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SPEAKENG
Speaks English

Codes and Frequencies



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      class Speakeng:public Editor {

public:
    Speakeng(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::kg1999a:
        {
            a = 2;
            if (KG1999A_0411() == 153 || KG1999A_0412() == 153 || KG1999A_0413() == 153)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::kh2008a:
        {
            if (KH2008A_0405() == 7)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::sl2004a:
        {
            if (SL2004A_0406() == 16)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::sv2007a:
        {
            if (AGE() < 5)
                a = 9;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::kg2009a:
        {
            if (KG2009A_0419() == 21 || KG2009A_0420() == 21)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::zm1990a:
        {
            if (ZM1990A_0417() == 62 || ZM1990A_0418() == 62)
                a = 1;
            else
                a = 2;
            if (ZM1990A_0417() == 99 && ZM1990A_0418() == 99)
                a = 9;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::zm2000a:
        {
            if (ZM2000A_0416() == 62 || ZM2000A_0417() == 62)
                a = 1;
            else
                a = 2;
            if (ZM2000A_0416() == 0 && ZM2000A_0417() == 0)
                a = 9;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::et1994a:
        {
            if (ET1994A_0406() >= 1 && ET1994A_0406() <= 90 && ET1994A_0407() == 97)
                a = 1;
            if (ET1994A_0406() == 998 || ET1994A_0407() == 998)
                a = 8;
            if (ET1994A_0406() == 999 || ET1994A_0407() == 999)
                a = 9;
            else
                a = 2;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::py2002a:
        {
            if (PY2002A_0433() == 5 || PY2002A_0434() == 5 || PY2002A_0435() == 5 || PY2002A_0436() == 5)
                a = 1;
            if (PY2002A_0433() == 99 || PY2002A_0434() == 99 || PY2002A_0435() == 99 || PY2002A_0436() == 99)
                a = 9;
            else
                a = 2;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::za1996a:
        {
            if (ZA1996A_0410() == 11)
                a = 1;
            if (ZA1996A_0410() == 98 || ZA1996A_0410() == 99)
                a = 8;
            else
                a = 2;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::by2009a:
        {
            if (BY2009A_0436() == 128 || BY2009A_0437() == 128 || BY2009A_0438() == 128)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
		case dataset_id::ru2002a:
        {
            a = 2;
			if (RU2002A_0411() == 3 || RU2002A_0412() == 3 || RU2002A_0413() == 3)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
		case dataset_id::ru2010a:
        {
            a = 2;
			if (RU2010A_0441() == 3 || RU2010A_0442() == 3 || RU2010A_0443() == 3)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::bo2012a:
        {
			if (BO2012A_0420() == 54 || BO2012A_0421() == 54 || BO2012A_0422() == 54 || BO2012A_0423() == 54 || BO2012A_0424() == 54 || BO2012A_0418() == 54)
				a = 1;
		}
        break;
        case dataset_id::ma2014a:
        {
			if (MA2014A_0425() == 4 || MA2014A_0426() == 4 || MA2014A_0427() == 4)
				a = 1;
			if (MA2014A_0424() == 1 && (MA2014A_0425() == 8 || MA2014A_0426() == 8 || MA2014A_0427() == 8) && (MA2014A_0425() != 4 && MA2014A_0426() != 4 && MA2014A_0427() != 4))
				a = 8;
			if (MA2014A_0424() == 2)
				a = 2;
			if (MA2014A_0424() == 8)
				a = 8;
		}
        break;
        }


        setData(a);
    }
};

    

Description

SPEAKENG indicates whether the respondent could speak English or if English was the respondent's language of literacy.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Armenia
Belarus
Bolivia
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Ethiopia
Ghana
Guinea
Ireland
Kyrgyz Republic
Malawi
Malaysia
Mauritius
Morocco
Nigeria
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Philippines
Puerto Rico
Russia
Rwanda
Sierra Leone
South Africa
Tanzania
Togo
Ukraine
United States
Uruguay
Zambia

Comparability — General

The exact wording of the question varies across samples, as does the threshold for reporting affirmatively.

SPEAKENG is available for countries with English-speaking populations that made a specific effort to report English usage, as well as for countries reporting English among the other languages for mother tongue language spoken in the home or language of literacy. Note that literacy in English and being able to speak English are not differentiated in some samples.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

The 2011 sample identified respondents who reported speaking English as their mother tongue or as their second language.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

The 2009 sample identified respondents who reported speaking as one of their fluent languages. Respondents could report up to four fluent languages.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The 2012 asks about languages that the person speaks and allows for up to five responses, including persons who speak English.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

This sample identified respondents who reported speaking English as their main language.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

This sample identifies individuals who are literate in a language other than Khmer. Literacy is defined as the ability to both read and write a simple message with understanding in the language. Those who identified English as a language they are literate in and persons who indicated English as their mother tongue (regardless of whether or not they also listed English literacy) are coded as "yes."

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

The 2005 sample asked whether respondents could speak English. The level of English required for an affirmative response is not defined, although whether the person could read or write English is available in the unharmonized source variables. The universe is limited to household residents age 12+.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The questionnaires asked whether respondents could speak English well enough to carry on a conversation. All samples report French and bilingual French-English in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

This variable is only available for the 1994 sample. The data identify respondents who reported speaking English as their mother tongue or as their second language. The 2007 census asked for mother tongue only and is not included in this variable. See the unharmonized source variable for this information.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The source variables for the Ghanaian samples report language of literacy. The universe changes from persons age 15 or more in the 2000 sample to persons age 11 or more in 2010.

The 2000 sample unharmonized source variable identifies Ghanaian and bilingual English-Ghanaian responses. The 2010 sample unharmonized source variable distinguishes between literacy in English; English and Ghanaian; English and French; and English, French and Ghanaian.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The 1996 sample reports whether individuals were literate in English or English in combination with some other language. All responses that included English are coded "yes." The combinations are available in the unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The 2011 and 2016 samples question asked respondents to specify a level of English, ranging from "very well" to "not well." Respondents reporting any level of English were categorized as "yes" in the integrated variable. There are a large number of cases with missing values. See the unharmonized source variable for more detail.

Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]

These samples identify individuals who speak English as a first, second, or (in 2009) third language.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

All three samples report either yes or no to whether the respondent is literate (able to read and write a short sentence) in English. They are not, however, consistent in their universe statements. In 1987 and 1998 the question was asked of those 5 and older and in 2008 the question was asked of residents who were 3 and older.

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

Both samples report detailed combinations and language skill levels in the unharmonized source variables. Any response that includes English is coded as "yes."

Comparability — Mauritius [top]

The 2011 sample asks whether the respondent is literate in English.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The 2014 sample asks about the languages in which the person is literate and allows for up to three responses, including literacy in English.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

The 2008 and 2009 samples report whether the respondent was literate in English.

Comparability — Papua New Guinea [top]

The data identify persons who are literate, or those who can read or write, in the English language. The 1990-2000 are comparable across years aside from slight universe changes.

In 1980 census asked about the language spoken at home and at the market. See LANGPG1 and LANGPG2 for these data.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

This variable is available only for the 2002 sample. The data report whether or not the respondent spoke English as their primary language or as their second, third, fourth or fifth language. The 1962 and 1992 samples include variables describing the main language spoken in the household. See the unharmonized source variables for these data.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The person must be able to communicate in English, even if with a very limited vocabulary.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The 1970 sample indicates whether or not the respondent spoke English. The 1980-2010 samples report how well the respondent claimed he or she could speak English. The 2000-2010 samples provide additional detail, reporting whether the respondent spoke only English. All respondents who indicated they spoke any English are coded as speaking English in SPEAKENG, but the full detail is available in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Russia [top]

Both 2002 and 2010 samples indicate persons who speak English fluently as a first, second, or third non-Russian language.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The data identified persons who are literate, or those who can read or write, in the English language.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

Sierra Leone recorded primary and secondary spoken language. If English was either a primary or second language, it is recorded in this variable. The variable, therefore, may not include every person who is capable of speaking English.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

This variable is available for the 1996 and 2011 samples. The data identify persons who spoke English as their first or second language. The 2001 census asked respondents to indicate their first language only. See the unharmonized source variables for these data.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The data identified persons who are literate, or those who can read or write, in the English language.

Comparability — Togo [top]

The census asked whether respondents could read, write, or speak English.

Comparability — Ukraine [top]

This variable indicates whether respondents reported English as a second language of fluency. A small number (300) of respondents reported English as their primary language, but these persons are not identified for confidentiality reasons.

Comparability — United States [top]

The census question asked respondents to specify the ability to speak English, ranging from "not at all" to "very well." Respondents reporting any level of English were categorized as "yes" in the integrated variable. See the unharmonized source variable for more detail.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The universe for Uruguay is restricted to persons in the labor force.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

For the 1990 and 2000 samples, the data report persons that identified English as their primary or secondary language. In 2010, respondents were asked about their main spoken language only.

The universe changes from persons age 3 or more in the 1990 and 2000 samples to present members and visitors in the 2010 sample. The 1990 and 2000 enumeration instructions indicate that this question should have been asked only of present household members and visitors, but ability to speak English is reported for almost all absent household members; they are included in the universe.

Universe

  • Armenia 2011: All persons
  • Belarus 2009: All persons
  • Bolivia 2012: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 2006: Persons age 3+
  • Cambodia 2008: All persons
  • Cameroon 2005: Residents of the household age 12+
  • Canada 1971: All persons
  • Canada 1981: All persons, excluding inmates
  • Canada 1991: All persons
  • Canada 2001: All persons
  • Canada 2011: All persons
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons age 5+
  • Ethiopia 1994: Present and absent household residents
  • Ghana 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Ghana 2010: Persons age 11+
  • Guinea 1996: Residents age 6+
  • Ireland 2011: Present persons
  • Ireland 2016: Present persons
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: All persons
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: All persons
  • Malawi 1987: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 1998: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 2008: Residents age 3+
  • Malaysia 1970: Persons age 10+
  • Malaysia 1980: Persons age 10+
  • Mauritius 2011: All persons
  • Morocco 2014: Persons age 10+
  • Nigeria 2008: Literate persons
  • Nigeria 2009: Literate persons
  • Papua New Guinea 1990: Persons age 10+
  • Papua New Guinea 2000: Persons age 10+
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Philippines 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 10+
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 6+
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Russia 2002: All persons
  • Russia 2010: All persons
  • Rwanda 2012: Persons age 3+
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All persons
  • South Africa 1996: All persons
  • South Africa 2011: Persons in private households
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons age 4+
  • Togo 1960: All persons
  • Ukraine 2001: All persons
  • United States 2010: Persons age 5+
  • United States 2015: Persons age 5+
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons in second sample trimester who are in the labor force
  • Zambia 1990: Persons age 3+
  • Zambia 2000: Persons age 3+
  • Zambia 2010: Present members and visitors

Availability

  • Armenia: 2011
  • Belarus: 2009
  • Bolivia: 2012
  • Burkina Faso: 2006
  • Cambodia: 2008
  • Cameroon: 2005
  • Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • El Salvador: 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1994
  • Ghana: 2000, 2010
  • Guinea: 1996
  • Ireland: 1901, 1911, 2011, 2016
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980
  • Mauritius: 2011
  • Morocco: 2014
  • Nigeria: 2008, 2009
  • Papua New Guinea: 1990, 2000
  • Paraguay: 2002
  • Philippines: 2000
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Russia: 2002, 2010
  • Rwanda: 2012
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • South Africa: 1996, 2011
  • Tanzania: 2002, 2012
  • Togo: 1960
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • United States: 1900, 1910, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 2006
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010