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Codes and Frequencies



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Description

STEPPOP indicates whether a person's father, as identified by POPLOC, was most probably not the person's biological father. Non-zero values of STEPPOP explain why it is probable that the person's father was a step- or adopted father. A value of 0 indicates no likely stepfather because (1) the father identified in POPLOC was probably the biological father or (2) there is no father of this person present in the household.

The codes for STEPPOP are as follows:

0 = Biological father or no father of this person present in household.
1 = Child reports father is deceased.
2 = Explicitly identified relationship (stepchild, adopted child, child of unmarried partner; stepchild/child-in-law).
3 = Age difference between father and child was less than 12 or greater than 54 years.

See PARRULE for a description of the linking process.

Users should note that there are many stepfathers and adopted fathers in the population that cannot be identified with information available in the censuses. Therefore, STEPPOP will always under-represent their actual number in the population.

Comparability — General

Rules 1 and 2 apply only in samples with the necessary variable detail. Rule 2 applies only for the children of the head and/or spouse.

Stepchildren are separately identified in the following countries and years: Brazil 1991 and Brazil 2010; Botswana 2001; Cameroon 2005; Chile 2002; Cuba 2002; Indonesia 1976, 1995, and 2010; Ireland 2006; Italy 2001; Jamaica 2001; Mexico 1990 and 2005; Nicaragua 2005; Philippines, all years; Portugal 1991 and 2001; Puerto Rico 1990 and 2000; South Africa 2001; Thailand 1970 (combined with adopted children), 1980, and 1990; Uganda 2002; United Kingdom 2001; United States 1990, 2000, and 2010; Uruguay 1996 and 2006.

Haiti 1982 and 2003 contains a combined code for stepchildren/children-in-law. Persons in this category who link to the head are flagged as stepchildren.

Adopted children are identified in a small number of samples: Fiji 1976 and 2006; Mexico 1990 and 2005; Puerto Rico 2000; South Africa 2001 and 2007; and Thailand 1970 (with stepchildren), 1980, and 1990; Trinidad and Tobago 2011; United States 2000 and 2010.

Unmarried partners are identified in the following samples: Austria, all years; Chile 1970-2002; France 1962, 1968, and 1975; Greece 2001; Hungary 1970, 1990, 2001, 2011; Ireland 1991-2006; Italy 2001; Jamaica 2001; Poland 2002; Puerto Rico 1990-2005; Romania 2002; Slovenia 2002; Spain 2001; Trinidad and Tobago 2011; United Kingdom 1991 and 2001; United States 1990-2010. Children of the head's unmarried partner are explicitly identified only in the United Kingdom, but other relatives and non-relatives are allowed to point to unmarried partners in the remaining samples.

No constructed family interrelationship variables are available for the individual-level samples that do not contain entire households of persons.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Argentina 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Argentina 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Argentina 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Armenia 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Armenia 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Austria 1971: Persons under age 19
  • Austria 1981: Persons under age 19
  • Austria 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Austria 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Bangladesh 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Bangladesh 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Bangladesh 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Belarus 1999: Persons under age 19
  • Belarus 2009: Persons under age 19
  • Benin 1979: Persons under age 19
  • Benin 1992: Persons under age 19
  • Benin 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Benin 2013: Persons under age 19
  • Bolivia 1976: Persons under age 19
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons under age 19
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Botswana 1981: Persons under age 19
  • Botswana 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Botswana 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Botswana 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Brazil 1960: Persons under age 19
  • Brazil 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Brazil 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Brazil 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Brazil 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Brazil 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Persons under age 19
  • Burkina Faso 2006: Persons under age 19
  • Cambodia 1998: Persons under age 19
  • Cambodia 2004: Persons under age 19
  • Cambodia 2008: Persons under age 19
  • Cambodia 2013: Persons under age 19
  • Cameroon 1976: Persons under age 19
  • Cameroon 1987: Persons under age 19
  • Cameroon 2005: Persons under age 19
  • Canada 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Chile 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Chile 1982: Persons under age 19
  • Chile 1992: Persons under age 19
  • Chile 2002: Persons under age 19
  • China 1982: Persons under age 19
  • China 1990: Persons under age 19
  • China 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Colombia 1973: Persons under age 19
  • Colombia 1985: Persons under age 19
  • Colombia 1993: Persons under age 19
  • Colombia 2005: Persons under age 19
  • Costa Rica 1973: Persons under age 19
  • Costa Rica 1984: Persons under age 19
  • Costa Rica 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Costa Rica 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Cuba 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Persons under age 19
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Ecuador 1974: Persons under age 19
  • Ecuador 1982: Persons under age 19
  • Ecuador 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Ecuador 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Ecuador 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Egypt 1986: Persons under age 19
  • Egypt 1996: Persons under age 19
  • Egypt 2006: Persons under age 19
  • El Salvador 1992: Persons under age 19
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons under age 19
  • Ethiopia 1984: Persons under age 19
  • Ethiopia 1994: Persons under age 19
  • Ethiopia 2007: Persons under age 19
  • Fiji 1976: Persons under age 19
  • Fiji 1986: Persons under age 19
  • Fiji 1996: Persons under age 19
  • Fiji 2007: Persons under age 19
  • Fiji 2014: Persons under age 19
  • France 1962: Persons under age 19
  • France 1968: Persons under age 19
  • France 1975: Persons under age 19
  • France 1982: Persons under age 19
  • France 1990: Persons under age 19
  • France 1999: Persons under age 19
  • France 2006: Persons under age 19
  • France 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Ghana 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Ghana 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Greece 1971: Persons under age 19
  • Greece 1981: Persons under age 19
  • Greece 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Greece 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Guatemala 1964: Persons under age 19
  • Guatemala 1973: Persons under age 19
  • Guatemala 1981: Persons under age 19
  • Guatemala 1994: Persons under age 19
  • Guatemala 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Guinea 1983: Persons under age 19
  • Guinea 1996: Persons under age 19
  • Haiti 1971: Persons under age 19
  • Haiti 1982: Persons under age 19
  • Haiti 2003: Persons under age 19
  • Honduras 1974: Persons under age 19
  • Honduras 1988: Persons under age 19
  • Honduras 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Hungary 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Hungary 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Hungary 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Hungary 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Hungary 2011: Persons under age 19
  • India 1983: Persons under age 19
  • India 1987: Persons under age 19
  • India 1993: Persons under age 19
  • India 1999: Persons under age 19
  • India 2004: Persons under age 19
  • India 2009: Persons under age 19
  • Indonesia 1971: Persons under age 19
  • Indonesia 1976: Persons under age 19
  • Indonesia 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Indonesia 1985: Persons under age 19
  • Indonesia 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Indonesia 1995: Persons under age 19
  • Indonesia 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Indonesia 2005: Persons under age 19
  • Indonesia 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Iran 2006: Persons under age 19
  • Iran 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Iraq 1997: Persons under age 19
  • Ireland 1971: Persons under age 19
  • Ireland 1979: Persons under age 19
  • Ireland 1981: Persons under age 19
  • Ireland 1986: Persons under age 19
  • Ireland 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Ireland 1996: Persons under age 19
  • Ireland 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Ireland 2006: Persons under age 19
  • Ireland 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Israel 1972: Persons under age 19
  • Israel 1983: Persons under age 19
  • Israel 1995: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2011Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2012Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2013Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2014Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2015Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2016Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2017Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Italy 2018Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons under age 19
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Jamaica 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Jordan 2004: Persons under age 19
  • Kenya 1969: Persons under age 19
  • Kenya 1989: Persons under age 19
  • Kenya 1999: Persons under age 19
  • Kenya 2009: Persons under age 19
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Persons under age 19
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Persons under age 19
  • Laos 2005: Persons under age 19
  • Lesotho 1996: Persons under age 19
  • Lesotho 2006: Persons under age 19
  • Liberia 2008: Persons under age 19
  • Malawi 1987: Persons under age 19
  • Malawi 1998: Persons under age 19
  • Malawi 2008: Persons under age 19
  • Malaysia 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Malaysia 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Malaysia 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Malaysia 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Mali 1987: Persons under age 19
  • Mali 1998: Persons under age 19
  • Mali 2009: Persons under age 19
  • Mexico 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Mexico 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Mexico 1995: Persons under age 19
  • Mexico 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Mexico 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Mexico 2015: Persons under age 19
  • Mongolia 1989: Persons under age 19
  • Mongolia 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Morocco 1982: Persons under age 19
  • Morocco 1994: Persons under age 19
  • Morocco 2004: Persons under age 19
  • Mozambique 1997: Persons under age 19
  • Mozambique 2007: Persons under age 19
  • Nepal 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Nepal 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Nicaragua 1971: Persons under age 19
  • Nicaragua 1995: Persons under age 19
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons under age 19
  • Nigeria 2006: Persons under age 19
  • Nigeria 2007: Persons under age 19
  • Nigeria 2008: Persons under age 19
  • Nigeria 2009: Persons under age 19
  • Nigeria 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Pakistan 1973: Persons under age 19
  • Pakistan 1998: Persons under age 19
  • Palestine 1997: Persons under age 19
  • Palestine 2007: Persons under age 19
  • Panama 1960: Persons under age 19
  • Panama 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Panama 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Panama 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Panama 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Panama 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Papua New Guinea 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Papua New Guinea 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Papua New Guinea 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Paraguay 1962: Persons under age 19
  • Paraguay 1972: Persons under age 19
  • Paraguay 1982: Persons under age 19
  • Paraguay 1992: Persons under age 19
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Peru 1993: Persons under age 19
  • Peru 2007: Persons under age 19
  • Philippines 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Philippines 1995: Persons under age 19
  • Philippines 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Philippines 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Poland 1978: Persons under age 19
  • Poland 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Portugal 1981: Persons under age 19
  • Portugal 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Portugal 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Portugal 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons under age 19
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Romania 1977: Persons under age 19
  • Romania 1992: Persons under age 19
  • Romania 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Romania 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Russia 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Russia 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Rwanda 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Rwanda 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Rwanda 2012: Persons under age 19
  • Saint Lucia 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Saint Lucia 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Senegal 1988: Persons under age 19
  • Senegal 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Sierra Leone 2004: Persons under age 19
  • Slovenia 2002: Persons under age 19
  • South Africa 1996: Persons under age 19
  • South Africa 2001: Persons under age 19
  • South Africa 2007: Persons under age 19
  • South Africa 2011: Persons under age 19
  • South Sudan 2008: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2005Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2005Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2005Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2005Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2006Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2006Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2006Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2006Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2007Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2007Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2007Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2007Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2008Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2008Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2008Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2008Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2009Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2009Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2009Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2009Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2010Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2010Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2010Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2010Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2011Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2011Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2011Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2011Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2012Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2012Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2012Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2012Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2013Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2013Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2013Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2013Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2014Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2014Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2014Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2014Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2015Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2015Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2015Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2015Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2016Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2016Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2016Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2016Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2017Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2017Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2017Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2017Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2018Q1: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2018Q2: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2018Q3: Persons under age 19
  • Spain 2018Q4: Persons under age 19
  • Sudan 2008: Persons under age 19
  • Switzerland 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Switzerland 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Switzerland 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Switzerland 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Tanzania 1988: Persons under age 19
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons under age 19
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons under age 19
  • Thailand 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Thailand 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Thailand 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Thailand 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Togo 1960: Persons under age 19
  • Togo 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Togo 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1970: Persons under age 19
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: Persons under age 19
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Turkey 1985: Persons under age 19
  • Turkey 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Turkey 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Uganda 1991: Persons under age 19
  • Uganda 2002: Persons under age 19
  • United Kingdom 1991: Persons under age 19
  • United States 1960: Persons under age 19
  • United States 1970: Persons under age 19
  • United States 1980: Persons under age 19
  • United States 1990: Persons under age 19
  • United States 2000: Persons under age 19
  • United States 2005: Persons under age 19
  • United States 2010: Persons under age 19
  • United States 2015: Persons under age 19
  • Uruguay 1963: Persons under age 19
  • Uruguay 1975: Persons under age 19
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons under age 19
  • Uruguay 1996: Persons under age 19
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons under age 19
  • Uruguay 2011: Persons under age 19
  • Venezuela 1971: Persons under age 19
  • Venezuela 1981: Persons under age 19
  • Venezuela 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Venezuela 2001: Persons under age 19
  • Vietnam 1989: Persons under age 19
  • Vietnam 1999: Persons under age 19
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons under age 19
  • Zambia 1990: Persons under age 19
  • Zambia 2000: Persons under age 19
  • Zambia 2010: Persons under age 19
  • Zimbabwe 2012: Persons under age 19

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2004, 2008, 2013
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Canada: 2011
  • Chile: 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • China: 1982, 1990, 2000
  • Colombia: 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Fiji: 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007, 2014
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Ghana: 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Guatemala: 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994, 2002
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
  • Honduras: 1974, 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1979, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011, 2011Q1, 2012Q1, 2013Q1, 2014Q1, 2015Q1, 2016Q1, 2017Q1, 2018Q1
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1969, 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Laos: 2005
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 1989, 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Nepal: 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Pakistan: 1973, 1998
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
  • Poland: 1978, 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Russia: 2002, 2010
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1991, 2001, 2005Q1, 2005Q2, 2005Q3, 2005Q4, 2006Q1, 2006Q2, 2006Q3, 2006Q4, 2007Q1, 2007Q2, 2007Q3, 2007Q4, 2008Q1, 2008Q2, 2008Q3, 2008Q4, 2009Q1, 2009Q2, 2009Q3, 2009Q4, 2010Q1, 2010Q2, 2010Q3, 2010Q4, 2011Q1, 2011Q2, 2011Q3, 2011Q4, 2012Q1, 2012Q2, 2012Q3, 2012Q4, 2013Q1, 2013Q2, 2013Q3, 2013Q4, 2014Q1, 2014Q2, 2014Q3, 2014Q4, 2015Q1, 2015Q2, 2015Q3, 2015Q4, 2016Q1, 2016Q2, 2016Q3, 2016Q4, 2017Q1, 2017Q2, 2017Q3, 2017Q4, 2018Q1, 2018Q2, 2018Q3, 2018Q4
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Togo: 1960, 1970, 2010
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • United Kingdom: 1991
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012