Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart

Codes and Frequencies

Can't find the category you are looking for? Try the Detailed codes

Explore how IPUMS created this variable


SPEAKRUS indicates whether the respondent could speak Russian.

Comparability — Index


Comparability — General

SPEAKRUS is available for countries reporting usage of Russian as the mother tongue, language spoken in the home, or other languages of fluency.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

This variable indicates whether respondents reported Russian as their mother tongue or second language of fluency.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

The 1999-2009 samples include respondents who listed Russian as either their mother tongue, language used at home, or second language of fluency. The 2009 sample allowed respondents to report up to four fluent languages.

Comparability — Kyrgyzstan [top]

The 1999 and 2009 samples identified respondents who reported speaking Russian as their mother tongue or one of their fluently spoken languages. Respondents could report up to two fluently spoken languages.

Comparability — Russia [top]

This variable indicates whether respondents reported being fluent in Russian. In all Russian samples, fluency was defined as being able to speak, read and write, or only speak in Russian. Both censuses include additional information in the unharmonized source variables on other languages spoken and, for 2010, the respondent's mother tongue.

Comparability — Ukraine [top]

The 2001 sample reported respondent's mother tongue and other language of fluency. All respondents who reported Russian for either question are classified as "yes" in SPEAKRUS.


  • Armenia 2001: All persons
  • Armenia 2011: All persons
  • Belarus 1999: All persons
  • Belarus 2009: All persons
  • Kyrgyzstan 1999: All persons
  • Kyrgyzstan 2009: All persons
  • Russia 2002: All persons
  • Russia 2010: All persons
  • Ukraine 2001: All persons


  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyzstan: 1999, 2009
  • Russia: 2002, 2010
  • Ukraine: 2001