability — Zambia [top]
Several categories change across samples. "Cement blocks" is present in later samples but not in 1990. The 2010 sample also includes additional categories. The enumeration instructions for the 2010 samples contain detailed definitions for each category in the unharmonized source variable.
- Argentina 1980: Private households
- Argentina 1991: Private households
- Argentina 2001: Private households
- Armenia 2001: All households
- Armenia 2011: All households
- Bangladesh 1991: All households
- Belarus 1999: All households
- Belarus 2009: Residential non-collective houses or apartments
- Benin 1979: All households
- Benin 1992: Private households
- Benin 2002: All households
- Benin 2013: All households
- Bolivia 1976: Occupied dwellings
- Bolivia 1992: Private occupied dwellings
- Bolivia 2001: Private occupied dwellings
- Bolivia 2012: Private occupied dwellings
- Botswana 1981: Private households
- Botswana 1991: Private households
- Botswana 2001: Private households
- Botswana 2011: Private households
- Brazil 1980: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
- Brazil 1991: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
- Brazil 2010: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
- Burkina Faso 1996: All households
- Burkina Faso 2006: All households
- Cameroon 1976: Occupied households
- Cameroon 1987: Private households
- Cameroon 2005: Ordinary households
- Colombia 1973: Not vacant dwellings
- Colombia 1985: Not vacant dwellings
- Colombia 1993: Not vacant dwellings
- Colombia 2005: All households
- Costa Rica 2011: Private dwellings
- Cuba 2012: Private households
- Dominican Republic 1981: Dwellings with independent exit
- Dominican Republic 2002: Occupied households
- Dominican Republic 2010: Private dwellings
- Ecuador 2010: Private households
- El Salvador 1992: Private households
- El Salvador 2007: Private households
- Ethiopia 1984: Urban households
- Ethiopia 1994: Households with collected information
- Ethiopia 2007: Households that responded to the long form
- Fiji 1986: All households
- Fiji 1996: All households
- Fiji 2007: All households
- Fiji 2014: All households
- Ghana 2000: Private households
- Ghana 2010: Private households
- Guatemala 1964: All households
- Guatemala 1981: Private households
- Guatemala 1994: Private households
- Guatemala 2002: Private households
- Guinea 1983: All households
- Haiti 1971: All households
- Haiti 2003: All households
- Honduras 1961: Households consisting of a head
- Honduras 1988: Private households
- Honduras 2001: Private households
- Indonesia 1971: All households
- Indonesia 1976: All households
- Indonesia 1980: All households
- Indonesia 1985: All households
- Indonesia 1990: All households
- Indonesia 1995: All households
- Indonesia 2005: All households
- Iran 2006: First household in the dwelling
- Iraq 1997: Private households
- Jamaica 1982: Private households
- Jamaica 1991: Private households
- Jamaica 2001: Private households
- Jordan 2004: All households
- Kenya 1989: Not group quarters
- Kenya 1999: All households
- Kenya 2009: Conventional households or refugee camps
- Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Households, not institutions
- Laos 2005: Private households
- Lesotho 2006: All households
- Liberia 2008: All households
- Malawi 1987: Private households
- Malawi 2008: Private households
- Malaysia 1991: Private households
- Malaysia 2000: All households
- Mali 1987: All households
- Mali 1998: All households
- Mali 2009: All households
- Mexico 1960: Only households consisting of a head
- Mexico 1970: All households
- Mexico 1990: Dwellings except shelters
- Mexico 1995: All households
- Mexico 2000: All households
- Mexico 2010: Dwellings built for habitation
- Mexico 2015: Dwellings built for habitation
- Morocco 1982: All households
- Morocco 1994: Non-tent households
- Morocco 2014: All households
- Mozambique 2007: Private households
- Myanmar 2014: Conventional households
- Nepal 2011: All households
- Nicaragua 1971: Private occupied households
- Nicaragua 1995: Private occupied households with people present
- Nicaragua 2005: Private households with people present or hotels, boarding houses and guest houses
- Nigeria 2010: All households
- Pakistan 1998: All households
- Panama 1960: Private occupied households
- Panama 1980: Private occupied households
- Panama 1990: Private occupied households
- Panama 2000: Private occupied households
- Panama 2010: Private occupied households
- Paraguay 1972: Private occupied dwellings
- Paraguay 1982: Private occupied dwellings
- Paraguay 1992: Private occupied dwellings
- Paraguay 2002: Private occupied dwellings
- Peru 1993: Private occupied dwellings with people present
- Peru 2007: Private occupied dwellings with people present
- Philippines 1990: All households
- Philippines 2000: All households
- Philippines 2010: All households
- Puerto Rico 1970: All households except group quarters
- Puerto Rico 1980: All households except group quarters
- Puerto Rico 1990: All households except group quarters
- Romania 1992: All households
- Romania 2002: All households except non-conventional housing units
- Romania 2011: All households
- Rwanda 1991: All households
- Rwanda 2002: Private households
- Rwanda 2012: All households
- Saint Lucia 1980: All households
- Saint Lucia 1991: All households
- Senegal 1988: All households
- Senegal 2002: All households
- Senegal 2013: Ordinary households
- Sierra Leone 2004: All households
- South Africa 2011: Households in housing units or converted hostels
- Suriname 2012: All households
- Tanzania 2002: Private households
- Tanzania 2012: All households
- Thailand 1970: Urban and sampled rural private non-mobile households
- Thailand 1980: Private households
- Thailand 1990: Private households
- Thailand 2000: Private households
- Togo 2010: All households
- Trinidad and Tobago 1970: All households
- Trinidad and Tobago 1980: All households
- Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Households that completed interview
- Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Private households
- Uganda 1991: Private households
- Uganda 2002: Private households
- Uganda 2014: All households
- Uruguay 1963: Private occupied households
- Uruguay 1975: Private occupied households
- Uruguay 1985: Private occupied households with people present
- Uruguay 1996: Private occupied households
- Uruguay 2006: All households
- Uruguay 2011: Private occupied households
- Venezuela 2001: Permanently occupied private dwellings
- Vietnam 2009: Households with a dwelling
- Zambia 1990: All households
- Zambia 2000: All households
- Zambia 2010: All households
- Argentina: 1980, 1991, 2001
- Armenia: 2001, 2011
- Bangladesh: 1991
- Belarus: 1999, 2009
- Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
- Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001, 2012
- Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Brazil: 1980, 1991, 2010
- Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
- Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
- Colombia: 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
- Costa Rica: 2011
- Cuba: 2012
- Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
- Ecuador: 2010
- El Salvador: 1992, 2007
- Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
- Fiji: 1986, 1996, 2007, 2014
- Ghana: 2000, 2010
- Guatemala: 1964, 1981, 1994, 2002
- Guinea: 1983
- Haiti: 1971, 2003
- Honduras: 1961, 1988, 2001
- Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005
- Iran: 2006
- Iraq: 1997
- Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
- Jordan: 2004
- Kenya: 1989, 1999, 2009
- Kyrgyz Republic: 2009
- Laos: 2005
- Lesotho: 2006
- Liberia: 2008
- Malawi: 1987, 2008
- Malaysia: 1991, 2000
- Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
- Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
- Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2014
- Mozambique: 2007
- Myanmar: 2014
- Nepal: 2011
- Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
- Nigeria: 2010
- Pakistan: 1998
- Panama: 1960, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
- Paraguay: 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
- Peru: 1993, 2007
- Philippines: 1990, 2000, 2010
- Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990
- Romania: 1992, 2002, 2011
- Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
- Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
- Senegal: 1988, 2002, 2013
- Sierra Leone: 2004
- South Africa: 2011
- Suriname: 2012
- Tanzania: 2002, 2012
- Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
- Togo: 2010
- Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 2000, 2011
- Uganda: 1991, 2002, 2014
- Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
- Venezuela: 2001
- Vietnam: 2009
- Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010